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|Anharmonic and standing dynamo waves: theory and observation of stellar magnetic activity|
The familiar decadal cycle of solar activity is one expression ofinterannual variability of surface magnetism observed in stars on ornear the lower main sequence. From studies of time-series of CaII H andK emission fluxes that go back more than 35 yr and have been accumulatedfor such stars at the Mount Wilson Observatory by the HK Project, wedefine a quantitative measure, called anharmonicity, of the cycliccomponent of interannual magnetic variability. Anharmonicity provides aconnection between observed variations in magnetic activity and thetwo-dimensional description of a Parker dynamo model. We explore theparameter space of the Parker dynamo model and find an excellentcounterpart in the records of several of the lowest-mass (late K-type toearly M-type) active stars in the HK Project sample to the solutionscontaining highly anharmonic, standing dynamo waves. We interpretanharmonicity apparent in the records as resulting from non-propagatingor standing dynamo waves, which operate in a regime that issubstantially supercriticial. There, for the majority of a cycle, orpulse of decadal-to-interdecadal variability, the large-scale magneticfields are generated and maintained by winding of field by differentialrotation rather than by the joint action of differential rotation andhelical convection. Among the less active stars (the Sun is consideredsuch a star in the HK Project sample) we find a correspondence betweenanharmonicity and Parker dynamo model solutions that include simpleharmonic, migratory and/or intermediate-type dynamo wave patterns over abroad range of dynamo parameters.
|UV Ceti - Sterne.|
|Mg Isotope Ratios in Giant Stars of the Globular Clusters M13 and M71|
We present Mg isotope ratios in four red giants of the globular clusterM13 and one red giant of the globular cluster M71 based onhigh-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra obtained with HDS onthe Subaru Telescope. We confirm earlier results by Shetrone that forM13 the ratio varies from(25Mg+26Mg)/24Mg~=1 in stars with thehighest Al abundance to(25Mg+26Mg)/24Mg~=0.2 in stars with thelowest Al abundance. However, we separate the contributions of all threeisotopes and find a considerable spread in the ratio24Mg:25Mg:26Mg, with values rangingfrom 48:13:39 to 78:11:11. As in NGC 6752, we find a positivecorrelation between 26Mg and Al, an anticorrelation between24Mg and Al, and no correlation between 25Mg andAl. In M71, our one star has a Mg isotope ratio of 70:13:17. For bothclusters, even the lowest ratios of 25Mg/24Mg and26Mg/24Mg exceed those observed in field stars atthe same metallicity, a result also found in NGC 6752. The contributionof 25Mg to the total Mg abundance is constant within a givencluster and between clusters with25Mg/(24Mg+25Mg+26Mg)~=0.13.For M13 and NGC 6752, the ranges of the Mg isotope ratios are similarand both clusters show the same correlations between Al and Mg isotopes,suggesting that the same process is responsible for the abundancevariations in these clusters. While existing models fail to reproduceall the observed abundances, we continue to favor the scenario in whichtwo generations of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars produce theobserved abundances. A first generation of metal-poor AGB stars pollutesthe entire cluster and is responsible for the large ratios of25Mg/24Mg and 26Mg/24Mgobserved in cluster stars with compositions identical to field stars atthe same metallicity. Differing degrees of pollution by a secondgeneration of AGB stars of the same metallicity as the cluster providesthe star-to-star scatter in Mg isotope ratios.Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated bythe National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.
|Ages of White Dwarf-Red Subdwarf Systems|
We provide the first age estimates for two recently discovered whitedwarf-red subdwarf systems, LHS 193AB and LHS 300AB. These unusualsystems provide a new opportunity for linking the reliable age estimatesfor the white dwarfs to the (measurable) metallicities of the redsubdwarfs. We have obtained precise photometry in theVJRKCIKCJH bands and spectroscopycovering from 6000 to 9000 Å for the two new systems, as well asfor a comparison white dwarf-main-sequence red dwarf system, GJ 283 AB.Using model grids available in the literature, we estimate the coolingages, as well as temperatures, surface gravities, masses, progenitormasses, and total lifetimes of the white dwarfs. The results indicatethat the two new systems are probably ancient thick-disk objects withages of at least 6-9 Gyr. We also conduct searches of red dwarf andwhite dwarf compendia from SDSS data, Lépine Shara Proper Motion(LSPM) catalog, and Chanamé & Gould for additional commonproper motion white dwarf-red subdwarf systems. Only seven new candidatesystems are found, which indicates the rarity of these systems.
|Dwarfs in the Local Region|
We present lithium, carbon, and oxygen abundance data for a sample ofnearby dwarfs-a total of 216 stars-including samples within 15 pc of theSun, as well as a sample of local close giant planet (CGP) hosts (55stars) and comparison stars. The spectroscopic data for this work have aresolution of R~60,000, a signal-to-noise ratio >150, and spectralcoverage from 475 to 685 nm. We have redetermined parameters and derivedadditional abundances (Z>10) for the CGP host and comparison samples.From our abundances for elements with Z>6 we determine the meanabundance of all elements in the CGP hosts to range from 0.1 to 0.2 dexhigher than nonhosts. However, when relative abundances ([x/Fe]) areconsidered we detect no differences in the samples. We find nodifference in the lithium contents of the hosts versus the nonhosts. Theplanet hosts appear to be the metal-rich extension of local regionabundances, and overall trends in the abundances are dominated byGalactic chemical evolution. A consideration of the kinematics of thesample shows that the planet hosts are spread through velocity space;they are not exclusively stars of the thin disk.
|On the Predicted and Observed Color Boundaries of the RR Lyrae Instability Strip as a Function of Metallicity|
The purpose of this paper is to predict the temperature at thefundamental blue edge (FBE) of the instability strip for RR Lyrae (RRL)variables from the pulsation equation that relates temperature toperiod, luminosity, and mass. Modern data for the correlations betweenperiod, luminosity, and metallicity at the FBE for field and cluster RRLstars are used for the temperature calculation. The predictedtemperatures are changed to B-V colors using an adopted colortransformation. The predicted temperatures at the FBE become hotter as[Fe/H] changes from 0 to -1.5, and thereafter cooler as the metallicitydecreases to -2.5. The temperature range over this interval ofmetallicity is ΔlogTe=0.04, or 640 K at 6900 K. Thepredicted color variation is at the level of 0.03 mag in B-V over mostof this range. The predictions are compared with the observed RRL colorsat the FBE for both the field and cluster variables, showing generalagreement at the level of 0.02 mag in (B-V)0, which, however,is the uncertainty of the reddening corrections. The focus of theproblem is then reversed by fitting a better envelope to the observedFBE relation between color and metallicity for metallicities smallerthan -1.8, which, when inserted in the pulsation equation, gives anonlinear calibration of the absolute magnitude of the average evolvedlevel of the horizontal branch (HB) ofMV=1.109+0.600([Fe/H])+0.140([Fe/H])2, where thezero point has been set by the observed RR Lyrae stars in the LMC at0=19.064 by Clementini et al. for [Fe/H]=-1.5, andusing an adopted LMC modulus of (m-M)0=18.54 from Tammann etal. that is independent of the LMC Cepheids. This equation givesMV=0.52 at [Fe/H]=-1.5.However, the calibration fails for the extreme second-parameter clustersNGC 6388 and NGC 6441. Proof that the MV absolute magnitudesfor their RR Lyrae variables are ~0.4 mag brighter than the calibrationequation predicts is from the unusually long periods for givenamplitudes at their high metallicities of [Fe/H]~-0.5. Allsecond-parameter clusters are believed to violate the equation, but lessseverely than these two extreme examples. An additional complication inusing RRL stars as distance indicators at the 0.1 mag level is shown bythe difference of ΔlogP=0.029+/-0.007 in the position of theenvelope locus at the shortest periods for the observedperiod-metallicity correlation between the field and cluster variables.The field variables have shorter periods than cluster variables at theenvelope. This requires the cluster RRL stars to be 0.09 mag brighterthan the field variables at the same temperature and mass, or to have atemperature difference of ΔlogTe=0.008 at fixedluminosity and mass. The field and cluster variables also differ in thenear absence of cluster RR Lyrae stars in the -1.7>[Fe/H]>-2.0metallicity interval, whereas the field variables show no such gap. Atest is proposed for different origins for the field and the clustervariables by comparing the morphology of the HBs in the local dwarfspheroidal galaxies with that in the Galactic globular clusters in theinner halo and by relating the differences with the relevantsecond-parameter indicators.
|Spectrometric composition of nearby K dwarfs|
We have obtained relatively high resolution spectra of Northernhemisphere K dwarfs. This is the first spectrometric project dedicatedonly to K dwarfs. Earlier studies have concentrated on more massive Fand G dwarfs. However, these stars have already undergone evolutionaryeffects, unlike K dwarfs, which offer more accurate information aboutthe evolution of the Solar neighbourhood. We have determined the LTEabundances of 14 elements for 42 stars with initial metallicity rangecovered by -1.52 < [Fe/H] < 0.48. We confirm the discrepancy inthe abundances derived from neutral and ionized lines. The solution tothis problem cannot just be the modification of initial physicalparameters, but requires fundamental changes in the modeling of Kdwarfs.
|Na, Mg and Al abundances as a population discriminant for nearby metal-poor stars|
Aims.Parameters for 55 nearby metal-poor stars are determined usinghigh-resolution spectroscopy. Together with similar data taken from arecent analysis, they are used to show trends of their Galacticevolution with stellar [Fe/H] or [Mg/H] abundances. The separation ofabundance ratios between disk and halo stars is used as a basiccriterion for population membership. Methods.After carefulselection of a clean subsample free of suspected or known binaries andpeculiar stars, abundances of Mg, Na and Al are based on NLTE kineticequilibrium calculations applied to spectrum synthesis methods. Results.The relation between [Na/Mg] and [Fe/H] is a continuousenrichment through all three Galactic populations spanning a range ofvalues between a metal-poor plateau at [ Na/Mg] = -0.7 and solar values.[Al/Mg] displays a step-like difference between stars of the Galactichalo with overline[Al/Mg] -0.45 and the two disk populations withoverline[Al/Mg] +0.10. [Al/Mg] ratios, together with the [Mg/Fe]ratios, asymmetric drift velocities V, and stellar evolutionary ages,make possible the individual discrimination between stars of the thickdisk and the halo. At present, this evidence is limited by the smallnumber of stars, and by the theoretical and empirical uncertainties ofstellar age determinations, but it achieves a high significance. Conclusions.While the stellar sample is not complete with respect tospace volume, the resulting abundances indicate the necessity to revisecurrent models of chemical evolution to allow for an adequate productionof Al in early stellar generations.
|CCD Photometry of M92|
We present Johnson B and V photometry for the galactic globular clusterM92 (NGC 6341). Photometric results for a total of 30,000 starsare obtained and are plotted on a V versus (B-V) diagram. We fittheoretical isochrones to this diagram in order to get an estimate forthe age of M92. The age which we find is 16×109years with the following values for the metallicity and He-abundance:[Fe/H] = -2.03, Y = 0.235. The distance modulus to this cluster turnsout to be m - M = 14.6 in accordance with that obtained by Stetson &Harris (1988). We also perform stellar counts in order to produce aluminosity function which is successfully fitted by the same theoreticalmodels fitted to the colour-magnitude diagram.
|Lithium Abundances of F-, G-, and K-Type Stars: Profile-Fitting Analysis of the Li I 6708 Doublet|
An extensive profile-fitting analysis was performed for the Li(+Fe)6707-6708Å feature of nearby 160 F-K dwarfs/subgiants (including27 planet-host stars) in the Galactic disk ( 7000 K ≳Teff ≳ 5000 K, -1 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ +0.4), in orderto establish the photospheric lithium abundances of these stars. Thenon-LTE effect (though quantitatively insignificant) was taken intoaccount based on our statistical equilibrium calculations, which werecarried out on an adequate grid of models. Our results confirmed most ofthe interesting observational characteristics revealed by recentlypublished studies, such as the bimodal distribution of the Li abundancesfor stars at Teff ≳ 6000 K, the satisfactory agreementof the upper envelope of the A(Li) vs. [Fe/H] distribution with thetheoretical models, the existence of a positive correlation betweenA(Li) and the stellar mass, and the tendency of lower lithium abundancesof planet-host stars (as compared to stars without planets) at thenarrow ``transition'' region of 5900 K ≳ Teff ≳5800 K. The solar Li abundance derived from this analysis is 0.92 (H =12.00), which is by 0.24dex lower than the widely referenced standardvalue of 1.16.
|Spectroscopic Study on the Atmospheric Parameters of Nearby F--K Dwarfs and Subgiants|
Based on a collection of high-dispersion spectra obtained at OkayamaAstrophysical Observatory, the atmospheric parameters (Teff,log g, vt, and [Fe/H]) of 160 mid-F through early-K starswere extensively determined by the spectroscopic method using theequivalent widths of Fe I and Fe II lines along with the numericaltechnique of Takeda et al. (2002, PASJ, 54, 451). The results arecomprehensively discussed and compared with the parameter values derivedby different approaches (e.g., photometric colors, theoreticalevolutionary tracks, Hipparcos parallaxes, etc.) as well as with thepublished values found in various literature. It has been confirmed thatour purely spectroscopic approach yields fairly reliable and consistentresults.
|Spectroscopic Properties of Cool Stars (SPOCS). I. 1040 F, G, and K Dwarfs from Keck, Lick, and AAT Planet Search Programs|
We present a uniform catalog of stellar properties for 1040 nearby F, G,and K stars that have been observed by the Keck, Lick, and AAT planetsearch programs. Fitting observed echelle spectra with synthetic spectrayielded effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, projectedrotational velocity, and abundances of the elements Na, Si, Ti, Fe, andNi, for every star in the catalog. Combining V-band photometry andHipparcos parallaxes with a bolometric correction based on thespectroscopic results yielded stellar luminosity, radius, and mass.Interpolating Yonsei-Yale isochrones to the luminosity, effectivetemperature, metallicity, and α-element enhancement of each staryielded a theoretical mass, radius, gravity, and age range for moststars in the catalog. Automated tools provide uniform results and makeanalysis of such a large sample practical. Our analysis method differsfrom traditional abundance analyses in that we fit the observed spectrumdirectly, rather than trying to match equivalent widths, and wedetermine effective temperature and surface gravity from the spectrumitself, rather than adopting values based on measured photometry orparallax. As part of our analysis, we determined a new relationshipbetween macroturbulence and effective temperature on the main sequence.Detailed error analysis revealed small systematic offsets with respectto the Sun and spurious abundance trends as a function of effectivetemperature that would be inobvious in smaller samples. We attempted toremove these errors by applying empirical corrections, achieving aprecision per spectrum of 44 K in effective temperature, 0.03 dex inmetallicity, 0.06 dex in the logarithm of gravity, and 0.5 kms-1 in projected rotational velocity. Comparisons withprevious studies show only small discrepancies. Our spectroscopicallydetermined masses have a median fractional precision of 15%, but theyare systematically 10% higher than masses obtained by interpolatingisochrones. Our spectroscopic radii have a median fractional precisionof 3%. Our ages from isochrones have a precision that variesdramatically with location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We planto extend the catalog by applying our automated analysis technique toother large stellar samples.
|Lithium and Lithium Depletion in Halo Stars on Extreme Orbits|
We have determined Li abundances in 55 dwarfs and subgiants that aremetal-poor (-3.6<[Fe/H]<-0.7) and have extreme orbital kinematics.Our purpose is to examine the Li abundance in the Li plateau stars andits decrease in low-temperature, low-mass stars. For the stars in oursample we have determined chemical profiles given in 2002 by Stephens& Boesgaard. The Li observations are primarily from the echellespectrograph on the 10 m Keck I telescope, with HIRES covering 4700-6800Å with a spectral resolution of ~48,000. The spectra have highsignal-to-noise ratios, from 70 to 700 pixel-1, with a medianof 140. The Li I resonance doublet was detected in 42 of the 55 stars.Temperatures were found spectroscopically by Stephens & Boesgaard.Abundances or upper limits were determined for all stars, with typicalerrors of 0.06 dex. Corrections for the deviations from nonlocalthermodynamical equilibrium for Li in the stellar atmospheres have beenmade, which range from -0.04 to +0.11 dex. Our 14 dwarf and turnoffstars on the Li plateau with temperatures greater than 5700 K and[Fe/H]<-1.5 give A(Li)=logN(Li)/N(H)+12.00 of 2.215+/-0.110,consistent with earlier results. We find a dependence of the Liabundance on metallicity as measured by [Fe/H] and the Fe-peak elementsCr and Ni, with a slope of ~0.18. We have examined the possible trendsof A(Li) with the chemical abundances of other elements and find similardependences of A(Li) with the α-elements Mg, Ca, and Ti. Theseslopes are slightly steeper at ~0.20, resulting from an excess in[α/Fe] with decreasing [Fe/H]. For the n-capture, rare-earthelement Ba, we find a relation between A(Li) and [Ba/H] that has ashallower slope of ~0.13 over a range of 2.6 dex in [Ba/H], the Liabundance spans only a factor of 2. We have also examined the possibletrends of A(Li) with the characteristics of the orbits of our halostars. We find no trends in A(Li) with kinematic or dynamic properties.For the stars with temperatures below the Li plateau, there are severalinteresting results. The group of metal-poor stars possess, on average,more Li at a given temperature than metal-rich stars. When we divide thecool stars into smaller subsets with similar metallicities, we findtrends of A(Li) with temperature for the different metallicity groups.The decrease in A(Li) sets in at hotter temperatures for the highermetallicity stars than for the lower metallicity stars. The increased Lidepletion in cooler stars could be a result of the increased action ofconvection, since cooler stars have deeper convection zones. This wouldalso make it easier for additional mixing mechanisms, such as thoseinduced by rotation, to have a greater effect in cooler stars. Since themodel depth of the convection zone is almost independent of metallicityat a given effective temperature, the apparent metallicity dependence ofthe Li depletion in our data may be pointing to subtle but poorlyunderstood mixing effects in low-mass halo dwarfs. Predictions for Lidepletion from standard and nonstandard models seem to underestimate thedegree of depletion inferred from the observations of the cool stars.
|Predicting the Length of Magnetic Cycles in Late-Type Stars|
In this paper we present a modification of a local approximation of theso-called interface dynamo in an attempt to reproduce the length of themagnetic cycles for a sample of late-type stars. The sample consists of25 stars, observed during the Mount Wilson and Las Campanas long-termmonitoring campaigns, for which well-defined cycles have been detected.We have focused our efforts on reproducing general trends observed,namely, the dependence of the cycle length, Pcyc, on thestellar rotation period, Prot, rather than attempting toinfer from the dynamo model individual cycle lengths for each star. Inspite of the simplicity of the model, the results are promising. Thetrend of increasing cycle length with increasing rotation period isreproduced with a minimum of assumptions.
|The Planet-Metallicity Correlation|
We have recently carried out spectral synthesis modeling to determineTeff, logg, vsini, and [Fe/H] for 1040 FGK-type stars on theKeck, Lick, and Anglo-Australian Telescope planet search programs. Thisis the first time that a single, uniform spectroscopic analysis has beenmade for every star on a large Doppler planet search survey. We identifya subset of 850 stars that have Doppler observations sufficient todetect uniformly all planets with radial velocity semiamplitudes K>30m s-1 and orbital periods shorter than 4 yr. From this subsetof stars, we determine that fewer than 3% of stars with-0.5<[Fe/H]<0.0 have Doppler-detected planets. Above solarmetallicity, there is a smooth and rapid rise in the fraction of starswith planets. At [Fe/H]>+0.3 dex, 25% of observed stars have detectedgas giant planets. A power-law fit to these data relates the formationprobability for gas giant planets to the square of the number of metalatoms. High stellar metallicity also appears to be correlated with thepresence of multiple-planet systems and with the total detected planetmass. This data set was examined to better understand the origin of highmetallicity in stars with planets. None of the expected fossilsignatures of accretion are observed in stars with planets relative tothe general sample: (1) metallicity does not appear to increase as themass of the convective envelopes decreases, (2) subgiants with planetsdo not show dilution of metallicity, (3) no abundance variations for Na,Si, Ti, or Ni are found as a function of condensation temperature, and(4) no correlations between metallicity and orbital period oreccentricity could be identified. We conclude that stars with extrasolarplanets do not have an accretion signature that distinguishes them fromother stars; more likely, they are simply born in higher metallicitymolecular clouds.Based on observations obtained at Lick and Keck Observatories, operatedby the University of California, and the Anglo-Australian Observatories.
|The Cornell High-Order Adaptive Optics Survey for Brown Dwarfs in Stellar Systems. I. Observations, Data Reduction, and Detection Analyses|
In this first of a two-paper sequence, we report techniques and resultsof the Cornell High-Order Adaptive Optics Survey (CHAOS) for brown dwarfcompanions. At the time of this writing, this study represents the mostsensitive published population survey of brown dwarf companions tomain-sequence stars for separations akin to our own outer solar system.The survey, conducted using the Palomar 200 inch (5 m) Hale Telescope,consists of Ks coronagraphic observations of 80 main-sequencestars out to 22 pc. At 1" separation from a typical target system, thesurvey achieves median sensitivities 10 mag fainter than the parentstar. In terms of companion mass, the survey achieves typicalsensitivities of 25MJ (1 Gyr), 50MJ (solar age),and 60MJ (10 Gyr), using the evolutionary models of Baraffeand coworkers. Using common proper motion to distinguish companions fromfield stars, we find that no systems show positive evidence of asubstellar companion (searchable separation ~1"-15" projected separation~10-155 AU at the median target distance). In the second paper of theseries we will present our Monte Carlo population simulations.
|Stars within 15 Parsecs: Abundances for a Northern Sample|
We present an abundance analysis for stars within 15 pc of the Sunlocated north of -30° declination. We have limited our abundancesample to absolute magnitudes brighter than +7.5 and have eliminatedseveral A stars in the local vicinity. Our final analysis list numbers114 stars. Unlike Allende Prieto et al. in their consideration of a verysimilar sample, we have enforced strict spectroscopic criteria in thedetermination of atmospheric parameters. Nevertheless, our results arevery similar to theirs. We determine the mean metallicity of the localregion to be <[Fe/H]>=-0.07 using all stars and -0.04 when interlopersfrom the thick disk are eliminated.
|Galactic structure from the Calar Alto Deep Imaging Survey (CADIS)|
We used 1627 faint (15.5≤ R≤ 23) stars in five fields of theCalar Alto Deep Imaging Survey (CADIS) to estimate the structureparameters of the Galaxy. The results were derived by applying twocomplementary methods: first by fitting the density distributionfunction to the measured density of stars perpendicular to the Galacticplane, and second by modelling the observed colors and apparentmagnitudes of the stars in the field, using Monte Carlo simulations. Thebest-fitting model of the Galaxy is then determined by minimising theC-statistic, a modified χ^2. Our model includes a double exponentialfor the stellar disk with scaleheights h1 and h2and a power law halo with exponent α. 24 480 different parametercombinations have been simulated. Both methods yield consistent results:the best fitting parameter combination is α=3.0 (or α=2.5,if we allow for a flattening of the halo with an axial ratio of(c/a)=0.6), h_1=300 pc, h_2=900 pc, and the contribution of thick diskstars to the disk stars in the solar neighbourhood is found to bebetween 4 and 10%.
|Early star formation in the Galaxy from beryllium and oxygen abundances|
We investigate the evolution of the star formation rate in the earlyGalaxy using beryllium and oxygen abundances in metal poor stars.Specifically, we show that stars belonging to two previously identifiedkinematical classes (the so-called "accretion" and "dissipative"populations) are neatly separated in the [O/Fe] vs. log (Be/H) diagram.The dissipative population follows the predictions of our model ofGalactic evolution for the thick disk component, suggesting that theformation of this stellar population occurred on a timescalesignificantly longer (by a factor 5-10) than the accretioncomponent. The latter shows a large scatter in the [O/Fe] vs. log (Be/H)diagram, probably resulting from the inhomogeneous enrichment in oxygenand iron of the protogalactic gas. Despite the limitation of the sample,the data suggest that the combined use of products of spallationreactions (like beryllium) and elemental ratios of stellarnucleosynthesis products (like [O/Fe]) can constrain theoretical modelsfor the formation and early evolution of our Galaxy.
|Kinematics of nearby subdwarf stars|
We present an analysis of the space motions of 742 subdwarf stars basedon the sample of Carney et al. (1994, AJ, 107, 22 40). Hipparcosparallaxes, TYC2+HIP proper motions and Tycho 2 proper motions werecombined with radial velocities and metallicities from CLLA. Thekinematical behavior is discussed in particular in relation to theirmetallicities. The majority of these sample stars have metal abundancesof [Fe/H] >-1 and represent the thick disk population. The halocomponent, with [Fe/H] <-1.6, is characterized by a low mean rotationvelocity and a radially elongated velocity ellipsoid. In theintermediate metallicity range (-1.6≤ [Fe/H] ≤-1), we find asignificant number of subdwarfs with disklike kinematics. We interpretthis population of stars as a metal-weak thick disk (MWTD) population.
|Time-spectra of chromospheric activity of old solar-type stars: detection of rotational signals from double wavelet analysis|
We introduce a novel technique, called the double wavelet analysis(DWA), for the determination of stellar rotation periods from timeserial data. This first paper aims narrowly at the discussion,introduction and application of the DWA technique to records of surfacemagnetism in solar-type (relatively old) lower main sequence stars thatare obtained by the Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) HK Project. Thetechnique takes a series of careful steps that seek to optimize waveletparameters and normalization schemes, ultimately allowing fine-tuned,arguably more accurate, estimates of rotation-modulated signals (with,e.g., periods of days to months) in records that contain longerperiodicities such as stellar magnetic activity cycles (with, e.g.,period of years). The apparent rotation periods estimated from the DWAtechnique are generally consistent with results from both ``first-pass''(i.e., ordinary) global wavelet spectrum and earlier classicalperiodogram analyses. But there are surprises as well. For example, therotation period of the ancient subdwarf Goombridge 1830 (HD 103095),previously identified as ~31 days, suggests under the DWAtechnique a significantly slower period of 60 days. DWA spectra alsogenerally reveal a shift in the cycle period toward high frequencies(hence shorter periods) compared to the first-pass wavelet spectrum. Forsolar-type stars analyzed here, the character of the DWA spectrum andslope of the first-pass global wavelet spectrum produce a classificationscheme that allows a star's record to be placed into one of threecategories.
|ARIES imaging polarimeter.|
An Imaging Polarimeter has been fabricated for use with liquid- N2cooled CCD camera and is designed to suit 104-cm Sampurnanand telescopewith an f/13 focus at Aryabhatta Research Institute of ObservationalSciences (ARIES), Naini Tal. The instrument measures the linearpolarisation in broad B, V and R band and has a field of view ~ 20' x20'. We are presenting here some observations regarding the polarisationof some polarised as well as unpolarised stars with a view to show theperformance of our polarimeter.
|Stars of Extragalactic Origin in the Solar Neighborhood|
For 77 main-sequence F-G stars in the solar neighborhood with publishediron, magnesium, and europium abundances determined from high-dispersionspectra and with the ages estimated from theoretical isochrones, wecalculated the spatial velocities using Hipparcos data and the Galacticorbital elements. A comparison with the orbital elements of the globularclusters that are known to have been accreted by our Galaxy in the pastreveals stars of extragalactic origin. We show that the abundance ratiosof r- and alpha-elements in all the accreted stars differ sharply fromthose in the stars that are genetically associated with the Galaxy.According to current theoretical models, europium is produced mainly inlow-mass type-II supernovae (SNe II), while magnesium is synthesized inlarge quantities in high-mass SN II progenitors. Since all the oldaccreted stars of our sample exhibit a significant Eu overabundancerelative to Mg, we conclude that the maximum masses of the SN IIprogenitors outside the Galaxy were much lower than those inside it. Onthe other hand, only a small number of young accreted stars exhibit lownegative ratios [Eu/Mg] < 0. This can be explained by the delay ofprimordial star formation and the explosions of high-mass SNe II in arelatively small part of extragalactic space. We provide evidence thatthe interstellar medium was weakly mixed at the early evolutionarystages of the Galaxy formed from a single protogalactic cloud, and thatthe maximum mass of the SN II progenitors increased in it with timesimultaneously with the increase in mean metallicity.
|Neutron-Capture Elements in Halo, Thick-Disk, and Thin-Disk Stars: Neodymium|
We have derived the LTE neodymium abundances in 60 cool stars withmetallicities [Fe/H] from 0.25 to -1.71 by applying a synthetic-spectrumanalysis to spectroscopic observations of NdII lines with a resolutionof λ/Δλ⋍60 000 and signal-to-noise ratios of100 200. We have improved the atomic parameters of NdII and blendinglines by analyzing the corresponding line pro files in the solarspectrum. Neodymium is overabundant with respect to iron in halo stars,[Nd/Fe]=0.33±0.09, with the [Nd/Fe] ratio decreasingsystematically with metallicity when [Fe/H]>-1. This reflects anonset of efficient iron production in type I supernovae during theformation of the thick disk. The [Nd/Ba] and [Nd/Eu] abundance ratiosbehave differently in halo, thick-disk, and thin-disk stars. Theobserved abundance ratios in halo stars, [Nd/Ba]=0.34±0.08 and[Nd/Eu]=-0.27±0.05, agree within the errors with the ratios ofthe elemental yields for the r-process. These results support theconclusion of other authors based on analyses of other elements that ther-process played the dominant role in the synthesis of heavy elementsduring the formation of the halo. The [Nd/Ba] and [Nd/Eu] ratios forthick-disk stars are almost independent of metallicity([Nd/Ba]=0.28(±0.03)-0.01(±0.04) [Fe/H] and[Nd/Eu]=-0.13(±0.03)+0.05(±0.04) [Fe/H]) but are smallerin absolute value than the corresponding ratios for halo stars,suggesting that the synthesis of s-process nuclei started during theformation of the thick disk. The s-process is estimated to havecontributed ⋍30% of the neodymium produced during this stage ofthe evolution of the Galaxy. The [Nd/Ba] ratio decreases abruptly by0.17 dex in the transition from the thick to the thin disk. Thesystematic decrease of [Nd/Ba] and increase of [Nd/Eu] with increasingmetallicity of thin-disk stars point toward a dominant role of thes-process in the synthesis of heavy elements during this epoch.
|Chromospheric Ca II Emission in Nearby F, G, K, and M Stars|
We present chromospheric Ca II H and K activity measurements, rotationperiods, and ages for ~1200 F, G, K, and M type main-sequence stars from~18,000 archival spectra taken at Keck and Lick Observatories as a partof the California and Carnegie Planet Search Project. We have calibratedour chromospheric S-values against the Mount Wilson chromosphericactivity data. From these measurements we have calculated medianactivity levels and derived R'HK, stellar ages,and rotation periods from general parameterizations for 1228 stars,~1000 of which have no previously published S-values. We also presentprecise time series of activity measurements for these stars.Based on observations obtained at Lick Observatory, which is operated bythe University of California, and on observations obtained at the W. M.Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University ofCalifornia and the California Institute of Technology. The KeckObservatory was made possible by the generous financial support of theW. M. Keck Foundation.
|The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar Spectra|
We have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http.
|The Rise of the s-Process in the Galaxy|
From newly obtained high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectrathe abundances of the elements La and Eu have been determined over thestellar metallicity range -3<[Fe/H]<+0.3 in 159 giant and dwarfstars. Lanthanum is predominantly made by the s-process in the solarsystem, while Eu owes most of its solar system abundance to ther-process. The changing ratio of these elements in stars over a widemetallicity range traces the changing contributions of these twoprocesses to the Galactic abundance mix. Large s-process abundances canbe the result of mass transfer from very evolved stars, so to identifythese cases we also report carbon abundances in our metal-poor stars.Results indicate that the s-process may be active as early as[Fe/H]=-2.6, although we also find that some stars as metal-rich as[Fe/H]=-1 show no strong indication of s-process enrichment. There is asignificant spread in the level of s-process enrichment even at solarmetallicity.
|Comparison of Nuclear Starburst Luminosities between Seyfert 1 and 2 Galaxies Based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy|
We report on infrared K- (2-2.5 μm) and L-band (2.8-4.1 μm) slitspectroscopy of 23 Seyfert 1 galaxies in the CfA and 12 μm samples. Apolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission feature at 3.3 μm inthe L band is primarily used to investigate nuclear star-formingactivity in these galaxies. The 3.3 μm PAH emission is detected in 10sources (=43%), demonstrating that detection of nuclear star formationin a significant fraction of Seyfert 1 galaxies is now feasible. For thePAH-detected nuclei, the surface brightness values of the PAH emissionare as high as those of typical starbursts, suggesting that the PAHemission probes the putative nuclear starbursts in the dusty tori aroundthe central active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The magnitudes of the nuclearstarbursts are quantitatively estimated from the observed 3.3 μm PAHemission luminosities. The estimated starburst luminosities relative tosome indicators of AGN powers in these Seyfert 1 galaxies are comparedwith 32 Seyfert 2 galaxies in the same samples that we have previouslyobserved. We find that there is no significant difference in nuclearstarburst to AGN luminosity ratios of Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies and thatnuclear starburst luminosity positively correlates with AGN power inboth types. Our results favor a slightly modified AGN unification model,which predicts that nuclear starbursts occurring in the dusty tori ofSeyfert galaxies are physically connected to the central AGNs, ratherthan the classical unification paradigm, in which the dusty tori simplyhide the central AGNs of Seyfert 2 galaxies and reprocess AGN radiationas infrared dust emission in Seyfert galaxies. No significantdifferences in nuclear star formation properties are recognizablebetween Seyfert 1 galaxies in the CfA and 12 μm samples.
|A Comparison of the Outer Atmosphere of the ``Flat Activity'' Star τ Ceti (G8 V) with the Sun (G2 V) and α Centauri A (G2 V)|
Driven by the desire to understand the roles of acoustic and magneticmechanisms in heating the outer atmospheres of Sun-like stars, wecompare solar UV spectra with archival STIS spectra from the HubbleSpace Telescope of α Cen A (G2 V) and new STIS spectra of theextremely inactive dwarf star τ Cet (G8 V, V=3.5). The activity ofτ Cet shows occasional rotational modulations but no long-termcyclic variation. It may be in a phase analogous to the solar Maunderminimum. Solar disk center intensities from both the HRTS instrument andthe SUMER instrument on SOHO were converted to Sun-as-a-star fluxes byusing center-to-limb data from Dammasch and colleagues. The derivedsolar flux spectrum represents conditions near the minimum of the solarmagnetic activity cycle. We find that the τ Cet line profiles differsystematically from those of the Sun and α Cen A. While linesformed in the middle chromospheres appear similar, the entire emissionfrom the upper chromosphere to the middle transition region of τ Cethas lower flux densities by factors of ~2, the line widths aresignificantly narrower, and, uniquely, the transition region lines arenot significantly redshifted. The soft X-ray surface flux of τ Cet,measured between 0.1 and 2.4 keV, is ~9×103 ergscm-2 s-1, several times smaller than the mediansolar value. We also find that the UV spectrum of α Cen serves asa proxy for a Sun-as-a-star spectrum when the Sun is in an intermediatephase of its activity cycle but that its coronal emission may besomewhat smaller. We discuss the implications of these results formagnetic fields and heating mechanisms in the stars and speculate thatτ Cet's UV spectrum might represent the solar spectrum during agrand minimum phase.
|The Luminosity Function and Color-Magnitude Diagram of the Globular Cluster M12|
In this paper we present the V and I luminosity functions andcolor-magnitude diagrams derived from wide-field(23'×23') BVI photometry of theintermediate-metallicity ([Fe/H]~-1.3) Galactic globular cluster M12.Using observed values (and ranges of values) for the clustermetallicity, reddening, distance modulus, and age, we compare these datawith recent α-enhanced stellar evolution models for low-massmetal-poor stars. We describe several methods of making comparisonsbetween theoretical and observed luminosity functions to isolate theevolutionary timescale information that the luminosity functionscontain. We find no significant evidence of excesses of stars on the redgiant branch, although the morphology of the subgiant branch in theobserved luminosity function does not match theoretical predictions in asatisfactory way. Current uncertainties in Teff-colortransformations (and possibly also in other physics inputs to themodels) make more detailed conclusions about the subgiant branchmorphology impossible. Given the recent constraints on cluster ages fromthe WMAP experiment, we find that good-fitting models that do notinclude He diffusion (both color-magnitude diagrams and luminosityfunctions) are too old (by ~1-2 Gyr) to adequately represent the clusterluminosity function. The inclusion of helium diffusion in the modelsprovides an age reduction (compared with nondiffusive models) that isconsistent with the age of the universe being 13.7+/-0.2 Gyr.
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