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|Mixed-Morphology Pairs as a Breeding Ground for Active Nuclei|
Mixed-morphology pairs offer a simplification of the interactionequation that involves a gas-rich fast rotator paired with a gas-poorslow rotator. In past low-resolution IRAS studies it was assumed thatthe bulk of the far-infrared (FIR) emission originated in the spiralcomponent. However, our Infrared Space Observatory studies revealed asurprising number of early-type components with significant IR emission,some of which turned out to show active nuclei. This motivated us tolook at the current statistics of active nuclei in mixed pairs using theradio-FIR continuum correlation as a diagnostic. We find a clear excessof early-type components with radio continuum emission and activenuclei. We suggest that they arise more often in mixed pairs viacross-fueling of gas from the spiral companion. This fuel is moreefficiently channeled into the nucleus of the slow-rotating receptor. Ina sample of 112 mixed-morphology pairs from the Karachentsev catalog, wefind that about 25%-30% of detected mixed pairs show a displacement fromthe radio-FIR relation defined by normal star-forming galaxies. Thelatter objects show excess radio continuum emission, while others extendthe relation to unusually high radio and FIR flux levels. Many of theoutliers or extreme emitters involve an early-type component with anactive nucleus. The paired E/S0 galaxies in the sample exhibit asignificant excess detection fraction and a marginal excess luminositydistribution compared to those of isolated unpaired E/S0 galaxies.
|BVRI surface photometry of mixed morphology pairs of galaxies. I. The first data set|
We present multicolor broad band (BVRI) photometry for a sample of 11mixed morphology (E/S0+S) binary galaxies drawn from the KarachentsevCatalogue of Isolated Pairs of Galaxies (KPG). The data is part of anobservational programme devoted to the systematic photometric study ofone of the most complete and homogeneous pair samples available in theliterature. We present B band, B-filtered images, B, V, R and I surfacebrightness and (B-V), (B-R) and (B-I) color profiles as well asgeometric (epsilon = 1 - b/a, PA and a4/a) profiles for eachcomponent pair. In addition, integrated corrected B, V, R and Imagnitudes and integrated (B-V), (B-R) and (B-I) colors are alsopresented. Internal and external data comparisons show consistencywithin the estimated errors. Most of this subsample have photometricparameters homogeneously derived for the first time. Geometric profilesfrom our surface photometry along with the broad-band imaging and colorinformation have been used to re-evaluate morphology in all pairs. Wefind an important number of true mixed pairs with 5/11 (E+S) pairs inthe present sample. The remaining objects include 3 disky pairs(composed of S0 and S members), 2 early-type pair comprising E and S0members and 1 spiral-irregular pair. The measurements will be used in aseries of forthcoming papers where we try to identify and isolate themain structural and photometric properties of disk and ellipticalgalaxies at different stages of interaction.Based on data obtained at the 0.84 m and 1.5 m telescopes of theObservatorio Astronómico Nacional, San Pedro Mártir, BajaCalifornia, México, operated by the Instituto deAstronomía, UNAM.Tables 1-3 and Figs. 5 to 15 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|Large-Scale Structure at Low Galactic Latitude|
We have extended the CfA Redshift Survey to low galactic latitudes toinvestigate the relation between the Great Wall in the North GalacticCap and the Perseus-Pisces chain in the South Galactic Cap. We presentredshifts for 2020 galaxies in the Catalogue of Galaxies and of Clustersof Galaxies (Zwicky et al. 1961-68, CGCG) in the following regions: 4^h^<= α <= 8^h^, 17^h^ <= α <= 20^h^, 0^deg^ <=δ <= 45^deg^. In these regions, the redshift catalogue includes1664 galaxies with B(0) <= 15.5 (of which 820 are newly measured) andis 97% complete. We also include redshifts for an additional 356galaxies in these regions with B(O) > 15.5; of these, 148 werepreviously unmeasured. The CGCG samples the galaxy distribution down tob_II_ = 10^deg^. In this paper, we discuss the acquisition and reductionof the spectra, and we examine the qualitative features of the redshiftdistribution. The Great Wall and the Perseus-Pisces chain are not simplyconnected across the Zone of Avoidance. These structures, which at firstappear to be coherent on scales of ~100 h^-1^ Mpc or more, actually formthe boundaries of neighboring voids of considerably smaller scale,approximately 50h^-1^ Mpc. The structures delineated by ouroptically-selected sample are qualitatively similar to those detected bythe far-infrared-selected IRAS 1.2 Jansky Survey (Fisher et al. 1995).Although the IRAS survey probes more deeply into the Zone of Avoidance,our optically-selected survey provides better sampling of structures atb_II_ >= 10^deg^.
|Interaction, star formation, and H I deficiency in E + S pairs|
We use a sample of mixed morphology (ellictical + spiral) pairs ofgalaxies to make a new study of star formation enhancement in spiralgalaxies. The approach makes use of the fact that only the spiralcomponent in each pair is likely to be a significant source of (FIR) orH I emission. We find at least a twofold enhanced FIR emission fromabout one-half of the late-type components in close pairs. There isevidence that a typical burst duration may be as short as 2-3 x108 yr. The total H I masses of the spiral components arenear normal. Little or no H I depletion in star formation-enhancedgalaxies implies one or more of the following: (1) a bimodal IMF for theinteraction-induced starburst activity; (2) a duration for the activephase of enhanced star formation of no more than 1-2 x 109yr; or (3) a continuous source of gas replenishment. We find someevidence for an H I deficit in the currently most active star formingspiral. This argues for an transient phase change in up to 50% of theneutral gas during a burst event. We conclude that the InterstellarMatter (ISM) in our sample of pairs is clearly not predominantlymolecular gas.
|General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups|
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.
|Models and observations of starbursts. II - Starbursts in interacting galaxies|
Evolutionary models are applied here to starburst galaxies in a sampleof 30 interacting or merged systems in order to determine the durationof the starbursts. The time delay between bursts in both components ofinteracting pairs of disk galaxies is investigated and it is found thatstarbursts in the minor galaxies of these pairs started earlier thanthose in the major galaxies. While strong starbursts are found to beactive for only about 2 x 10 exp 7 yrs, the time delay between thebursts in both components of the interacting pairs can be significantlylarger. Delays of up to 2 x 10 exp 8 yrs are found in the sample. Modelfits show that the mass-to-luminosity ratios of strong centralstarbursts indicate a deficiency of low-mass stars in the starburstinitial mass function. The required low-mass-star deficiency is smallerthan previously believed.
|Observations of binary galaxies at a frequency of 102 MHz|
A total of 93 double galaxies from the Karachentsev list was observedwith the large phased array at the Lebedev Physical Institute at 102MHz. The interplanetary oscillation method was used. Two of the galaxieswere found to contain scintillating components with angular dimensionsof less than 1 arcsec and flux densities of more than 1 Jy. Theobservations of double galaxies at low radio frequencies indicate thatgalaxies in pairs are more active than single galaxies.
|The kinematics and dynamics of the rich cluster of galaxies Abell 539|
A sample of 289 redshifts within 10 deg of the center of the clusterA539 have been obtained in order to investigate the cluster kinematicsand dynamics. Within 1 Mpc of the center, the physical parameters ofA539 are found to be typical of those of rich clusters. It is shown thatearly-type galaxies are more concentrated toward the cluster center andthat the velocity distributions of early-type and late-type galaxiesdiffer marginally.
|A Study of the Largescale Structure in the Distribution of Galaxies in a Region Centered about the Cancer Cluster - Part Two - Further Observational Results|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1986AJ.....91..732B&db_key=AST
|Double galaxy investigations. I - Observations|
Redshift information from 240 A/mm spectrograms is presented for 370double arcsec galaxy systems from the Karachentsev (1972) catalog,including all pairs in that catalog with separation less than 80 arcsec.An extensive error discussion utilizing internal and external (21 cm)comparisons provides calibration of systematic error and determines theuncertainty for a typical high weight optical redshift to be plus orminus 65 km/sec. Internal differential redshifts within single spectrausing common lines achieve accuracies of 18-30 km/sec, depending uponseparation, and are available for about 200 pairs. Extensive informationon emission and other properties is also provided.
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