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|The PDS versus Markarian starburst galaxies: comparing strong and weak IRAS emitter at 12 and 25 μm in the nearby Universe|
The characteristics of the starburst galaxies from the Pico dos Diassurvey (PDS) are compared with those of the nearby ultraviolet (UV)bright Markarian starburst galaxies, having the same limit in redshift(vh < 7500 km s-1) and absolute B magnitude(MB < -18). An important difference is found: theMarkarian galaxies are generally undetected at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS.This is consistent with the UV excess shown by these galaxies andsuggests that the youngest star-forming regions dominating thesegalaxies are relatively free of dust.The far-infrared selection criteria for the PDS are shown to introduce astrong bias towards massive (luminous) and large size late-type spiralgalaxies. This is contrary to the Markarian galaxies, which are found tobe remarkably rich in smaller size early-type galaxies. These resultssuggest that only late-type spirals with a large and massive disc arestrong emitters at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS in the nearby Universe.The Markarian and PDS starburst galaxies are shown to share the sameenvironment. This rules out an explanation of the differences observedin terms of external parameters. These differences may be explained byassuming two different levels of evolution, the Markarian being lessevolved than the PDS galaxies. This interpretation is fully consistentwith the disc formation hypothesis proposed by Coziol et al. to explainthe special properties of the Markarian SBNG.
|Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data|
We present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere.
|Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry|
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography|
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to126.96.36.199) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Relationship of Markarian galaxies with their surroundings.|
|Rotation Curves and Velocity Measures for Spiral Galaxies in Pairs|
Rotation curves have been obtained for 76 spiral galaxies in pairs,including a geometrically selected subset from the Karachentsev catalogand a set of Seyfert galaxies with close companions. Derived parametersof the rotation curves and the galaxies light distributions are alsopresented. The rotation curves are classified broadly by shape, withspecial emphasis on kinematic disturbances and regions of solid-bodybehavior that may lead to bar development. Broadband images of thegalaxies allow assessments of their degree of symmetry or disturbance.These velocity slices afford an empirical basis for evaluating theaccuracy of radial velocity measures for spiral galaxies in pairs, andthe dynamically important radial velocity differences. Specifically, thedisagreement among several plausible ways of estimating the centralvelocity from these rotation data is used to estimate how closely any ofthese might approximate the nuclear or center-of-mass values. From sevenindicators of central velocity, the internal scatter is σ_vv_ = 34km s^-1^. Of these, the velocity weighted by Hα intensity alongthe slit shows a systematic offset of about 20 km s^-1^ with respect tothe others for the Karachentsev pairs, in the sense that this measure isredshifted with respect to the other indicators. This is in the sense(but not of the total magnitude) required to account for statisticalasymmetries in pair velocity differences. Individual scatter between thevelocity indicators taken pairwise ranges from σ = 20 to 52 km s^-1^. These results imply that emission-line data such as these cannotspecify the center of mass or nuclear redshift at a level more accuratethan this, even for arbitrarily precise velocity measurements, becauseit is not clear how the observed quantities relate to the desiredmeasurement in a physical sense. No useful predictor of which galaxieshave large or small scatter among velocity measures was found, exceptthat the scatter is small for the class of "nonrotating" galaxies withsmall overall velocity amplitudes. Projected separation, separationnormalized to disk scale length, and morphological disturbance do notcorrelate with the velocity scatter.
|A multifrequency radio continuum and IRAS faint source survey of markarian galaxies|
Results are presented from a multifrequency radio continumm survey ofMarkarian galaxies (MRKs) and are supplemented by IRAS infrared datafrom the Faint Source Survey. Radio data are presented for 899 MRKsobserved at nu = 4.755 GHz with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory(NRAO)-Green Bank 300 foot (91 m) telescope, including nearly 88% ofthose objects in Markarian lists VI-XIV. In addition, 1.415 GHzmeasurements of 258 MRKs, over 30% of the MRKs accessible from theNational Aeronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC)-Arecibo, are reported.Radio continuum observations of smaller numbers of MRKs were made at10.63 GHz and at 23.1 GHz and are also presented. Infrared data from theIRAS Faint Source Survey (Ver. 2) are presented for 944 MRKs, withreasonably secure identifications extracted from the NASA/IPACExtragalactic Database. MRKs exhibit the same canonical infraredcharacteristics as those reported for various other galaxy samples, thatis well-known enhancement of the 25 micrometer/60 micrometer color ratioamong Seyfert MRKs, and a clear tendency for MRKs with warmer 60micrometer/100 micrometer colors to also possess cooler 12 micrometer/25micrometer colors. In addition, non-Seyfert are found to obey thewell-documented infrared/radio luminosity correlation, with the tightestcorrelation seen for starburst MRKs.
|Kinematic regulation of star formation in interacting galaxies|
Kinematic data for a geometrically-selected set of spiral galaxies inpairs are presented, and analyzed for correlations between indicators ofstar formation and indices of orbital type and extent of kinematicdisturbance. Both nuclear and global star formation rate are connectedto kinematic disturbance with the kind and degree of disturbance moreimportant than either projected separation or relative directions ofgalaxy spin and companion orbit. Enhanced star formation is found forgalaxies with large areas of solid-body rotation and for galaxies withmore general kinds of disturbed velocity structure, with the highestlevels occurring in a set of galaxies distinguished by anomalously smalloverall velocity amplitude. The strongest correlation is between starformation rate (SFR) and amplitude of velocity disturbance, fromrotation curves, when the velocity disturbance is scaled by the galaxyrotation velocity. Triggered star formation is more sensitive to galaxydynamics than to strictly local phenomena such as cloud disruptionvelocities. Comparsion with various models for the enhanced SFR ininteracting systems shows that cloud-collision processes cannot accountfor the strong starbursts in retrograde systems, and models relying oninteractions between different phases of the interstellar mediumsimilarly require too many direct collisions between galaxy disks.Schemes involving gravitational instability of the disk driven initiallyby the external perturbation fare best; such instability can then drivethe rates of other processes such as cloud collisions, possibly in acascadelike series. Solid-body kinematics appear more important than thepresence of a stellar bar in this connection. Using a new set ofclassifications from uniform CCD images, there is a better correlationbetween disturbed kinematics and morphological disturbance of individualgalaxies than with pair interaction types in the Karachentsev catalog,though the relationship is not one-to-one. There is a substantialpopulation of pairs with disturbed kinematics but not disturbed forms.The kinds of disturbance found from direct and retrograde encountersmatch well the predictions of n-body calculations for each kind ofencounter.
|Models and observations of starbursts. II - Starbursts in interacting galaxies|
Evolutionary models are applied here to starburst galaxies in a sampleof 30 interacting or merged systems in order to determine the durationof the starbursts. The time delay between bursts in both components ofinteracting pairs of disk galaxies is investigated and it is found thatstarbursts in the minor galaxies of these pairs started earlier thanthose in the major galaxies. While strong starbursts are found to beactive for only about 2 x 10 exp 7 yrs, the time delay between thebursts in both components of the interacting pairs can be significantlylarger. Delays of up to 2 x 10 exp 8 yrs are found in the sample. Modelfits show that the mass-to-luminosity ratios of strong centralstarbursts indicate a deficiency of low-mass stars in the starburstinitial mass function. The required low-mass-star deficiency is smallerthan previously believed.
|Pairing properties of Markarian starburst Galaxies|
The environmental parameters of 516 non-Seyfert Markarian galaxies werestudied in a redshift-bounded sample, supplemented by new spectra andredshift measures for possible companions, in order to evaluate theiroccurrence in galaxy pairs, defined through quantitative criteria. Itwas found that one-third of these galaxies occur in pairs (while only 6to 10 percent of optically-selected galaxies are known to be paired). Acomparison of various optical and IR properties of paired and nonpairedMarkarian galaxies showed no differences in the shape of the optical,far-IR, or H-alpha luminosity functions. It was found, however, that theMarkarian component is brighter than the other galaxy in each pair by0.66 magnitude in the mean at B.
|H I observations of galaxies in the Kraan-Korteweg-Tammann catalogue of nearby galaxies. III - Global parameters of the galaxies|
Global parameters for 146 galaxies in a nearly complete sample of nearbygalaxies with v0 = 500 km/s or less are derived from H I observations.Relations among global parameters (e.g., morphological type, absolutemagnitude, and corrected 21-cm line width) are discussed. TheTully-Fisher relation for this sample turns out to be very similar tothe solution from the calibrating sample of 130 galaxies. Otherrelations providing distance information are discussed as well. Theparameters representing total mass are involved in the tightestcorrelations found in this study. The total mass, the H I mass, and theblue luminosity are all approximately proportional to the disk surfacearea. The mass-to-light ratio is practically independent ofmorphological type. Likewise, the pseudo H I surface brightness can berepresented by a constant value for all galaxies with types later thanSc.
|Optical and far-IR luminosity functions of Markarian galaxies|
A new optical luminosity function of Markarian galaxies is presentedwhich improves on earlier determinations. The importance of clusteringof Markarian galaxies is checked by applying an alternative methodproposed by Turner (1979) which allows the shape of the luminosityfunction to be derived for an arbitrary space distribution provided thatthe shape is the same in clusters and in the field. A fractionalbivariate function is constructed using IRAS data, and survival analysistechniques are used to exploit the information content of IR upperlimits. The resulting far-IR luminosity function is presented andcompared with previous estimates.
|Radial velocities of Zwicky clusters of galaxies in the Coma supercluster and its environment.|
|Mass-to-Light Ratios of Binary Galaxies. III. Analysis|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1987ApJS...64..427S&db_key=AST
|A search for QSOs in the fields of nearby galaxies. II - NGC 55, 253, 300 and 5364|
The results of a search for QSOs in the fields of NGC 55, 253, 300, and5364, using low-dispersion objective-prism plates (obtained in 20-minexposures with the UK Schmidt Telescope Unit at Coonabarabran,Australia, during 1979-1982) and low-dispersion spectroscopy (obtainedusing the 1.9-m reflector at SAAO in August 1983), are reported. Data on12 candidate objects, of which nine are identified as QSOs with Bmagnitudes 16.1-18.6, are compiled in extensive tables and graphs andbriefly characterized; finding charts are provided.
|A catalog of Markarian galaxies|
A catalog of Markarian galaxies is presented which tabulates redshifts,spectral and morphological classifications, magnitudes, infrared andradio flux densities, and over 600 references to available datapublished before January 1, 1986. Redshifts are now available for 1228objects with strong ultraviolet continua, and follow-up spectroscopicand photometric observations of Markarian galaxies have providedclassifications of 115 Seyfert 1, 43 Seyfert 2, and 137 starburst and HII-type galaxies. After a description of the Markarian survey and thecurrent catalog, a summary of the general results obtained from the datais presented. A preliminary study of the infrared properties ofMarkarian galaxies as measured by IRAS reveals a number of interestingresults, including the existence of a sample of elliptical andlenticular galaxies with appreciable infrared emission.
|Radio emission of isolated single and double galaxies|
The catalogs of Karachentsev (1972) and Karachentseva (1973) are used tocompare the properties of isolated single and double galaxies, andquantitative results are obtained. It is shown that spiral galaxieswhich are members of pairs have a radio luminosity exceeding that ofsingle galaxies by 2.5 times on the average. In addition, it is foundthat members of interacting pairs are more powerful emitters in theradio range and that spiral galaxies which are members of triplets haveradio luminosities on a par with those of pair members.
|A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data|
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.
|Double galaxy investigations. I - Observations|
Redshift information from 240 A/mm spectrograms is presented for 370double arcsec galaxy systems from the Karachentsev (1972) catalog,including all pairs in that catalog with separation less than 80 arcsec.An extensive error discussion utilizing internal and external (21 cm)comparisons provides calibration of systematic error and determines theuncertainty for a typical high weight optical redshift to be plus orminus 65 km/sec. Internal differential redshifts within single spectrausing common lines achieve accuracies of 18-30 km/sec, depending uponseparation, and are available for about 200 pairs. Extensive informationon emission and other properties is also provided.
|Radio survey of Markarian galaxies at 6 and 11 CM|
One hundred and fifty-one objects from Markarian's lists 6 and 7 wereobserved at 6 cm with a 3 sigma detection limit of about 30 mJy. EightMarkarian objects were detected, six of which were also observed at 11cm. Forty-five others were negative at this wavelength. Two of thedetections, numbers 533 and 668, are Seyfert galaxies; additionally, UB1was detected at 6 cm and NGC 7715 and III Zw 2 were found at 11 cm.
|Index of galaxy spectra.|
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