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Phase Lags in the Optical-Infrared Light Curves of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars
To search for phase lags in the optical-infrared light curves ofasymptotic giant branch stars, we have compared infrared data from theCOBE DIRBE satellite with optical light curves from the AAVSO and othersources. We found 17 examples of phase lags between the times ofinfrared and optical maximum, and 4 stars with no observed lags. Thereis a clear difference between the Mira variables and the semiregularvariables in the sample, with the maximum in the optical preceding thatin the near-infrared in the Miras, while in most of the semiregularvariables no lags are observed. Comparison to published theoreticalmodels indicates that the phase lags in the Miras are due to strongtitanium oxide absorption in the visual at stellar maximum, and suggeststhat Miras pulsate in the fundamental mode, while at least somesemiregular variables are first-overtone pulsators. There is a clearoptical-near-infrared phase lag in the carbon-rich Mira V CrB; this islikely due to C2 and CN absorption variations in the optical.

Period-luminosity relation for M-type semiregular variables from Hipparcos parallaxes
We have studied the period-luminosity (P-L) relationships of oxygen-richsemiregular (SR) variables in several wavelength bands using Hipparcosparallaxes with an accuracy of better than 10 per cent. We have shownthat there is a clear dependence on period of absolute magnitude in theU,B,V,R,IC,J,H,K,L,M,N, [12], [25], [60] and [100] bands, andthat the slope of the linear Mλ- logP relation is asmooth function of wavelength. We point out that this relation can inprinciple be used to derive absolute bolometric magnitude as a functionof period.The behaviour of the second periods of SR variables in the P-L relationin the V and K bands is also discussed.

On the Origin of Long Secondary Periods in Semiregular Variables
The presence of a long secondary period (LSP) in the light curves ofsome local semiregular variables has been known for many years.Furthermore, the LSPs have recently been found in the light curves ofapproximately 25% of the semiregular variables in the LMC. Theytypically have a length of ~500-4000 days, some 5-15 times longer thanthe primary period. Binarity, pulsation, periodic dust ejection, androtation have been suggested as the origin of the LSPs. Here we analyzeechelle spectra of a group of local semiregular variables with LSPs(hereafter LSPVs) in order to try to distinguish between thesesuggestions. In general, we find that LSPVs do not have broader spectralfeatures than semiregulars without a long secondary period (hereafternon-LSPVs). The general upper limit on the equatorial rotation velocityof 3 km s-1 rules out rotating spot and similar models. OneLSPV, V Hya, does have broader spectral lines than similar carbon stars,but it is shown here that rotation alone is not a good model forexplaining the broad lines. Mid-infrared colors of LSPs and non-LSPVsare similar and there are no LSPVs showing the large (60-25) μm IRAScolor exhibited by some R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. Thus, there isno evidence for periodic dust ejection from LSPVs. Finally, we find thatthe LSPVs show larger radial velocity variations than non-LSPVs, whichsuggests that LSPs are caused either by binarity or by pulsation. Asimilar conclusion was derived by Hinkle and co-workers.

Infrared Colors and Variability of Evolved Stars from COBE DIRBE Data
For a complete 12 μm flux-limited sample of 207 IRAS sources(F12>=150 Jy, |b|>=5deg), the majority ofwhich are AGB stars (~87%), we have extracted light curves in seveninfrared bands between 1.25 and 60 μm using the database of theDiffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) instrument on the CosmicBackground Explorer (COBE) satellite. Using previous infrared surveys,we filtered these light curves to remove data points affected by nearbycompanions and obtained time-averaged flux densities and infraredcolors, as well as estimates of their variability at each wavelength. Inthe time-averaged DIRBE color-color plots, we find clear segregation ofsemiregulars, Mira variables, carbon stars, OH/IR stars, and red giantswithout circumstellar dust (i.e., V-[12]<5) and with little or novisual variation (ΔV<0.1 mag). The DIRBE 1.25-25 μm colorsbecome progressively redder and the variability in the DIRBE databaseincreases along the oxygen-rich sequence nondusty slightly varying redgiants-->SRb/Lb-->SRa-->Mira-->OH/IR and the carbon-richSRb/Lb-->Mira sequence. This supports previous assertions that theseare evolutionary sequences involving the continued production andejection of dust. The carbon stars are redder than their oxygen-richcounterparts for the same variability type, except in theF12/F25 ratio, where they are bluer. Of the 28sources in the sample not previous noted to be variable, 18 are clearlyvariable in the DIRBE data, with amplitudes of variation of ~0.9 mag at4.9 μm and ~0.6 mag at 12 μm, consistent with them being verydusty Mira-like variables. We also present individual DIRBE light curvesof a few selected stars. The DIRBE light curves of the semiregularvariable L2 Pup are particularly remarkable. The maxima at1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 μm occur 10-20 days before those at 4.9 and 12μm, and, at 4.9 and 12 μm, another maximum is seen between the twonear-infrared maxima.

Reprocessing the Hipparcos data of evolved stars. III. Revised Hipparcos period-luminosity relationship for galactic long-period variable stars
We analyze the K band luminosities of a sample of galactic long-periodvariables using parallaxes measured by the Hipparcos mission. Theparallaxes are in most cases re-computed from the Hipparcos IntermediateAstrometric Data using improved astrometric fits and chromaticitycorrections. The K band magnitudes are taken from the literature andfrom measurements by COBE, and are corrected for interstellar andcircumstellar extinction. The sample contains stars of several spectraltypes: M, S and C, and of several variability classes: Mira, semiregularSRa, and SRb. We find that the distribution of stars in theperiod-luminosity plane is independent of circumstellar chemistry, butthat the different variability types have different P-L distributions.Both the Mira variables and the SRb variables have reasonablywell-defined period-luminosity relationships, but with very differentslopes. The SRa variables are distributed between the two classes,suggesting that they are a mixture of Miras and SRb, rather than aseparate class of stars. New period-luminosity relationships are derivedbased on our revised Hipparcos parallaxes. The Miras show a similarperiod-luminosity relationship to that found for Large Magellanic CloudMiras by Feast et al. (\cite{Feast-1989:a}). The maximum absolute Kmagnitude of the sample is about -8.2 for both Miras and semi-regularstars, only slightly fainter than the expected AGB limit. We show thatthe stars with the longest periods (P>400 d) have high mass lossrates and are almost all Mira variables.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA \cite{Hipparcos}).Table \ref{Tab:data1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/403/993

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

New periodic variables from the Hipparcos epoch photometry
Two selection statistics are used to extract new candidate periodicvariables from the epoch photometry of the Hipparcos catalogue. Theprimary selection criterion is a signal-to-noise ratio. The dependenceof this statistic on the number of observations is calibrated usingabout 30000 randomly permuted Hipparcos data sets. A significance levelof 0.1 per cent is used to extract a first batch of candidate variables.The second criterion requires that the optimal frequency be unaffectedif the data are de-trended by low-order polynomials. We find 2675 newcandidate periodic variables, of which the majority (2082) are from theHipparcos`unsolved' variables. Potential problems with theinterpretation of the data (e.g. aliasing) are discussed.

Mass loss rates of a sample of irregular and semiregular M-type AGB-variables
We have determined mass loss rates and gas expansion velocities for asample of 69 M-type irregular (IRV 22 objects) and semiregular (SRV; 47objects) AGB-variables using a radiative transfer code to model theircircumstellar CO radio line emission. We believe that this sample isrepresentative for the mass losing stars of this type. The (molecularhydrogen) mass loss rate distribution has a median value of 2.0 x10-7 Msun yr-1, and a minimum of 2.0 x10-8 Msun yr-1 and a maximum of 8 x10-7 Msun yr-1. M-type IRVs and SRVswith a mass loss rate in excess of 5 x 10-7 Msunyr-1 must be very rare, and among these mass losing stars thenumber of sources with mass loss rates below a few 10-8Msun yr-1 must be small. We find no significantdifference between the IRVs and the SRVs in terms of their mass losscharacteristics. Among the SRVs the mass loss rate shows no dependenceon the period. Likewise the mass loss rate shows no correlation with thestellar temperature. The gas expansion velocity distribution has amedian of 7.0 km s-1, and a minimum of 2.2 km s-1and a maximum of 14.4 km s-1. No doubt, these objects samplethe low gas expansion velocity end of AGB winds. The fraction of objectswith low gas expansion velocities is very high, about 30% havevelocities lower than 5 km s-1, and there are objects withvelocities lower than 3 km s-1: V584 Aql,T Ari, BI Car, RXLac, and L2 Pup. The mass loss rate and thegas expansion velocity correlate well, a result in line with theoreticalpredictions for an optically thin, dust-driven wind. In general, themodel produces line profiles which acceptably fit the observed ones. Anexceptional case is R Dor, where the high-quality,observed line profiles are essentially flat-topped, while the model onesare sharply double-peaked. The sample contains four sources withdistinctly double-component CO line profiles, i.e., a narrow featurecentered on a broader feature: EP Aqr, RVBoo, X Her, and SV Psc.We have modelled the two components separately for each star and derivemass loss rates and gas expansion velocities. We have compared theresults of this M-star sample with a similar C-star sample analysed inthe same way. The mass loss rate characteristics are very similar forthe two samples. On the contrary, the gas expansion velocitydistributions are clearly different. In particular, the number oflow-velocity sources is much higher in the M-star sample. We found noexample of the sharply double-peaked CO line profile, which is evidenceof a large, detached CO-shell, among the M-stars. About 10% of theC-stars show this phenomenon.

Long-Term VRI Photometry of Small-Amplitude Red Variables. I. Light Curves and Periods
We report up to 5000 days of VRI photometry, from a robotic photometrictelescope, of 34 pulsating red giants, namely, TV Psc, EG And, Z Psc, RZAnd, 4 Ori, RX Lep, UW Lyn, η Gem, μ Gem, ψ1 Aur,V523 Mon, V614 Mon, HD 52690, Y Lyn, BC CMi, X Cnc, UX Lyn, RS Cnc, VYUMa, ST UMa, TU CVn, FS Com, SW Vir, 30 Her, α1 Her,V642 Her, R Lyr, V450 Aql, V1293 Aql, δ Sge, EU Del, V1070 Cyg, WCyg, and μ Cep, as well as a few variable comparison stars. V, R, andI variations are generally in phase. The length and density of the dataenable us to look for variations on timescales ranging from days toyears. We use both power-spectrum (Fourier) analysis and autocorrelationanalysis, as well as light-curve analysis; these three approaches arecomplementary. The variations range from regular to irregular, but inmost of the stars, we find a period in the range of 20-200 days, whichis probably due to low-order radial pulsation. In many of the stars, wealso find a period which is an order of magnitude longer. It may be dueto rotation, or it may be due to a new kind of convectively inducedoscillatory thermal mode, recently proposed by P. Wood.

Stars with the Largest Hipparcos Photometric Amplitudes
A list of the 2027 stars that have the largest photometric amplitudes inHipparcos Photometry shows that most variable stars are all Miras. Thepercentage of variable types change as a function of amplitude. Thiscompilation should also be of value to photometrists looking forrelatively unstudied, but large amplitude stars.

Long period variable stars: galactic populations and infrared luminosity calibrations
In this paper HIPPARCOS astrometric and kinematic data are used tocalibrate both infrared luminosities and kinematical parameters of LongPeriod Variable stars (LPVs). Individual absolute K and IRAS 12 and 25luminosities of 800 LPVs are determined and made available in electronicform. The estimated mean kinematics is analyzed in terms of galacticpopulations. LPVs are found to belong to galactic populations rangingfrom the thin disk to the extended disk. An age range and a lower limitof the initial mass is given for stars of each population. A differenceof 1.3 mag in K for the upper limit of the Asymptotic Giant Branch isfound between the disk and old disk galactic populations, confirming itsdependence on the mass in the main sequence. LPVs with a thin envelopeare distinguished using the estimated mean IRAS luminosities. The levelof attraction (in the classification sense) of each group for the usualclassifying parameters of LPVs (variability and spectral types) isexamined. Table only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/374/968 or via ASTRIDdatabase (http://astrid.graal.univ-montp2.fr).

On the Variability of K5-M Stars
I investigate the Hipparcos Satellite photometry of K5-M stars to seethe pattern of activity of these stars. A few stars for which furtherstudy is desirable are identified.

Long-Term VRI Photometry of Pulsating Red Giants
We report up to 5000 days of VRI photometry, from a robotic photometrictelescope, of 37 pulsating red giants, namely: TV Psc, EG And, Z Psc, RZAnd, 4 Ori, RX Lep, η Gem, μ Gem, UW Lyn, ψ 1 Aur,V523 Mon, V614 Mon, HD 52690, Y Lyn, BC CMi, X Cnc, UX Lyn, RS Cnc, VYUMa, ST UMa, TU CVn, FS Com, 35 Com, SW Vir, 30 Her, α1 Her, V642 Her, R Lyr, HD 174621, V450 Aql, V1293 Aql,δ Sge, EU Del, V1070 Cyg, W Cyg, μ Cep, and ν Cep. V, R, andI variations are generally in phase. The length and density of the dataenable us to look for variations on time scales ranging from days toyears. We use both power-spectrum (Fourier) analysis, andautocorrelation analysis, as well as light-curve analysis; these threeapproaches are complementary. The variations range from regular toirregular but, in most of the stars, we find a period in the range of 20to 200 days which is probably due to low-order radial pulsation. In manyof the stars, we also find a period which is an order of magnitudelonger. It may be due to rotation, or it may be due to a new kind ofconvectively-induced oscillatory thermal mode, recently proposed byPeter Wood. Supported by NASA, NSF, and NSERC Canada.

Hipparcos Versus GCVS Amplitudes of Non-Mira M-Type Giants
A recent paper by Dumm and Schild deals with the determination of radiiand masses for Hipparcos stars with non-Mira giant M-type spectra. Theirlist contains 350 stars, of which 205 are either verified or suspectedvariables, including 53 SR (semiregular) and 51 Lb (irregular)variables. The authors determined that the masses and radii of thenon-variable stars show a clear correlation, whereas thevariable starsdeviate from this relation roughly according to their amplitudes. Incomparing the Hipparcos amplitudes with the amplitudes in the GCVS andNSV I found numerous conspicuous discordances, ranging well over a wholemagnitude. I therefore hoped that the older amplitudes, based in generalupon data more specifically obtained for period determination, mightimprove the scatter in the Dumm and Schold diagram, but this is not thecase. In the course of the investigation, numerous stars wereencountered that merit further observations. Two were found of especialinterest: V370 And, discovered by Hipparcos, and () Dra,with a reputed period of 1100 days.

Library of Medium-Resolution Fiber Optic Echelle Spectra of F, G, K, and M Field Dwarfs to Giant Stars
We present a library of Penn State Fiber Optic Echelle (FOE)observations of a sample of field stars with spectral types F to M andluminosity classes V to I. The spectral coverage is from 3800 to 10000Å with a nominal resolving power of 12,000. These spectra includemany of the spectral lines most widely used as optical and near-infraredindicators of chromospheric activity such as the Balmer lines (Hαto Hepsilon), Ca II H & K, the Mg I b triplet, Na I D_1, D_2, He ID_3, and Ca II IRT lines. There are also a large number of photosphericlines, which can also be affected by chromospheric activity, andtemperature-sensitive photospheric features such as TiO bands. Thespectra have been compiled with the goal of providing a set of standardsobserved at medium resolution. We have extensively used such data forthe study of active chromosphere stars by applying a spectralsubtraction technique. However, the data set presented here can also beutilized in a wide variety of ways ranging from radial velocitytemplates to study of variable stars and stellar population synthesis.This library can also be used for spectral classification purposes anddetermination of atmospheric parameters (T_eff, logg, [Fe/H]). A digitalversion of all the fully reduced spectra is available via ftp and theWorld Wide Web (WWW) in FITS format.

Period-Luminosity-Colour distribution and classification of Galactic oxygen-rich LPVs. I. Luminosity calibrations
The absolute K magnitudes and kinematic parameters of about 350oxygen-rich Long-Period Variable stars are calibrated, by means of anup-to-date maximum-likelihood method, using Hipparcos parallaxes andproper motions together with radial velocities and, as additional data,periods and V-K colour indices. Four groups, differing by theirkinematics and mean magnitudes, are found. For each of them, we alsoobtain the distributions of magnitude, period and de-reddened colour ofthe base population, as well as de-biased period-luminosity-colourrelations and their two-dimensional projections. The SRa semiregulars donot seem to constitute a separate class of LPVs. The SRb appear tobelong to two populations of different ages. In a PL diagram, theyconstitute two evolutionary sequences towards the Mira stage. The Mirasof the disk appear to pulsate on a lower-order mode. The slopes of theirde-biased PL and PC relations are found to be very different from theones of the Oxygen Miras of the LMC. This suggests that a significantnumber of so-called Miras of the LMC are misclassified. This alsosuggests that the Miras of the LMC do not constitute a homogeneousgroup, but include a significant proportion of metal-deficient stars,suggesting a relatively smooth star formation history. As a consequence,one may not trivially transpose the LMC period-luminosity relation fromone galaxy to the other Based on data from the Hipparcos astrometrysatellite. Appendix B is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Oxygen-rich semiregular and irregular variables. A catalogue of circumstellar CO observations
Using the SEST, the Onsala 20 m telescope, the JCMT, and the IRAM 30 mtelescope we have carried out a survey of circumstellar CO(J=1-0, 2-1,3-2, and 4-3) emission on a large sample of oxygen-rich semiregular (SRaand SRb) and irregular variables (Lb). A total of 109 stars wereobserved in at least one CO line: 66 were shown to have circumstellar COline emission (7 SRa, 36 SRb, and 23 Lb variables), ~ 60% of thesemiregulars and all but one of the irregulars were detected for thefirst time. Most stars were observed in at least two transitions. Thereis a total of 138 detected CO lines. For twelve stars stronginterference from interstellar CO emission precluded detection. Wepresent here a catalogue of all observational data and the spectra ofall detections, as well as brief discussions on detection statistics(including its dependence on variability type, period, IRAS-colour, IRASLRS-class, and M-subclass), line profiles (including line shapeasymmetry, multi-component line shapes, and line intensity ratios), gasexpansion velocity distributions, and correlations between CO line andIR continuum fluxes (including implications for the mass-lossmechanism). Based on observations collected using at the EuropeanSouthern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, the Onsala Space Observatory,Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Sweden, the James Clerk MaxwellTelescope, Hawaii and the IRAM 30~m telescope, Pico Veleta, Spain.

A search for Technetium in semiregular variables
We searched for the lines of Tc in the spectra of Semiregular variables(SRVs) in the wavelength region from 4180 to 4300 Å using highresolution spectroscopy. Tc as an s-process element is produced on thethermally pulsing AGB and is therefore a good indicator for theevolutionary status of Semiregular variables. Combining our results withprevious investigations we get a database large enough for a statisticalstudy. Tc is not found in SRVs with periods below 100 days, spectraltypes earlier than M5 and photospheric IRAS colours. These objects are`blue' SRVs in the classification system of Kerschbaum & Hron(\cite{KH94}). Among the `red' SRVs (periods longer than 100 days) thefraction of stars showing Tc in their spectra is about 15 % with aprobably lower fraction among the stars with periods above 150 days.This is significantly lower than for the typical Miras. Taking intoaccount the probable conditions for the occurence of the third dredge-upand the expected behavior of the Tc abundance along an evolutionarytrack on the AGB, our results support an evolutionary scenario from`blue' SRVs (early AGB) to `red' SRVs (early TP-AGB) and on to longperiod Miras. Only the most massive (masses above 2M_ȯ) stars showTc during the SRV stage. The luminosities of the Tc-rich SRVs and Mirasare compatible with theoretical estimates of the minimum core massrequired for the third dredge-up. Based on observations collected at theEuropean Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (ESO No.54.E-0350), theGerman Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, operated by theMax-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, jointly with the SpanishNational Commission for Astronomy, and Kitt Peak National Observatory,USA.

Multiperiodicity in semiregular variables. I. General properties
We present a detailed period analysis for 93 red semiregular variablesby means of Fourier and wavelet analyses of long-term visualobservations carried out by amateur astronomers. The results of thisanalysis yield insights into the mode structure of semiregular variablesand help to clarify the relationship between them and Mira variables.After collecting all available data from various international databases(AFOEV, VSOLJ, HAA/VSS and AAVSO) we test the accuracy and reliabilityof data. We compare the averaged and noise-filtered visual light curveswith simultaneous photoelectric V-measurements, the effect of the lengthversus the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio is illustrated by periodanalysis of artificial data, while binning effects are tested bycomparing results of frequency analyses of the unbinned and averagedlight curves. The overwhelming majority of the stars studied showmultiperiodic behaviour. We found two significant periods in 44variables, while there are definite signs of three periods in 12 stars.29 stars turned out to be monoperiodic with small instabilities in theperiod. Since this study deals with the general trends, we wanted tofind only the most dominant periods. The distribution of periods andperiod ratios is examined through the use of the (log P_0, log P_1) and(log P_1, log P_0/P_1) plots. Three significant and two less obvioussequences are present which could be explained as the direct consequenceof different pulsational modes. This hypothesis is supported by theresults for multiperiodic variables with three periods. Finally, thesespace methods are illustrated by several interesting case studies thatshow the best examples of different special phenomena such as long-termamplitude modulation, amplitude decrease and mode switching.

Stellar radii of M giants
We determine the stellar radii of the M giant stars in the Hipparcoscatalogue that have a parallax measured to better than 20% accuracy.This is done with the help of a relation between a visual surfacebrightness parameter and the Cousins (V - I) colour index, which wecalibrate with M giants with published angular diameters.The radii of(non-Mira) M giants increase from a median value of 50 R_Sun at spectraltype M0 III to 170 R_Sun at M7/8 III. Typical intermediate giant radiiare 65 R_Sun for M1/M2, 90 R_Sun for M3, 100 R_Sun for M4, 120 R_Sun forM5 and 150 R_Sun for M6. There is a large intrinsic spread for a givenspectral type. This variance in stellar radius increases with latertypes but in relative terms, it remains constant.We determineluminosities and, from evolutionary tracks, stellar masses for oursample stars. The M giants in the solar neighbourhood have masses in therange 0.8-4 M_Sun. For a given spectral type, there is a close relationbetween stellar radius and stellar mass. We also find a linear relationbetween the mass and radius of non-variable M giants. With increasingamplitude of variability we have larger stellar radii for a given mass.

The Infrared Spectral Classification of Oxygen-rich Dust Shells
This paper presents infrared spectral classifications for a flux-limitedsample of 635 optically identified oxygen-rich variables includingsupergiants and sources on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Severalclasses of spectra from oxygen-rich dust exist, and these can bearranged in a smoothly varying sequence of spectral shapes known as thesilicate dust sequence. Classification based on this sequence revealsseveral dependencies of the dust emission on the properties of thecentral star. Nearly all S stars show broad emission features fromalumina dust, while most of the supergiants exhibit classic featuresfrom amorphous silicate dust. Mira variables with symmetric light curvesgenerally show broad alumina emission, while those with more asymmetriclight curves show classic silicate emission. These differences may arisefrom differences in the photospheric C/O ratio.

HIPPARCOS Period-Luminosity Relations for Mira and Semiregular variables
We present period-luminosity (P-L) diagrams for nearby Mira andsemiregular variables, selecting stars with parallaxes better than 20%and well-determined periods. Using K-band magnitudes, we find twowell-defined P-L sequences, one corresponding to the standard Mira P-Lrelation and the second shifted to shorter periods by a factor of about1.9. The second sequence contains only semiregular variables, while theMira sequence contains both Mira and semiregular variables. Severalsemiregular stars show double periods that are in agreement with bothrelations. The Whitelock evolutionary track is shown to fit the data,indicating that the semiregular variables are Mira progenitors. Thetransition between the two sequences may correspond to a change in thepulsation mode or to a change in the stellar structure. Large-amplitudepulsations that lead to the classical Mira classification occur mainlynear the tip of the local asymptotic giant branch luminosity function.

HIPPARCOS Astrometry of Infrared-Selected Sources and the Connection Between Optical and Infrared Reference Frames
Astrometric data from the Hipparcos satellite are reported for theoptical counterparts of 87 bright infrared sources. These sources may beuseful in defining a reference frame for infrared observations. The dataare also useful in studying the locations of circumstellar SiO masers.(SECTION: Stars)

Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution Spectra
IRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed.

The FeH Wing-Ford Band in Spectra of M Stars
We study the FeH Wing-Ford band at 9850--10200 A by fitting syntheticspectra to the observations of M stars, employing recent modelatmospheres. On the basis of the spectral synthesis, we analyze thedependence of the band upon atmospheric parameters. FeH lines are a verysensitive surface gravity indicator, being stronger in dwarfs. They arealso sensitive to metallicity. The blending with CN lines, which arestronger in giants, does not affect the response of the Wing-Ford bandto surface gravity at low resolution (or high velocity dispersions),because CN lines, which are spread all along the spectrum, are smearedout at convolutions of FWHM >~ 3 A. We conclude that the Wing-Fordband is a suitable dwarf/giant indicator for the study of compositestellar populations.

The Near-Infrared NA i Doublet Feature in M Stars
The Na I near-infrared feature has been used to indicate the dwarf/giantpopulation in composite systems, but its interpretation is still anissue of contention. In order to try to understand the behavior of thiscontroversial feature, we study the spectra of cool stars by means ofboth observed and synthetic spectra. We conclude that the Na I infraredfeature can be used as a dwarf/giant indicator. We propose a modifieddefinition of the Na I index by defining a red continuum at 8234 A andby measuring the equivalent width in the range 8172--8197 A, avoidingthe region at lambda > 8197 A, which contains V I, Zr I, Fe I, andTiO lines.

A Renewed Search for Water Maser Emission from Mira Variables.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.1602L&db_key=AST

Semiregular variables of types SRa and SRb. Silicate dust emission features.
We have analysed the IRAS-LRS spectra of representative samples ofO-rich Semiregular (SR) variables of types SRa and SRb and of Miravariables. The silicate features were extracted by fitting the energydistribution with two blackbodies, approximating the continuous emissionfrom the photosphere and the circumstellar dust. The shape and strengthof the silicate features in the LRS range were then studied by computingthe residual fluxes in 5 selected wavelength regions covering the whole10μm and 18μm features and parts of the 10μm feature assignedto emission from olivine and possibly corundum. We compare our approachwith previous investigations and argue that a quantitative study ofdetails in the feature shape requires subtraction of the stellar and thedust continuum and the use of flux ratios rather than a discreteclassification system. The Miras form an extension of the SRb's towardslower stellar temperatures and higher dust shell opacities and they haveslightly higher average dust temperatures. The SRa's seem to be moresimilar to the Miras in their dust shell properties. The average 10μmfeature shapes of the three groups of variables agree, but taking intoaccount the photospheric and dust shell parameters, systematicdifferences show up. For stars hotter than about 2900K, the 10μmfeature width shows a wide range of values but no clear trend with thestellar temperature or the optical depth of the dust shell. These starsare generally SRb variables and have the thinnest dust envelopes. Atcooler stellar temperatures, where mostly Miras are found, the opticaldepth of the dust shell determines the feature width in the sense thatthicker shells have narrower features. It appears that the 13μmfeature is obvious only in a narrow range of effective temperature andoptical depth of the dust shell. We discuss our results in terms ofradiative transfer effects, differences in the average grain size,annealing and hydration of amorphous silicates and contributions fromother dust components. Of these possibilities the last one seems to bemost plausible with regard to the behavior of the 10μm feature width.The observations can be interpreted in terms of changing contributionsfrom olivine and corundum possibly caused by an increasing amount ofdust processing (Miras) and the influence of the atmospheric structureon the formation of these dust components (SRb's).

Pulsation Timescales and Amplitudes in a Sample of Bright Semi-Regular Variable Stars
We have analyzed the differential V-band photometric variations ofrecords up to 8 years long in ten M III semi-regular (SR) variablestars. Periodograms constructed from each star's entire record andseasoned intervals were used to find repetitive occurrences of pulsationperiods in the range of 10 to 250 days. For every star at least onelocus of periods was observed, with many stars showing two distinctdistributions of pulsation timescales. The observed pulsation periodsand differential V-magnitude semi-amplitudes appear to be correlatedsuch that longer periods correspond to larger semi-amplitudes. (SECTION:Stars)

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:05h11m22.80s
Apparent magnitude:5.68
Distance:136.986 parsecs
Proper motion RA:32.4
Proper motion Dec:55.8
B-T magnitude:7.426
V-T magnitude:5.869

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
HD 1989HD 33664
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 5338-890-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0750-01258284
BSC 1991HR 1693
HIPHIP 24169

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