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 Properties of isolated disk galaxiesWe present a new sample of northern isolated galaxies, which are definedby the physical criterion that they were not affected by other galaxiesin their evolution during the last few Gyr. To find them we used thelogarithmic ratio, f, between inner and tidal forces acting upon thecandidate galaxy by a possible perturber. The analysis of thedistribution of the f-values for the galaxies in the Coma cluster leadus to adopt the criterion f ≤ -4.5 for isolated galaxies. Thecandidates were chosen from the CfA catalog of galaxies within thevolume defined by cz ≤5000 km s-1, galactic latitudehigher than 40o and declination ≥-2.5o. Theselection of the sample, based on redshift values (when available),magnitudes and sizes of the candidate galaxies and possible perturberspresent in the same field is discussed. The final list of selectedisolated galaxies includes 203 objects from the initial 1706. The listcontains only truly isolated galaxies in the sense defined, but it is byno means complete, since all the galaxies with possible companions underthe f-criterion but with unknown redshift were discarded. We alsoselected a sample of perturbed galaxies comprised of all the diskgalaxies from the initial list with companions (with known redshift)satisfying f ≥ -2 and \Delta(cz) ≤500 km s-1; a totalof 130 objects. The statistical comparison of both samples showssignificant differences in morphology, sizes, masses, luminosities andcolor indices. Confirming previous results, we found that late spiral,Sc-type galaxies are, in particular, more frequent among isolatedgalaxies, whereas Lenticular galaxies are more abundant among perturbedgalaxies. Isolated systems appear to be smaller, less luminous and bluerthan interacting objects. We also found that bars are twice as frequentamong perturbed galaxies compared to isolated galaxies, in particularfor early Spirals and Lenticulars. The perturbed galaxies have higherLFIR/LB and Mmol/LB ratios,but the atomic gas content is similar for the two samples. The analysisof the luminosity-size and mass-luminosity relations shows similartrends for both families, the main difference being the almost totalabsence of big, bright and massive galaxies among the family of isolatedsystems, together with the almost total absence of small, faint and lowmass galaxies among the perturbed systems. All these aspects indicatethat the evolution induced by interactions with neighbors would proceedfrom late, small, faint and low mass Spirals to earlier, bigger, moreluminous and more massive spiral and lenticular galaxies, producing atthe same time a larger fraction of barred galaxies but preserving thesame relations between global parameters. The properties we found forour sample of isolated galaxies appear similar to those of high redshiftgalaxies, suggesting that the present-day isolated galaxies could bequietly evolved, unused building blocks surviving in low densityenvironments.Tables \ref{t1} and \ref{t2} are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org Tidally Triggered Star Formation in Close Pairs of Galaxies. II. Constraints on Burst Strengths and AgesGalaxy-galaxy interactions rearrange the baryons in galaxies and triggersubstantial star formation; the aggregate effects of these interactionson the evolutionary histories of galaxies in the universe are poorlyunderstood. We combine B- and R-band photometry and optical spectroscopyto estimate the strengths and timescales of bursts of triggered starformation in the centers of 190 galaxies in pairs and compact groups.Based on an analysis of the measured colors and EW(Hα), wecharacterize the preexisting and triggered populations separately. Thebest-fitting burst scenarios assume stronger reddening corrections forline emission than for the continuum and continuous star formationlasting for >~100 Myr. The most realistic scenarios require aninitial mass function that is deficient in the highest mass stars. Thecolor of the preexisting stellar population is the most significantsource of uncertainty. Triggered star formation contributessubstantially (probably >~50%) to the R-band flux in the centralregions of several galaxies; tidal tails do not necessarily accompanythis star formation. Many of the galaxies in our sample have bluercenters than outskirts, suggesting that pre- or nonmerger interactionsmay lead to evolution along the Hubble sequence. These objects wouldappear blue and compact at higher redshifts; the older, redder outskirtsof the disks would be difficult to detect. Our data indicate thatgalaxies with larger separations on the sky contain weaker, and probablyolder, bursts of star formation on average. However, confirmation ofthese trends requires further constraints on the colors of the olderstellar populations and on the reddening for individual galaxies. The SAURON project - II. Sample and early resultsEarly results are reported from the SAURON survey of the kinematics andstellar populations of a representative sample of nearby E, S0 and Sagalaxies. The survey is aimed at determining the intrinsic shape of thegalaxies, their orbital structure, the mass-to-light ratio as a functionof radius, the age and metallicity of the stellar populations, and thefrequency of kinematically decoupled cores and nuclear black holes. Theconstruction of the representative sample is described, and itsproperties are illustrated. A comparison with long-slit spectroscopicdata establishes that the SAURON measurements are comparable to, orbetter than, the highest-quality determinations. Comparisons arepresented for NGC 3384 and 4365, where stellar velocities and velocitydispersions are determined to a precision of 6kms-1, and theh3 and h4 parameters of the line-of-sight velocitydistribution to a precision of better than 0.02. Extraction of accurategas emission-line intensities, velocities and linewidths from the datacubes is illustrated for NGC 5813. Comparisons with published linestrengths for NGC 3384 and 5813 reveal uncertainties of <~0.1Åon the measurements of the Hβ, Mg b and Fe5270 indices.Integral-field mapping uniquely connects measurements of the kinematicsand stellar populations to the galaxy morphology. The maps presentedhere illustrate the rich stellar kinematics, gaseous kinematics, andline-strength distributions of early-type galaxies. The results includethe discovery of a thin, edge-on, disc in NGC 3623, confirm theaxisymmetric shape of the central region of M32, illustrate the LINERnucleus and surrounding counter-rotating star-forming ring in NGC 7742,and suggest a uniform stellar population in the decoupled core galaxyNGC 5813. The 1.0 Megaparsec Galaxy Pair Sample in Low-Density RegionsUsing complete redshift catalogs, we have compiled a list of galaxypairs based solely on a pair's projected separation, rp, andvelocity difference, ΔV. We have made high-velocity precision H Iobservations of each galaxy in the sample and have reported these in theliterature. Due to the nature of the redshift catalogs, we are able toquantitatively evaluate the effects of isolation and number density ofsurrounding galaxies on each pair in the sample. For the close galaxypairs (rp<100 kpc), the degree of isolation (a measure ofthe number of near neighbors) has little effect on the median ΔV.This median is about 55 km s-1 for the 25 close pairs (ifmedium-density close pairs are omitted ΔV is even smaller, but thedifference is not statistically significant). The effect of isolation isstrong for the entire sample of galaxy pairs with separations as largeas 1.0 Mpc. For these larger separation pairs, relaxation of strictisolation requirements introduces small groups into the sample, whichdramatically increases the median ΔV. We find little evidence ofan increase in the median ΔV with decreasing rp, norwith increasing total luminosity. For our isolated pairs in low-densityregions, the overall median ΔV is only 30 km s-1. Forsimilar separations and isolation criteria, galaxy satellites withlarger luminosity ratios (i.e., less dynamical friction) in higherdensity regions have ΔV approximately twice as large. Weconjecture that our orbits are highly eccentric, so that the indirecteffect of dynamical friction leads to predominantly small ΔV.However, the halos of our galaxies may also be of low density (althoughhighly extended). The O/H Distribution in NGC 7479: Evidence for a Minor Merger EventResults of emission-line spectrophotometry of 68 H II regions in thestrongly barred spiral galaxy NGC 7479 obtained with the Multi-ObjectSpectrograph at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope are presented. Theaverage nebular extinction across the galaxy disk is Av~1.1mag. There is a radial trend (-0.042+/-0.010 mag kpc-1) inthe values of reddening suggesting a global difference of about 1.1 magbetween the inner and outer parts of the galaxy. All the H II regionsfall within the well-defined sequences of normal H II regions in thestandard diagnostic diagrams [O III]/Hβ versus[N II]/Hα, and [O III]/Hβ versus[O I]/Hα. The values of excitation ([OIII]/Hβ) of the regions located in the western arm are higher byabout 0.4 dex compared to those of the eastern arm and central regions.There is evidence that the ionization parameter is higher and theelectronic density lower in these regions. The global O/H abundancegradient is shallow (~-0.025+/-0.005 dex kpc-1), in agreementwith what is found for galaxies with a strong bar. No break is seen inthe O/H radial gradient. The azimuthal O/H variations in the disk aresmall at less than 0.3 dex. These results are discussed in the frameworkof a merger in which NGC 7479 captured a small galaxy about3×108 yr ago. Arcsecond Positions of UGC GalaxiesWe present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only. Disk Galaxies in the Outer Local Supercluster: Optical CCD Surface Photometry and Distribution of Galaxy Disk ParametersWe report new B-band CCD surface photometry on a sample of 76 diskgalaxies brighter than B_T = 14.5 mag in the Uppsala General Catalogueof Galaxies that are confined within a volume located in the outer partof the Local Supercluster. With our earlier published I-band CCD andhigh signal-to-noise ratio 21 cm H I data, this paper completes ouroptical surface photometry campaign on this galaxy sample. As anapplication of this data set, the B-band photometry is used here toillustrate two selection effects that have been somewhat overlooked inthe literature but that may be important in deriving the distributionfunction of disk central surface brightness (CSB) of disk galaxies froma diameter- and/or flux-limited sample: a Malmquist-type bias againstdisk galaxies with small disk scale lengths (DSLs) at a given CSB and adisk inclination-dependent selection effect that may, for example, biastoward inclined disks near the threshold of a diameter-limited selectionif disks are not completely opaque in the optical. Taking intoconsideration these selection effects, we present a method ofconstructing a volume-sampling function and a way to interpret thederived distribution function of CSB and DSL. Application of this methodto our galaxy sample implies that if galaxy disks are optically thin,CSB and DSL may well be correlated in the sense that, up to aninclination-corrected limiting CSB of about 24.5 mag arcsec^-2 that isadequately probed by our galaxy sample, the DSL distribution of galaxieswith a lower CSB may have a longer tail toward large values unless thedistribution of disk galaxies as a function of CSB rises rapidly towardfaint values. Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.Not Available Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxiesWe present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory. A Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner Catalog of Galaxies behind the Virgo Cluster and toward Its AntipodeWe present a catalog of 1268 galaxies, essentially complete to B <=17.0, found by scanning glass copies of several fields of the originalPalomar Sky Survey using the Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner in itsisodensitometric mode (as opposed to the threshold densitometric modeused in the APS Catalog of the POSS I). In addition to the differentscanning mode, we have employed a different star-galaxy separationmethod and have visually inspected POSS prints to verify that each imageremaining in the catalog is nonstellar. The scanned fields aredistributed generally in two areas, one around the outskirts of theVirgo Cluster, the other toward the antipode of the cluster (but stillin the northern celestial hemisphere). The catalog gives the position ofthe center of each galaxy; estimates of the blue and red magnitudeswithin the outermost threshold crossing and of the blue magnitudeextrapolated to zero surface brightness; and the blue and red diametersof four ellipses fitted to the four threshold crossings (approximately23.8,23.6,23.2, and 22.7 mag arcsec 2 in blue, and 22.5,22.4,21.5, and21.2 mag arcsec^-2^ in red), and the ellipticities of those fourellipses. The catalog has served as a base from which to draw targetsfor a Tully-Fisher study of the Virgocentric infall velocity of theLocal Group. Galaxy Pairs, Redshift Catalogs, and the Cosmic Peculiar VelocityWe discuss pairs of spiral galaxies with projected separations r_p_ranging from very wide (r_p_ ~ 1.0 Mpc) to very small (r_p_ <~ 75kpc). Single-dish H I data for the wide pairs and H I aperture synthesisas well as CCD images for the close pairs were presented in earlierpapers. From pairs (regardless of isolation criteria) in redshiftcatalogs, we find that the kinematics of spiral-spiral pairs inlow-density regions is qualitatively different from that in high-densityregions. The velocity distribution function f({DELTA}V) in low-densityregions has two components: (i) a narrow component (which is related toisolated pairs) with a very small rms value σ_v,n_ of the"one-dimensional random cosmic peculiar velocity" δν, and (ii)a broad, slowly decreasing component (which is related to pairs in loosegroups) with a large rms value of the "one-dimensional random cosmicpeculiar velocity" σnu,b_. Thus, we confirm that thedistribution of the "one- dimensional cosmic peculiar velocity"{DELTA}ν is not Gaussian and its rms value σ_V_ varies withenvironment. The median {DELTA}V_med_ of the absolute value of thevelocity difference of isolated wide pairs is ~30 km s^-1^, considerablysmaller than all estimates of σ_v_. This small {DELTA}V_med_suggests that the pairs are on low total energy, almost radial orbits,and it is also a constraint on cosmological models of structureformation. We find some circumstantial evidence for a negativecorrelation between the peculiar velocity δν and thedifferential Hubble flow velocity {DELTA}V_H_ which would be the casefor bound orbits near the maximum separation (" turnaround ) at thecurrent epoch. If future larger samples (e.g., the CfA2 and the SSRS2surveys) confirm this, then a total galaxy mass ~10^12^ M_sun_ isimplied. All the six close pairs for which we have detailed H I andoptical CCD images show some signs of interaction, even though theselection criteria were specifically independent of known morphologicalpeculiarities. For three of the six pairs there is good evidence for thepairs also being on high eccentricity, low total energy orbits, andthere is some evidence that the impact parameter for one pair is ~1 diskradius. The median velocity difference {DELTA}V_med_ of the close pairssample is also ~30 km s^-1^. This small value of {DELTA}V_med_ isprobably an indirect effect of dynamical friction. An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect. Star Complexes and Associations: Fundamental and Elementary Cells of Star FormationThis paper discusses data on young star groups that imply the existenceof two distinct scales of star formation. The largest scale is that ofthe star complexes which we assume to be the initial scale, connectedwith the gas superclouds. The smaller scale is for the well known OBassociations and young clusters, which relate to the elementary scale ofstar formation, that connected with individual giant molecular clouds.An intermediate scale, that of aggregates (groups of a fewassociations), probably also exists and corresponds to clusters of a fewGMCs. The great majority of associations and young clusters are foundinside huge star complexes, which include individual older stars(plausible former members of dissolved associations). This hierarchicalstructure of young star groups, together with the generally differentluminosities of individual stars within the different scale aggregatesexplain the very different estimates of sizes of these groups (all ofwhich have previously been called "associations") in galaxies atdifferent distances and therefore resolution. Concentrations of gasclouds, young associations, and stars within vast complexes areconsistent with a top-down scenario of star formation, implying thatsuperclouds producing star complexes are the initial structures, whichformed faster than clouds of smaller scale in gaseous galactic disks andespecially within spiral density waves, mainly owing to large scalegravitational instability. Sheared star complexes form a flocculentspiral structure without older stars in spiraling patches. Probably allyoung galactic disks consist of units with masses of about 10^7^ insolar units. Most of the specimens of star complexes- the huge groups ofclusters, associations, and high luminosity stars in our Galaxy,luminous patches in unresolved galaxies, and the vast star clouds innearby galaxies-are not accidental agglomerations but physical entitiesdeserving careful investigation. Dynamics of Binary Galaxies. III. Details of the Close PairsIn a previous paper [Chengalur et al. ApJ, 107, 1984(1994)] H Isynthesis data and CCD images were presented for an objectively chosensample of six close spiral-spiral galaxy pairs. In this paper we presenta detailed analysis of the data. Although the presence of tidal featureswas not an explicit selection criterion, five of our six pairs showtidal tails and bridges. The remaining pair also shows signs ofinteraction: both galaxies in the pair have disturbed velocity fieldsand one of the two galaxies has a central concentration of molecular gasand is undergoing a starburst. The morphology of three of the six pairsimplies that the galaxies are on high eccentricity, low total energyorbits, and for one of these pairs there is some evidence that theimpact parameter is as small as ~1 disk radius. For the remaining threepairs the tidal features are not as pronounced, and the observations donot yield as much information on the orbit. However, even for thesepairs, the observed morphology is consistent with the galaxies being onslow, small impact parameter orbits, provided the galaxies are at arelatively early phase of the orbit, i.e., prior to the first closeencounter. We also find weak evidence for preferential alignment in thepairs (with the lack of preferential alignment being ruled out at the97% level), in the sense that the major axis of a galaxy tends to pointtoward the companion galaxy. This sample of close pairs is complementedby a larger sample of wide pairs (Chengalur et al. 1993). The medianvelocity difference {DELTA}V of the sample of close pairs in low-densityregions is not much different from that for the wide pairs sample, inparticular, there is no evidence for positive energy impacts. The effectof dynamical friction on infall velocities is controversial and will bediscussed in the following paper [Chengalur et al., in preparation(1995)] which combines the data on close and wide pairs. Dynamics of binary galaxies. 2: Close pairsAs part of a comprehensive study of binary galaxies, broadband opticalCharge Coupled Device (CCD) images and high resolution H I maps arepresented for six close pairs of spiral galaxies. A previous paperChengalur, et al., (1993) presented the results of a study of binarygalaxies with wide separations. The current sample of close pairs waschosen from the Center for Astrophysics (CfA) redshift catalog usingselection criteria that were objective and completely independent of anypreviously known morphological peculiarities. Nonetheless, all thegalaxies show some sign of interaction, implying that the selectioncriteria were sufficiently well tailored to choose physically associatedparis. All the galaxies show kinematical disturbances and haveasymmetric rotation curves. Tidal tails and bridges are clearly detectedfor some, and two pairs have a large common H I envelope. This common HI envelope also shows a large scale radial velocity gradient and givesthe impression of being in rotation about a single kinematical axis.There is relatively good agreement between the optical and H I images,with similar tidal features being seen in both. The H I features,however, extend to a much larger galactocentric radius than thecorresponding optical features. In at least one case, however, thestellar disk appears relatively normal, while the H I disk appearsdisturbed even towards the center of the galaxy. The systematic velocitydifference for the galaxy pairs has been measured quite accuratelyeither from the integrated H I spectral profile, or from a global fit tothe galaxy velocity fields. The median velocity difference for the sixgalaxy pairs is very small, approximately 20 km/s. Detailed analysis ofthe data will be presented in a separate paper. H I 21 centimeter observations and I-band CCD surface photometry of spiral galaxies behind the Virgo Cluster and toward its antipodeSample selection, radio and optical data acquisition and reduction, andobservation results are presented for spiral galaxies behind the VirgoCluster and toward its antipode. I-band CCD photometry was obtained forall the bright galaxies and part of the sample of faint galaxies in thetwo local volumes was studied. The statistical properties of the galaxysamples are discussed. A revised catalog of CfA1 galaxy groups in the Virgo/Great Attractor flow fieldA new identification of groups and clusters in the CfA1 Catalog ofHuchra et al. is presented, using a percolation algorithm to identifydensity enhancements. It is shown that in the resulting catalog,contamination by interlopers is significantly reduced. The Schechterluminosity function is redetermined, including the Malmquist bias. Dynamics of Binary Galaxies. I. Wide PairsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993ApJ...419...30C&db_key=AST General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groupsWe present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog. The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalogIRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths. The local extragalactic velocity field as a test of the explosion and gravitational instability picturesVarious models for the origin of large-scale structure were tested andconstrained using the local galaxy velocity field derived from theAaronson et al. (1982) catalog of IR magnitudes and H I velocity widthsfor nearby galaxies, together with the IR Tully-Fisher calibration ofthese data (Aaronson et al.,1986). The assumptions and the tests of theVirgocentric flow model, the pancake model, and, particularly, thesimple explosion model based on the work of Ostriker and Cowie (1981)and Ostriker et al. (1986) are discussed. It is concluded that theobservations of the local peculiar velocity field do not support thesimple explosion model. Cosmology from a galaxy group catalog. I - BinariesA new, completely objective group-finding algorithm is described andapplied to the CfA redshift catalog. The binary galaxies are isolatedfor analysis. The assumptions underlying the analysis are (1) that lighttraces mass, (2) that our binary galaxy subsets are representative lighttracers, and (3) that the binary orbits are circular. The primary resultof the work is that the resulting bias-free binary catalogs are afunction of the assumed cosmological model. For virtually any inputvalue of Omega(0) in the range 0.01-5.00, there is a reasonablyconsistent interpretation of the CfA survey such that the specifiedvalue of Omega(0) can be derived from the binary sample obtained underthat interpretation. A secondary result is that the higher the inputvalue of Omega(0), the broader the intrinsic distribution in M/L, andhence the less valid the assumption that light traces mass. Mass-to-Light Ratios of Binary Galaxies. III. AnalysisAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1987ApJS...64..427S&db_key=AST Individual and orbital masses of double galaxiesA list is given of individual estimates of the masses of 124 componentsof isolated pairs of galaxies from Turner's catalog for which there arepublished data on the velocity dispersions in the central parts of thegalaxies, on the width of the 21-cm radio line profile, and on theamplitude of the rotation curve of the galaxies. From the comparison ofthe orbital estimates of the mass with the sum of the individual massesof the double galaxies it is concluded that the bulk of the mass of thegalaxies is situated within their standard optical diameter A(25). Theconsidered observational data for the Turner galaxy pairs do not containany arguments for the hypothesis of massive halos. Good agreementbetween the orbital and individual estimates of the mass is observed foralmost circular motions of the galaxies in pairs with mean orbitaleccentricity 0.25. Radio emission of isolated single and double galaxiesThe catalogs of Karachentsev (1972) and Karachentseva (1973) are used tocompare the properties of isolated single and double galaxies, andquantitative results are obtained. It is shown that spiral galaxieswhich are members of pairs have a radio luminosity exceeding that ofsingle galaxies by 2.5 times on the average. In addition, it is foundthat members of interacting pairs are more powerful emitters in theradio range and that spiral galaxies which are members of triplets haveradio luminosities on a par with those of pair members. The H I content of lenticular and early-type galaxies - A comparison between field and Virgo cluster samplesA very simple method to take into account the upper limits of detectionis used to study and discuss the distribution of the H I contents of 122lenticular galaxies. The results show the Virgo cluster S0s to be H Ideficient when compared to the noncluster ones, and the H I contents ofthe latter to be about five times lower than the ones of the S0/aspirals and to increase along the de Vaucouleurs sequence of types -3 to-1. It is shown that the early spirals in Virgo are H I-deficient by afactor higher than 10, i.e., they have no more gas than noncluster S0s.It is argued that noncluster S0s have a primordial origin, and that asubstantial proportion of Virgo S0s come from stripped early spirals. A statistical study of the relationship between galaxy interactions and nuclear activitySmall-aperture near- and mid-infrared photometry of a complete sample ofinteracting galaxies has been obtained. Statistical comparison of thenuclear properties of these galaxies with samples of noninteractinggalaxies shows that signs of abnormal nuclear activity are much morecommon in interacting systems. In particular, a population of nucleiwith extremely luminous 10 micron emission is unique to the interactingsample. Roughly half of the interacting galaxies with nuclear 10 micronsources also exhibit evidence of extended 10 micron emission usingmeasurements from IRAS. The far-infrared luminosities of the interactingsample are also greater than those of representative selections ofnormal galaxies. The identification of extraluminous infrared emissionin a significant number of the surveyed galaxies suggests thatinteractions may in some way be associated with other high-luminosityphenomena such as Seyfert nuclei and QSOs. Gas deficiency in cluster galaxies - A comparison of nine clustersThe available 21 cm line data in the literature for galaxies in nineclusters is combined with new high-sensitivity observations of 51galaxies in five of the nine clusters in order to test fordiscriminating circumstances between those clusters which show H Ideficiency among their spiral population and those which do not. An H Ideficiency for the complete cluster sample is derived employing acomparison sample of galaxies chosen from the Catalog of IsolatedGalaxies. The deficiency and its radial dependence is summarized foreach cluster and a composite. A comparison of the environments indifferent clusters leads to the conclusion that the occurrence of H Ideficiency is correlated with the presence of a hot X-ray intraclustermedium, and that an ongoing interaction process is active through thecores of X-ray clusters. A search for environmental effects on the optical properties of galaxies in groupsEnvironmental density-related modifications of basic optical properties(luminosities, sizes, axial ratios, and colors) of galaxies belonging toGeller and Huchra's (1983) groups have been investigated. Remarkably, itis found that the broad maxima of the distributions of luminosities anddiameters of spirals and the whole corresponding distributions oflenticulars tend to move to lower values as one goes to groups of highcompactness, whereas the luminosity-diameter relationship of spiralstends to become flatter. No color and axial ratio differences betweengalaxies of high- and low-compactness groups have been detected.
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