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The origin of massive O-type field stars: II. Field O stars as runaways
In two papers we try to confirm that all Galactic high-mass stars areformed in a cluster environment, by excluding that O-type stars found inthe Galactic field actually formed there. In de Wit et al. (2004) wepresented deep K-band imaging of 5 arcmin fields centred on 43 massiveO-type field stars that revealed that the large majority of theseobjects are single objects. In this contribution we explore thepossibility that the field O stars are dynamically ejected from youngclusters, by investigating their peculiar space velocity distribution,their distance from the Galactic plane, and their spatial vicinity toknown young stellar clusters. We (re-)identify 22 field O-type stars ascandidate runaway OB-stars. The statistics show that 4 ± 2% ofall O-type stars with V<8m can be considered as formedoutside a cluster environment. Most are spectroscopically singleobjects, some are visual binaries. The derived percentage for O-typestars that form isolated in the field based on our statistical analysesis in agreement with what is expected from calculations adopting auniversal cluster richness distribution with power index of β= 1.7,assuming that the cluster richness distribution is continuous down tothe smallest clusters containing one single star.

A Galactic O Star Catalog
We have produced a catalog of 378 Galactic O stars with accuratespectral classifications that is complete for V<8 but includes manyfainter stars. The catalog provides cross-identifications with othersources; coordinates (obtained in most cases from Tycho-2 data);astrometric distances for 24 of the nearest stars; optical (Tycho-2,Johnson, and Strömgren) and NIR photometry; group membership,runaway character, and multiplicity information; and a Web-based versionwith links to on-line services.

On the Hipparcos parallaxes of O stars
We compare the absolute visual magnitude of the majority of bright Ostars in the sky as predicted from their spectral type with the absolutemagnitude calculated from their apparent magnitude and the Hipparcosparallax. We find that many stars appear to be much fainter thanexpected, up to five magnitudes. We find no evidence for a correlationbetween magnitude differences and the stellar rotational velocity assuggested for OB stars by Lamers et al. (1997, A&A, 325, L25), whosesmall sample of stars is partly included in ours. Instead, by means of asimulation we show how these differences arise naturally from the largedistances at which O stars are located, and the level of precision ofthe parallax measurements achieved by Hipparcos. Straightforwardlyderiving a distance from the Hipparcos parallax yields reliable resultsfor one or two O stars only. We discuss several types of bias reportedin the literature in connection with parallax samples (Lutz-Kelker,Malmquist) and investigate how they affect the O star sample. Inaddition, we test three absolute magnitude calibrations from theliterature (Schmidt-Kaler et al. 1982, Landolt-Börnstein; Howarth& Prinja 1989, ApJS, 69, 527; Vacca et al. 1996, ApJ, 460, 914) andfind that they are consistent with the Hipparcos measurements. AlthoughO stars conform nicely to the simulation, we notice that some B stars inthe sample of \citeauthor{La97} have a magnitude difference larger thanexpected.

The origin of massive O-type field stars. I. A search for clusters
We present a study aimed at clarifying the birthplace for 43 massiveO-type field stars. In this first paper we present the observationalpart: a search for stellar clusters near the target stars. We derivestellar density maps at two different resolving scales, viz. ˜0.25pc and ˜1.0 pc from NTT and TNG imaging and the 2MASS catalogue.These scales are typical for cluster sizes. The main result is that thelarge majority of the O-type field population are isolated stars: only12% (5 out of 43) of the O-type field stars is found to harbour asmall-scale stellar cluster. We review the literature and aim atcharacterizing the stellar field of each O-type field star with theemphasis on star formation and the presence of known young stellarclusters. An analysis of the result of this paper and a discussion ofthe O-type field population as products of a dynamical ejection event ispresented in an accompanying paper.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory,Chile, and at the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated onthe island of La Palma by the Centro Galileo Galilei of the CNAA(Consorzio Nazionale per l'Astronomia e l'Astrofisica) at the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisicade Canarias.Table 2 and Figs. 4 to 17 are available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

The total-to-selective extinction ratio determined from near IR photometry of OB stars
The paper presents an extensive list of the total to selectiveextinction ratios R calculated from the infrared magnitudes of 597 O andB stars using the extrapolation method. The IR magnitudes of these starswere taken from the literature. The IR colour excesses are determinedwith the aid of "artificial standards" - Wegner (1994). The individualand mean values of total to selective extinction ratios R differ in mostcases from the average value R=3.10 +/-0.05 - Wegner (1993) in differentOB associations. The relation between total to selective extinctionratios R determined in this paper and those calculated using the "methodof variable extinction" and the Cardelli et al. (1989) formulae isdiscussed. The R values presented in this paper can be used to determineindividual absolute magnitudes of reddened OB stars with knowntrigonometric parallaxes.

The Metamorphosis of SN 1998bw
We present and discuss the photometric and spectroscopic evolution ofthe peculiar SN 1998bw, associated with GRB 980425, through an analysisof optical and near-IR data collected at ESO-La Silla. The spectroscopicdata, spanning the period from day -9 to day +376 (relative to Bmaximum), have shown that this supernova (SN) was unprecedented,although somewhat similar to SN 1997ef. Maximum expansion velocities ashigh as 3×104 km s-1 to some extent mask itsresemblance to other Type Ic SNe. At intermediate phases, betweenphotospheric and fully nebular, the expansion velocities(~104 km s-1) remained exceptionally high comparedto those of other recorded core-collapse SNe at a similar phase. Themild linear polarization detected at early epochs suggests the presenceof asymmetry in the emitting material. The degree of asymmetry, however,cannot be decoded from these measurements alone. The He I 1.083 and2.058 μm lines are identified, and He is suggested to lie in an outerregion of the envelope. The temporal behavior of the fluxes and profilesof emission lines of Mg I] λ4571, [O I] λλ6300,6364, and a feature ascribed to Fe are traced to stimulate futuremodeling work. The uniqueness of SN 1998bw became less obvious once itentered the fully nebular phase (after 1 yr), when it was very similarto other Type Ib/c-IIb objects, such as the Type Ib SN 1996N and theType IIb SN 1993J, even though SN 1998bw was 1.4 mag brighter than SN1993J and 3 mag brighter than SN 1996N at a comparable phase. Thelate-phase optical photometry, which extends up to 403 days after Bmaximum, shows that the SN luminosity declined exponentially butsubstantially faster than the decay rate of 56Co. Theultraviolet-optical-infrared bolometric light curve, constructed usingall available optical data and the early JHK photometry presented inthis work, shows a slight flattening starting on about day +300. Sinceno clear evidence of ejecta-wind interaction was found in the late-timespectroscopy (see also the work of Sollerman and coworkers), this may bedue to the contribution of the positrons since most γ-rays escapethermalization at this phase. A contribution from the superposed H IIregion cannot, however, be excluded. Based on observations collected atESO-La Silla.

Mass loss rate determination of southern OB stars
A sample of OB stars (eleven Of, one O and one B supergiant) has beensurveyed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array at 4.8 and 8.64 GHzwith a resolution of ~ 2 arcsec-4 arcsec. Five stars were detected;three of them have negative spectral indices, consistent withnon-thermal emission, and two have positive indices. The thermalradiation from HD 150135 and HD 163181 can be explained as coming froman optically thick ionized stellar wind. The non-thermal radiation fromCD-47deg 4551, HD 124314 and HD 150136 possibly comes fromstrong shocks in the wind itself and/or in the wind colliding region ifthe stars have a massive early-type companion. The percentage ofnon-thermal emitters among detected O stars has increased up to ~ 50%.The Of star HD 124314 clearly shows flux density variations. Mass lossrates (or upper limits) were derived for all the observed stars and theresults compared with non-radio measurements and theoreticalpredictions.

Observations of OB-stars at the former Leiden Southern Station
About 700 stars, mostly OB-stars, were observed by the author at theformer Leiden Southern Station at Hartebeespoortdam, South Africa, inthe observing seasons 1965, 1968, 1969, 1974, 1977, 1978. Observationswere made in the five channels of the Walraven photometric system. Dueto weathering of the telescope mirror the W channel gave no reliableresults for the faintest stars (m = 11 mag); in these cases the U-Wcolour index is not given. The change in sensitivity in the V channel,supposedly having occurred in 1968, was not recognised. Table~5 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/369/527

Five-colour photometry of OB-stars in the Southern Hemisphere
Observations of OB-stars, made in 1959 and 1960 at the Leiden SouthernStation near Hartebeespoortdam, South Africa, with the VBLUW photometerattached to the 90 cm light-collector, are given in this paper. They arecompared with photometry obtained by \cite[Graham (1968),]{gra68}\cite[Walraven & Walraven (1977),]{wal77} \cite[Lub & Pel(1977)]{lub77} and \cite[Van Genderen et al. (1984).]{gen84} Formulaefor the transformation of the present observations to those of\cite[Walraven & Walraven (1977)]{wal77} and \cite[Lub & Pel(1977)]{lub77} are given. Table 4 is only available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

UBV beta Database for Case-Hamburg Northern and Southern Luminous Stars
A database of photoelectric UBV beta photometry for stars listed in theCase-Hamburg northern and southern Milky Way luminous stars surveys hasbeen compiled from the original research literature. Consisting of over16,000 observations of some 7300 stars from over 500 sources, thisdatabase constitutes the most complete compilation of such photometryavailable for intrinsically luminous stars around the Galactic plane.Over 5000 stars listed in the Case-Hamburg surveys still lackfundamental photometric data.

ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. XIX - an astrometric/spectroscopic survey of O stars
We present the results of a speckle interferometric survey made with theCHARA speckle camera and 4 m class telescopes of Galactic O-type starswith V less than 8. We can detect with the speckle camera binaries inthe angular separation range 0.035-1.5 arcsec with delta M less than 3,and we have discovered 15 binaries among 227 O-type systems. We combinedour results on visual binaries with measurements of wider pairs from theWashington Double Star Catalog and fainter pairs from the HipparcosCatalog, and we made a literature survey of the spectroscopic binariesamong the sample. We then investigated the overall binary frequency ofthe sample and the orbital characteristics of the known binaries.Binaries are common among O stars in clusters and associations but lessso among field and especially runaway stars. There are many triplesystems among the speckle binaries, and we discuss their possible rolein the ejection of stars from clusters. The period distribution of thebinaries is bimodal in log P, but we suggest that binaries with periodsof years and decades may eventually be found to fill the gap. The massratio distribution of the visual binaries increases toward lower massratios, but low mass ratio companions are rare among close,spectroscopic binaries. We present distributions of the eccentricity andlongitude of periastron for spectroscopic binaries with ellipticalorbits, and we find strong evidence of a bias in the longitude ofperiastron distribution.

Cross-correlation characteristics of OB stars from IUE spectroscopy
We present a catalogue of homogeneous measures of the linewidthparameter, v_esin i, for 373 O-type stars and early B supergiants(including the separate components of 25 binary and three triplesystems), produced by cross-correlating high-resolution,short-wavelength IUE spectra against a `template' spectrum of tauSco. Wealso tabulate terminal velocities. There are no O supergiants in oursample with v_esin i<65 km s^-1, and only one supergiant earlier thanB5 has v_esin i<50 km s^-1, confirming that an important linebroadening mechanism in addition to rotation must be present in theseobjects. A calibration of the area under the cross-correlation peakagainst spectral type is used to obtain estimates of continuum intensityratios of the components in 28 spectroscopically binary or multiplesystems. At least seven SB2 systems show evidence for the `Struve-Sahadeeffect', a systematic variation in relative line strength as a functionof orbital phase. The stellar wind profiles of the most rapid rotator inour sample, the O9III:n* star HD 191423 (v_esin i=436km s^-1), show itto have a `wind-compressed disc' similar to that of HD 93521; this starand other rapid rotators are good candidates for studies of non-radialpulsation.

A Radial Velocity Database for Stephenson-Sanduleak Southern Luminous Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....113..823R&db_key=AST

Projected Rotational Velocities of O-Type Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJ...463..737P&db_key=AST

Two-dimensional Ultraviolet Spectral Typing of O-Type Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJ...460..906P&db_key=AST

The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.

A spectroscopic database for Stephenson-Sanduleak Southern Luminous Stars
A database of published spectral classifications for objects in theStepenson-Sanduleak Luminous Stars in the Southern Milky Way catalog hasbeen compiled from the literature. A total of 6182 classifications for2562 stars from 139 sources are incorporated.

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

An IUE survey of interstellar H I LY alpha absorption. 1: Column densities
We measure Galactic interstellar neutral hydrogen column densities byanalyzing archival interstellar Ly alpha absorption line data toward 554B2 and hotter stars observed at high resolution with the IUE satellite.This study more than doubles the number of lines of sight with measuresof N(H I) based on Ly alpha. We have included the scattered lightbackground correction algorithm of Bianchi and Bohlin in our datareduction. We use the correlation between the Balmer discontinuity(c1) index and the stellar Ly alpha absorption in order toassess the effects of stellar Ly alpha contamination. Approximately 40%of the B stars with measured (c1) index, exhibit seriousstellar Ly alpha contamination. One table contains the derived values ofthe interstellar N(H I) for 393 stars with at most small amounts ofstellar contamination. Another lists the observed values of total N(H I)for 161 stars with suspected stellar Ly alpha contamination and/oruncertain stellar parameters.

Burbujas de gas neutro alrededor de estrellas del tipo O.
Not Available

Synthetic UV Lines of Si IV, C IV, and He II from a Population of Massive Stars in Starburst Galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993ApJ...418..749R&db_key=AST

Redshifts of high-luminosity stars - The K effect, the Trumpler effect and mass-loss corrections
The Trumpler effect is demonstrated in B and A supergiants in h + ChiPersei, as well as in other associations of young luminous stars. TheK-Trumpler effect is also shown in O, B, and A supergiants in theMagellanic Clouds, as well as in nearby galaxies such as NGC 1569 and2777 and in blue irregular variables in M31 and M33. Mass outflow inluminous stars is shown to require an average correction of about 20km/s and to increase the excess redshifts of the stars in the MagellanicClouds to a significance level of 6 sigma. Completely empirical andindependent measurements show that mass-loss corrections of this sizeare required on average for supergiants in both the SMC and LMC and alsoin the Milky Way.

Observations of interstellar NA I and CA II towards five southern stars and some comments on the location of the denser diffuse clouds in the southern Milky Way
High-resolution observations (3.6 km/s FWHM) of interstellar Na I and CaII lines toward five southern early-type stars are presented. All fivestars have strong absorption lines with low LSR radial velocities (notgreater than 5 km/s) which are interpreted as arising in materialassociated with the ridge of local molecular clouds identified by Dameet al. (1987). It is argued that the strong, low-velocity, atomic andmolecular lines observed toward other southern stars close to theGalactic plane also arise in this material, and special reference ismade to the foreground interstellar spectrum of the Sco OB1 association.Four of the observed stars also have absorption components consistentwith an origin in the Sagittarius-Carina spiral arm, and two (HD 111904and 164402) have highly negative velocity components (v(lsr) not greaterthan -40 km/s) which are interpreted as arising in expanding shellscentered on the Cen OB1 and Sgr OB1 associations, respectively.

Broad-band photometry of selected southern ultraviolet-bright stars.
Not Available

Photospheric Absorption Lines in the Ultraviolet Spectra of O-Stars and B-Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1990MNRAS.246..392P&db_key=AST

Terminal velocities for a large sample of O stars, B supergiants, and Wolf-Rayet stars
It is argued that easily measured, reliable estimates of terminalvelocities for early-type stars are provided by the central velocityasymptotically approached by narrow absorption features and by theviolet limit of zero residual intensity in saturated P Cygni profiles.These estimators are used to determine terminal velocities, v(infinity),for 181 O stars, 70 early B supergiants, and 35 Wolf-Rayet stars. For OBstars, the values are typically 15-20 percent smaller than the extremeviolet edge velocities, v(edge), while for WR stars v(infinity) = 0.76v(edge) on average. New mass-loss rates for WR stars which are thermalradio emitters are given, taking into account the new terminalvelocities and recent revisions to estimates of distances and to themean nuclear mass per electron. The relationships between v(infinity),the surface escape velocities, and effective temperatures are examined.

Mass loss from stars : the universal formula for mass loss rate
Not Available

The stellar winds of 203 Galactic O stars - A quantitative ultraviolet survey
Measurements of the resonance lines of C IV, N V, and Si IV in a sampleof 203 O stars observed using IUE in a high-resolution mode arepresented. The data are discussed using a consistent set of radius,luminosity, and mass estimates. The ratio of the maximum observedvelocity and the terminal (farfield) velocity is found to average at 3.0for 131 stars with strong or saturated lines, and at 2.6 for all stars.An expression is given which is the best available predictor of O starmass loss rates, giving an accuracy better than a factor of twoirrespective of luminosity class. The ionization fractions C(3+)/C andN(4+)/N are found to be independent of stellar effective temperature,but increase by a factor of about two from main sequence stars tosupergiants. Two new possible ON stars are identified, and enhancedsurface nitrogen abundance is confimed in ON stars. Discrete narrowabsorption features are found to be virtually universal characteristicof O star P Cygni profiles.

The spectral energy distribution of early-type stars. II - The extinction law towards O-type stars
Photometric measurements through different pass-bands are used todetermine the color-excess E(B-V) for O-type stars in the UV and IRspectral regions. The results are used to examine the extinctioncharacter of the stars. It is found that, in the UV, each O-type starhas its own extinction character. In general, the visual and NIRextinction in the direction of O-type stars are normal.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:15h18m48.90s
Apparent magnitude:5.46
Distance:50000 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-4.6
Proper motion Dec:-4.3
B-T magnitude:5.297
V-T magnitude:5.418

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
HD 1989HD 135591
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 9021-2242-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0225-22284595
BSC 1991HR 5680
HIPHIP 74941

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