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A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

The Multitude of Unresolved Continuum Sources at 1.6 Microns in Hubble Space Telescope Images of Seyfert Galaxies
We examine 112 Seyfert galaxies observed by the Hubble Space Telescopeat 1.6 μm. We find that ~50% of the Seyfert 2.0 galaxies which arepart of the Revised Shapely-Ames (RSA) Catalog or the CfA redshiftsample contain unresolved continuum sources at 1.6 μm. All but acouple of the Seyfert 1.0-1.9 galaxies display unresolved continuumsources. The unresolved sources have fluxes of order 1 mJy,near-infrared luminosities of order 1041 ergs s-1,and absolute magnitudes MH~-16. Comparison non-Seyfertgalaxies from the RSA Catalog display significantly fewer (~20%),somewhat lower luminosity nuclear sources, which could be due to compactstar clusters. We find that the luminosities of the unresolved Seyfert1.0-1.9 sources at 1.6 μm are correlated with [O III] λ5007and hard X-ray luminosities, implying that these sources are nonstellar.Assuming a spectral energy distribution similar to that of a Seyfert 2galaxy, we estimate that a few percent of local spiral galaxies containblack holes emitting as Seyferts at a moderate fraction,~10-1-10-4, of their Eddington luminosities. Wefind no strong correlation between 1.6 μm fluxes and hard X-ray or [OIII] λ5007 fluxes for the pure Seyfert 2.0 galaxies. Thesegalaxies also tend to have lower 1.6 μm luminosities compared to theSeyfert 1.0-1.9 galaxies of similar [O III] luminosity. Either largeextinctions (AV~20-40) are present toward theircontinuum-emitting regions or some fraction of the unresolved sources at1.6 μm are compact star clusters. With increasing Seyfert type thefraction of unresolved sources detected at 1.6 μm and the ratio of1.6 μm to [O III] fluxes tend to decrease. These trends areconsistent with the unification model for Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies
The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies (CSRG) is a comprehensivecompilation of diameters, axis ratios, relative bar position angles, andmorphologies of inner and outer rings, pseudorings, and lenses in 3692galaxies south of declination -17 deg. The purpose of the catalog is toevaluate the idea that these ring phenomena are related to orbitalresonances with a bar or oval in galaxy potentials. The catalog is basedon visual inspection of most of the 606 fields of the Science ResearchCouncil (SRC) IIIa-J southern sky survey, with the ESO-B, ESO-R, andPalomar Sky surveys used as auxiliaries when needed for overexposed coreregions. The catalog is most complete for SRC fields 1-303 (mostly southof declination -42 deg). In addition to ringed galaxies, a list of 859mostly nonringed galaxies intended for comparison with other catalogs isprovided. Other findings from the CSRG that are not based on statisticsare the identification of intrinsic bar/ring misalignment; bars whichunderfill inner rings; dimpling of R'1pseudorings; pointy, rectangular, or hexagonal inner or outer ringshapes; a peculiar polar-ring-related system; and other extreme examplesof spiral structure and ring morphology.

Total and effective colors of 501 galaxies in the Cousins VRI photometric system
Total color indices (V-R)T, (V-I)T and effectivecolor indices (V-R)e, (V-I)e in the Cousins VRIphotometric system are presented for 501 mostly normal galaxies. Thecolors are computed using a procedure outlined in the Third ReferenceCatalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) whereby standard color curvesapproximated by Laplace-Gauss integrals are fitted to observedphotoelectric multiaperture photometry. 11 sources of such photometrywere used for our analysis, each source being assigned an appropriateweight according to a rigorous analysis of residuals of the data fromthe best-fitting standard color curves. Together with the integrated B-Vand U-B colors provided in RC3, our analysis widens the range ofwavelength of homogeneously defined colors of normal galaxies of allHubble types. We present color-color and color-type relations that canbe modeled to understand the star formation history of galaxies.

Galaxy properties in different environments. 1: The sample
This paper presents two galaxy samples, respectively in a high and in alow local density environments, that were generated from the SouthernSky Redshift Survey (SSRS) catalog using objective criteria. Apreliminary comparison of physical properties in these two samplesreveals that galaxies in high-density environments tend to be under ahigher starbursting activity, have a deficiency of the neutral hydrogencontent, present a higher fractional Seyfert population and a higherfraction of barred spirals as well. The present samples are intended tobe used in future spectroscopic observations for more detailedinvestigation.

Mean morphological types of bright galaxies
The revised Hubble classifications provided in the Third ReferenceCatalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on nine lists andcatalogues, both published and unpublished, from five observers. Thispaper describes the procedures that were used to combine theseclassifications into mean classifications including the family, variety,and stage. The best classifications in RC3 are based on large-scalephotographic images taken with 1.5-5 m class reflectors. However, mostof the types in RC3 are based on the small-scale prints, plates, andfilms of the first Palomar Sky Survey and the UK Schmidt IIIa-J SouthernSky Survey. The overlap between the different observers, samples alloweddetermination of the reliability of sky survey types and the effects ofdiameter and inclination on the accuracy of these types. We find thatfor a typical galaxy having isophotal diameter D25approximately = 2 min and inclined by approximately 50 degs, types Tfrom the sky surveys have a mean error (averaged over all of theobservers) of sigma(T) = 0.7 step on the numerical scale of the revisedHubble system. With the new database of classifications, we rederive theclassical relations between Hubble type and integrated colors, surfacebrightnesses, and hydrogen index (hydrogen flux to blue light ratio) fora large sample of galaxies. We also present a table of galaxies which weconsider to be representative examples of each type.

The dependence of the cool matter content on galaxy morphology in galaxies of types E/S0, S0, and SA
Using the material assembled in earlier papers, we examine the manner inwhich the interstellar matter content varies along the Hubble sequencefrom S0 galaxies to Sa galaxies selected from the RSA2 compilation. Forthis we make use of a new and more detailed classification which isdescribed here as applied to these early disk/spiral galaxies. Theprominence of the disk in S0's and the visibility of features (H IIregions) in the Sa's serve as the basis for the subtypes. Three S0categories: subtle, intermediate, and pronounced, and four Sadescriptors: very early, early, intermediate, and late are assigned tothe galaxies. It is found that the total amount of hydrogen (H I + H2)is a function of subtype, being low in the S0's and rising smoothly fromthe early Sa's to the later Sa's. The average surface density ofhydrogen exceeds 3 solar masses/pc-squared only in the latest subtypesof the Sa's. We conclude that the prominence of the disk of a galaxyclosely follows the amount of cool gas which the disk contains.

Dynamics of the Pavo-Indus and Grus clouds of galaxies
A study of groups of galaxies in the above regions was carried out byselecting a sample extending one magnitude deeper than previous work inthe area, complete down to 15 mag. We report new redshift determinationsfor 58 galaxies in the region and 13 other miscellaneous galaxies, basedon La Silla observations. Using a total of 266 galaxies with measuredredshifts in the Pavo-Indus and Grus clouds, we perform a new analysisof groupings following a well-tested algorithm. A total of 18 groups issingled out, most of them known from previous work, even though a fewadditional members are added. For all the groups, we have calculateddynamical parameters and M/L ratios. All groups are found to be boundaggregates, but only one group can be virialized. For the six mostpopulated examples, having at least five members, we also calculateseveral mass estimators and discuss the wide range of observed M/Lratios, which extends from nine to nearly 500 M(solar)/L(solar). Weintroduce two parameters to measure the presence of either a dominantgalaxy or internal subcondensations, respectively, and test whether anycorrelation with the M/L ratios can be detected. No clear correlationsare found.

Low-luminosity early-type galaxies. I - Photometry and morphology
New multiaperture photoelectric photometry in U, B, V, R, and I for 50southern low-luminosity early-type galaxies (LLEs) is presented.Asymptotic magnitude and mean surface brightness within the effectiveaperture are derived from fits to r exp 1/4 growth curves, and colorsare reduced at an effective radius for 154 galaxies. Morphological andstructural analysis of the LLE sample, based on the ESO-LV image database, shows that the average flattening of these galaxies is high. Thesample can be divided into four main categories. There is no correlationbetween the morphological type for t of not greater than -3 and any ofthe structural and geometrical properties investigated. Only a fewgalaxies show a boxy isophote shape, while a greater fraction showsdisky isophotes.

Interstellar matter in early-type galaxies. II - The relationship between gaseous components and galaxy types
Interstellar components of early-type galaxies are established bygalactic type and luminosity in order to search for relationshipsbetween the different interstellar components and to test thepredictions of theoretical models. Some of the data include observationsof neutral hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and radio continuum emission. Analternative distance model which yields LX varies as LB2.45,a relation which is in conflict with simple cooling flow models, isdiscussed. The dispersion of the X-ray luminosity about this regressionline is unlikely to result from stripping. The striking lack of clearcorrelations between hot and cold interstellar components, takentogether with their morphologies, suggests that the cold gas is a diskphenomenon while the hot gas is a bulge phenomenon, with littleinteraction between the two. The progression of galaxy type from E to Sais not only a sequence of decreasing stellar bulge-to-disk ratio, butalso of hot-to-cold-gas ratio.

Near Infrared Spectral Synthesis in Giant Early Type Galaxies
Not Available

Southern Sky Redshift Survey - The catalog
The catalog of radial velocities for galaxies which comprise thediameter-limited sample of the Southern Sky Redshift Survey ispresented. It consolidates the data of observations carried out at theLas Campanas Observatory, Observatorio Nacional, and South AfricanAstronomical Observatory. The criteria used for the sample selection aredescribed, as well as the observational procedures and the techniqueutilized to obtain the final radial velocities. The intercomparisonbetween radial velocity measurements from different telescopes indicatesthat the final data base is fairly homogeneous with a typical error ofabout 40 km/s. The sample is at present 90 percent complete, and themissing galaxies are predominantly objects with very low surfacebrightness for which it is very difficult to obtain optical redshifts.

Interstellar matter in early-type galaxies. I - The catalog
A catalog is given of the currently available measurements ofinterstellar matter in the 467 early-type galaxies listed in the secondedition of the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies. Themorphological type range is E, SO, and Sa. The ISM tracers are emissionin the following bands: IRAS 100 micron, X-ray, radio, neutral hydrogen,and carbon monoxide. Nearly two-thirds of the Es and SOs have beendetected in one or more of these tracers. Additional observed quantitiesthat are tabulated include: magnitude, colors, radial velocity, centralvelocity dispersion, maximum of the rotation curve, angular size, 60micron flux, and supernovae. Qualitative statements as to the presenceof dust or emission lines, when available in the literature, are given.Quantities derivative from the observed values are also listed andinclude masses of H I, CO, X-ray gas, and dust as well as an estimate ofthe total mass and mass-to-luminosity ratio of the individual galaxies.

The plane W(Na I) X W(Mg I) - Effects of interstellar Na I in a sample of southern galaxies
Galaxy spectra from a subsample of the Southern Sky Redshift Survey databank were used to study the equivalent width plane for the lines Na Ilambda 5893 A vs Mg I lambda 5175 A. An estimate of how important thecontribution of the interstellar gas for the sodium line is compared tothat of the stellar population. The sample is made up of galaxies withmorphological types from E to Sc and are distributed up to radialvelocities of 25,000 km/s, most of them smaller than 15,000 km/s. Mostearly type galaxies with dust lanes, particularly nearly edge-on So's,present an enhancement of the Na I line. Inclined spiral galaxies tendto present enhanced Na I with respect to face-on spirals. This tendency,previously found in a smaller sample of galaxies limited to V equal toor less than 6000 km/s, is now confirmed for more distant ones. In thelarge velocity sample it shows the global bulge rather than the verynucleus; the persistence of the effect suggests that the scale height ofthe gas layer in the central disk can reach a considerable fraction ofthe bulge radius.

A two-dimensional sheet of galaxies between two southern voids
The question of examining real data for possible interconnectionsbetween voids has prompted the discovery of a striking two-dimensionalsheet of galaxies (including NGC and ESO galaxies) forming the interfaceto voids in Eridanus and Sculptor. A void is defined in terms of itsemptiness, and it is noted that structures revealed using all availableredshifts, south of declination -17.5 deg, agree with those found incontrolled surveys, that is voids are void of all galaxies, regardlessof luminosity, size, or type. Using casement displays, a significantoverdensity, or wall, of galaxies, some 650 km/s thick, approximately2000 x 2000 km/s wide is found forming the interface to Sculptor andEridanus.

Revised supernova rates in Shapley-Ames galaxies
Observations of 855 Shapley Ames galaxies made from November 1, 1980 toOctober 31, 1988, together with improved supernova luminosities, havebeen used to derive the frequency of supernovae of different types, andthe results are presented in tables. From a uniform database of 24supernovae discovered, the following SN rates are found, expressed in SNper century per 10 to the 10th L(B)(solar): SN Ia, 0.3; SN Ib, 0.3; andSN II, 1.0. The present data confirm the relatively high frequency of SNII in late-type galaxies that has been found by many previousinvestigators.

UBVRI aperture photometry of early-type galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1988A&AS...72..215P&db_key=AST

Dust in early-type galaxies
The presence of dust is searched for in a complete sample of 78early-type galaxies by comparison of blue and near-infrared CCD frames.Eighteen of the galaxies are shown to contain dust at the level of10,000 solar masses. Although no evidence is found that radio galaxiescontain dust more often than radio-quiet galaxies, most galaxies withdust are detected at 100 microns by the IRAS.

Population synthesis in galactic nuclei using a library of star clusters
A novel galactic-nucleus population-synthesis technique is described anddemonstrated. The procedure is applicable to normal nuclei of E/S0 andspiral galaxies and employs a data base of integrated star-clusterspectra, thus reducing the number of parameters in the analysis to two(age and metallicity), as proposed by Bica and Alloin (1986). Resultsare presented in extensive tables and spectra and discussed in detail.The populations in the E/S0s with normal metallicity/luminosityrelations are found to comprise mainly stars older than 10 Gyr, withsome as young as about 5 Gyr; younger groups are superimposed on older,solar-metallicity populations in the bluer spirals. In NGC 5236, forexample, 87 and 57 percent of the flux at 400 and 900 nm, respectively,is attributed to stars younger than about 300 Myr.

The supernova rate in Shapley-Ames galaxies
A visual search for SNs in 748 Shapley-Ames galaxies during the 5-yearperiod from November 1, 1980 to October 31, 1985 has yielded SN rates of0.3h-squared, 0.4h-squared, and 1.1h-squared for objects of types Ia,Ib, and II, respectively. These data are judged to imply that Tammann's(1974, 1982) SN rates are probably too high by a factor of about 3. Fora Galactic luminosity of 2 x 10 to the 10th solar L(B), the predicted SNrates in the Milky Way system are 0.6h-squared, 0.8h-squared, and2.2h-squared/century, respectively, for the three aforementioned types.

Analysis of absorption-line spectra in a sample of 164 galactic nuclei
Spectral observations in the 3700-8000 A range of 154 normal galacticnuclei, two amorphous galaxies, and eight intrinsically faint activenuclei whose visible spectrum is dominated by the stellar component arediscussed. A typical red, strong-lined spectrum is found for each groupfrom E to Sb in the -23.2 to -19.0 luminosity range, as well as for thevery luminous Sbc and Sc galaxies, although a few atypical nucleiexhibit variable contents of bluer stellar components. No prototype canbe assigned to the Sbc and Sc galaxies in the -21.9 to -19.0 luminosityrange. Analysis of the equivalent widths shows that the CN 4216-4250 Afeature has the largest dynamical range as a function of metallicity. Itis suggested that young stars are responsible for the blue colors inNGC2865, 4382, and 5102, and that metal-poor stars do not contributesignificantly.

High-energy neutrinos from Cygnus X-3
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1986ApJ...301..235B&db_key=AST

Study of a complete sample of galaxies. II - Spectroscopy of the nuclei
Spectroscopic observations of a complete sample of 320 galaxies (fromthe Revised Shapley Ames Catalog of Sandage and Tammann, 1981) withdeclination less than or equal to +20 deg, galactocentric velocity lessthan 3000 km/s, and absolute magnitude brighter than M(B) = -21.0 arereported. The 400-700-nm spectra were obtained with resolution about 1nm using the Boller and Chivens spectrograph and image-dissector scannerat the Cassegrain focus of the 1.52-m telescope at ESO on 36 nightsduring 1980-1983. The data are presented in extensive tables and spectraand briefly characterized. The majority of the spectra are classified asH II regions ionized by hot stars or as Seyfert-like nebulosities.

VRI aperture photometry of southern E and SO galaxies
VRI aperture photometry of 115 E and SO southern galaxies is presented.Out of this number, 86 objects had never been observed through the Ifilter. The results are in good agreement with other observations.

Southern Galaxy Catalogue.
Not Available

Star formation in early-type galaxies
Photometric and spectroscopic observations are presented for a completesample of 320 giant elliptical and SO galaxies from the Revised ShapelyAmes catalog. The observations were carried out using the Image DetectorScanner and Boller and Chivens spectrograph attached to the 1.52-m ESOtelescope. The dispersion of the observations was 171 A/mm, and theresolution was 10 A (FWHM). The wavelength range common to allderedshifted spectra was 4310-6930 A. The observations show a welldefined correlation between the U-B and B-V colors of the galaxies. Thethree bluest galaxies showed stronger Balmer absorption lines in theirspectra than the mean elliptical, indicating the presence of hot stars.The possibility that the hot stars are also young stars rather thanmembers of a horizontal branch is also considered.

JHK colours of 'ordinary' galaxies
Accurate JHK photometry is presented for 19 elliptical, 10 lenticular,29 'ordinary' spiral galaxies, and 1 Im type on the SAAO photometricsystem which has well-defined transformations to the Caltech/CTIO andAAO systems. The groups having the highest degree of color uniformityare the ellipticals and lenticulars. 'Ordinary', or inactive spirals,show slightly more scatter; late types are bluer than average in J-H andemission-line galaxies are redder in H-K. In general, the infrared andV-K colors determined here agree well with previous work. However, noevidence for significant change of infrared color with radius has beenseen, in contrast to the results of some other workers.

A comparison of distance scales for early-type galaxies
The distance scales of elliptical and lenticular galaxies areintercompared, based on the velocity dispersion indicator derived from arevised Faber-Jackson relation. The scales are found to be in nearperfect agreement with scales derived from the luminosity index and fromthe 21 cm line width indicator. The scales are also in excellentagreement with the distance scale derived by Michard (1979). Additionsare offered for the general catalog of 424 early-type galaxies, and aseries of reduction equations is presented which reduces the externalerrors in the distance moduli.

Redshifts for 228 southern galaxies
In this paper, new redshifts are presented for 228 galaxies locatedsouth of declination -30 deg. The observations were made with aphoton-counting Reticon detector on the Observatorio Nacional (ON)60-in. telescope. The detector is identical to the one used at MountHopkins for the CfA Redshift Survey, and the redshifts were derivedusing the same data-analysis system. A preliminary comparison withpublished 21-cm redshifts indicates that the velocities have azero-point offset of about -4 km/s, with a typical uncertainty of 40km/s. The observations reported here are the initial results of theON-CfA Redshift Survey currently being undertaken in the southernhemisphere.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:23h44m59.20s
Aparent dimensions:2.512′ × 2.138′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 7744
ICIC 5348

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