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Flat-spectrum symmetric objects with ~1kpc sizes - I. The candidates
In order to understand the origin and evolution of radio galaxies,searches for the youngest such sources have been conducted. Compactsymmetric objects (CSOs)/medium symmetric objects (MSOs) are thought tobe the earliest stages of radio sources, with possible ages of<~103yr for CSOs (<1kpc in size) and104-105yr for MSOs (1-15kpc). From a literatureselection in heterogeneous surveys, we have established a sample of 37confirmed CSOs. In addition, we only found three confirmed flat-spectrumMSOs in the literature. The typical CSO resides on a z <~ 0.5 galaxy,has a flat radio spectrum (αthin < 0.5;Sν ~ ν-α), is <0.3kpc in size, hasan arm length ratio <= 2, and well-aligned (θ <= 20°)opposite lobes with a flux density ratio <=10. In order to populatethe 0.3-1kpc size range (large CSOs) and also in order to find moreflat-spectrum MSOs, we have built a sample of 157 radio sources withα4.851.40 < 0.5 that were resolved withthe Very Large Array A configuration (VLA-A) 8.4GHz. As first results,we have `rediscovered' nine of the known CSO/MSOs while identifying twonew ~14kpc MSOs and two candidate CSO/MSOs (which only lack redshiftsfor final classification). We were able to reject 61 of the remaining144 objects from literature information alone. In the series of papersthat starts with this one we plan to classify the remaining 83 CSO/MSOcandidates (thanks to radio and optical observations) as well ascharacterize the physical properties of the (likely) many 0.3-15kpcflat-spectrum CSO/MSOs to be found.

Dynamical Masses in Luminous Infrared Galaxies
We have studied the dynamics and masses of a sample of 10 nearbyluminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs,respectively) using 2.3 μm 12CO-absorption linespectroscopy and near-infrared H- and Ks-band imaging. Bycombining velocity dispersions derived from the spectroscopy, disk scalelengths obtained from the imaging, and a set of likely model densityprofiles, we calculate dynamical masses for each LIRG. For the majorityof the sample, it is difficult to reconcile our mass estimates with thelarge amounts of gas derived from millimeter observations and from astandard conversion between 12CO emission and H2mass. Our results imply that LIRGs do not have huge amounts of moleculargas (1010-1011 Msolar) at their centersand support previous indications that the standard conversion of12CO to H2 probably overestimates the gas massesand cannot be used in these environments. This in turn suggests muchmore modest levels of extinction in the near-infrared for LIRGs thanpreviously predicted (AV~10-20 vs. AV~100-1000).The lower gas mass estimates indicated by our observations imply thatthe star formation efficiency in these systems is very high and istriggered by cloud-cloud collisions, shocks, and winds rather than bygravitational instabilities in circumnuclear gas disks.Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a jointfacility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution.

O VI Asymmetry and an Accelerated Outflow in an Obscured Seyfert: FUSE and HST STIS Spectroscopy of Mrk 533
We present far-ultraviolet spectra of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 533obtained with FUSE. These spectra show narrow asymmetrical O VIλλ1032,1038 emission lines with stronger wings shortwardof the peak wavelength, but the degree of asymmetry of these wings invelocity is much lower than that of the wings of the lines of lowerionization. In the combined O VI profile there are marginal indicationsof local absorptions in the outflow. The C III λ977 line is seenweakly with a similar profile, but with very low signal-to-noise ratio(S/N). These FUV spectra are among the first for a Seyfert of type 2,i.e., a purportedly obscured Seyfert. The HST STIS spectral image of Mrk533 allows delineation of the various components of the outflow, and weinfer that the outflow is accelerated. We discuss the results in termsof nuclear geometry and kinematics.

Spatially Resolved Narrow-Line Region Kinematics in Active Galactic Nuclei
We have analyzed Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopy of 24 nearby activegalactic nuclei (AGNs) to investigate spatially resolved gas kinematicsin the narrow-line region (NLR). These observations effectively isolatethe nuclear line profiles on less than 100 pc scales and are used toinvestigate the origin of the substantial scatter between the widths ofstrong NLR lines and the stellar velocity dispersion σ*of the host galaxy, a quantity that relates with substantially lessscatter to the mass of the central, supermassive black hole and moregenerally characterize variations in the NLR velocity field with radius.We find that line widths measured with STIS at a range of spatial scalessystematically underestimate both σ* and the line widthmeasured from ground-based observations, although they do havecomparably large scatter to the relation between ground-based NLR linewidth and σ*. There are no obvious trends in theresiduals when compared with a range of host galaxy and nuclearproperties. The widths and asymmetries of [O III] λ5007 and [SII] λλ6716, 6731 as a function of radius exhibit a widerange of behavior. Some of the most common phenomena are substantialwidth increases from the STIS to the large-scale, ground-based apertureand almost no change in line profile between the unresolved nuclearspectrum and ground-based measurements. We identify asymmetries in asurprisingly large fraction of low-ionization [S II] line profiles andseveral examples of substantial red asymmetries in both [O III] and [SII]. These results underscore the complexity of the circumnuclearmaterial that constitutes the NLR and suggest that the scatter in theNLR width and σ* correlation cannot be substantiallyreduced with a simple set of empirical relations.

Extragalactic H_2O masers and X-ray absorbing column densities
Having conducted a search for the λ 1.3 cm (22 GHz) water vaporline towards galaxies with nuclear activity, large nuclear columndensities or high infrared luminosities, we present H2O spectra for NGC2273, UGC 5101, and NGC 3393 with isotropic luminosities of 7, 1500, and400 Lȯ. The H2O maser in UGC 5101 is by far the mostluminous yet found in an ultraluminous infrared galaxy. NGC 3393 revealsthe classic spectrum of a "disk maser", represented by three distinctgroups of Doppler components. As in all other known cases except NGC4258, the rotation velocity of the putative masing disk is well below1000 km s-1. Based on the literature and archive data, X-rayabsorbing column densities are compiled for the 64 galaxies withreported maser sources beyond the Magellanic Clouds. For NGC 2782 andNGC 5728, we present Chandra archive data that indicate the presence ofan active galactic nucleus in both galaxies. Modeling the hard nuclearX-ray emission, NGC 2782 is best fit by a high energy reflectionspectrum with NH  1024 cm-2. ForNGC 5728, partial absorption with a power law spectrum indicatesNH 8 × 1023 cm-2. Thecorrelation between absorbing column and H2O emission is analyzed. Thereis a striking difference between kilo- and megamasers with megamasersbeing associated with higher column densities. All kilomasers (L_H_2O< 10 Lȯ) except NGC 2273 and NGC 5194 areCompton-thin, i.e. their absorbing columns are <1024cm-2. Among the H{2}O megamasers, 50% arise fromCompton-thick and 85% from heavily obscured (>1023cm-2) active galactic nuclei. These values are not larger butconsistent with those from samples of Seyfert 2 galaxies not selected onthe basis of maser emission. The similarity in column densities can beexplained by small deviations in position between maser spots andnuclear X-ray source and a high degree of clumpiness in thecircumnuclear interstellar medium.

Gas metallicity in the narrow-line regions of high-redshift active galactic nuclei
We analyze optical (UV rest-frame) spectra of X-ray selected narrow-lineQSOs at redshift 1.5  z  3.7 found in the Chandra Deep FieldSouth and of narrow-line radio galaxies at redshift 1.2  z 3.8 to investigate the gas metallicity of the narrow-line regions andtheir evolution in this redshift range. Such spectra are also comparedwith UV spectra of local Seyfert 2 galaxies. The observational data areinconsistent with the predictions of shock models, suggesting that thenarrow-line regions are mainly photoionized. The photoionization modelswith dust grains predict line flux ratios which are also in disagreementwith most of the observed values, suggesting that the high-ionizationpart of the narrow-line regions (which is sampled by the availablespectra) is dust-free. The photoionization dust-free models provide twopossible scenarios which are consistent with the observed data:low-density gas clouds (nH  103cm-3) with a sub-solar metallicity (0.2  Z_gas/Z_ȯ 1.0), or high-density gas clouds (nH ˜105 cm-3) with a wide range of gas metallicity(0.2  Z_gas/Z_ȯ  5.0). Regardless of the specificinterpretation, the observational data do not show any evidence for asignificant evolution of the gas metallicity in the narrow-line regionswithin the redshift range 1.2  z  3.8. Instead, we find atrend for more luminous active galactic nuclei to have more metal-richgas clouds (luminosity-metallicity relation), which is in agreement withthe same finding in the studies of the broad-line regions. The lack ofevolution for the gas metallicity of the narrow-line regions impliesthat the major epoch of star formation in the host galaxies of theseactive galactic nuclei is at z  4.

Astrophysics in 2004
In this 14th edition of ApXX,1 we bring you the Sun (§ 2) and Stars(§ 4), the Moon and Planets (§ 3), a truly binary pulsar(§ 5), a kinematic apology (§ 6), the whole universe(§§ 7 and 8), reconsideration of old settled (§ 9) andunsettled (§ 10) issues, and some things that happen only on Earth,some indeed only in these reviews (§§ 10 and 11).

Molecular hydrogen and [FeII] in active galactic nuclei - II. Results for Seyfert 2 galaxies
Near-infrared spectroscopy is used to study the kinematics andexcitation mechanisms of H2 and [FeII] lines in a sampledominated by Seyfert 2 galaxies. The spectra simultaneously cover theJHK bands, allowing us to compare line fluxes emitted in the interval0.8-2.4 μm and avoiding aperture and seeing effects. TheH2 lines are systematically narrower than the narrow-lineregion lines, suggesting that, very likely, the H2 does notoriginate from the same parcel of gas that forms the narrow-line region.Emission-line ratios between H2 lines favour thermalexcitation mechanisms for the molecular gas in active galactic nuclei.It was found that non-thermal excitation contributes, at most, 30 percent of the observed H2. Thermal excitation is also confirmedby the rather similar vibrational and rotational temperatures in theobjects (~2000 K). The mass of hot H2 ranges from102 to 103Msolar, with nearly half ofobjects showing values of <500 Msolar. It shows that thefraction of molecular mass present in the nuclear region and emitting inthe near-infrared is a very small fraction of the warm molecular masspresent in the centre. A diagnostic diagram composed of the line ratiosH2/Brγ and [FeII]/Paβ proves to be a useful toolin the near-infrared for separating emission-line objects by theirdegree of nuclear activity. We found that active galactic nuclei arecharacterized by H2 2.121 μm/Brγ and [FeII] 1.257μm/Paβ flux ratios between 0.6 and 2. Starburst/HII galaxiesdisplay line ratios <0.6 while low-ionization nuclear emission-lineregions are characterized by values larger than 2 in either ratio.

An 8.4-GHz Long Baseline Array observation of the unusual Seyfert galaxy NGC 7213
We have observed the type 1.5 Seyfert galaxy NGC 7213 with theAustralian Long Baseline Array (LBA) at 8.4 GHz to discover whether thisobject has the high brightness temperature compact core suggested bylow-frequency variability. Confirmation would support the hypothesisthat radio-intermediate Seyfert galaxies have Doppler-boosted radiojets. Our observation confirms the existence of this core but with aflux density of almost a factor of 6 less than observed 12 yr earlier.Though few studies exist on the long-term radio variability of Seyferts,a decline of this magnitude does appear to be rare.

The Relationship of Hard X-Ray and Optical Line Emission in Low-Redshift Active Galactic Nuclei
In this paper we assess the relationship of the population of activegalactic nuclei (AGNs) selected by hard X-rays to the traditionalpopulation of AGNs with strong optical emission lines. First, we studythe emission-line properties of a new hard-X-ray-selected sample of 47local AGNs (classified optically as Type 1 and 2 AGNs). We find that thehard X-ray (3-20 keV) and [O III] λ5007 optical emission-lineluminosities are well-correlated over a range of about 4 orders ofmagnitude in luminosity (mean luminosity ratio 2.15 dex with a standarddeviation of σ=0.51 dex). Second, we study the hard X-rayproperties of a sample of 55 local AGNs selected from the literature onthe basis of the flux in the [O III] line. The correlation between thehard X-ray (2-10 keV) and [O III] luminosity for the Type 1 AGNs isconsistent with what is seen in the hard-X-ray-selected sample. However,the Type 2 AGNs have a much larger range in the luminosity ratio, andmany are very weak in hard X-rays (as expected for heavily absorbedAGNs). We then compare the hard X-ray (3-20 keV) and [O III] luminosityfunctions of AGNs in the local universe. These have similar faint-endslopes, with a luminosity ratio of 1.60 dex (0.55 dex smaller than themean value for individual hard-X-ray-selected AGNs). We conclude that atlow redshift, selection by narrow optical emission lines will recovermost AGNs selected by hard X-rays (with the exception of BL Lacobjects). However, selection by hard X-rays misses a significantfraction of the local AGN population with strong emission lines.

The Link between Star Formation and Accretion in LINERs: A Comparison with Other Active Galactic Nucleus Subclasses
We present archival high-resolution X-ray imaging observations of 25nearby LINERs observed by ACIS on board Chandra. This sample builds onour previously published proprietary and archival X-ray observations andincludes the complete set of LINERs with published black hole masses andFIR luminosities that have been observed by Chandra. Of the 82 LINERsobserved by Chandra, 41 (50%) display hard nuclear cores consistent withan AGN. The nuclear 2-10 keV luminosities of these AGN-LINERs range from~2×1038 to ~1×1044 ergss-1. Reinforcing our previous work, we find a significantcorrelation between the Eddington ratio,Lbol/LEdd, and the FIR luminosity,LFIR, as well as the IR brightness ratio,LFIR/LB, in the host galaxy of AGN-LINERs thatextends over 7 orders of magnitude in Lbol/LEdd.Combining our AGN-LINER sample with galaxies from other AGN subclasses,we find that this correlation is reinforced in a sample of 129 AGNs,extending over almost 9 orders of magnitude inLbol/LEdd. Using archival and previously publishedobservations of the 6.2 μm PAH feature from ISO, we find that it isunlikely that dust heating by the AGN dominates the FIR luminosity inour sample of AGNs. Our results may therefore imply a fundamental linkbetween the mass accretion rate (M˙), as measured by the Eddingtonratio, and the star formation rate (SFR), as measured by the FIRluminosity. Apart from the overall correlation, we find that thedifferent AGN subclasses occupy distinct regions in the LFIRand Lbol/LEdd plane. Assuming a constant radiativeefficiency for accretion, our results may imply a variation in theSFR/M˙ ratio as a function of AGN activity level, a result that mayhave significant consequences for our understanding of galaxy formationand black hole growth.

Dust Morphology of Hidden Broad-Line Region and Non-Hidden Broad-Line Region Seyfert 2 Galaxies
We investigate the nuclear dust properties of hidden broad-line region(HBLR) and non-HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies. Optical images obtained from theHubble Space Telescope for a selected sample of HBLR and non-HBLRSeyfert 2 galaxies are fitted with the Galfit package to probe the innerstructures of these galaxies within the central 1 kpc regions. Most ofthe galaxies show complicated dust features in these regions. However,the dust morphology shows no significant difference between the HBLR andnon-HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies. Dust masses inside the 1 kpc nuclearregions (M1kpc) are estimated from the obscuration levels inthe central regions of these galaxies. We compare our results with otherobserved properties, including [O III], far-infrared, and radioemission. We find that the HBLR and non-HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies showdifferent near-infrared colors and M1kpc-FIR correlations,indicating that these two classes of Seyfert 2 galaxies are dominated bydifferent emission mechanisms. We suggest that they are intrinsicallydifferent and cannot be explained by the standard unification model.

A search for changing-look AGN in the Grossan catalog
We observed with XMM-Newton 4 objects selected from the Grossan (1992,Ph.D. Thesis) catalog, with the aim to search for new "changing-look"AGN. The sample includes all the sources which showed in subsequentobservations a flux much lower than the one measured with HEAO A-1: NGC7674, NGC 4968, IRAS 13218+0552 and NGC 1667. None of the sources wascaught in a high flux state during the XMM-Newton observations, whoseanalysis reveal they are all likely Compton-thick objects. We suggestthat, for all the sources, potential problems with the HEAO A-1 sourceidentification and flux measurement prevent us from being certain thatthe HEAO A-1 data represent a putative "high" state for these objects.Nonetheless, based on the high flux state and Compton-thin spectrum ofits GINGA observation, NGC 7674 represents probably the sixth known caseof a "changing-look" Seyfert 2 galaxy. From the X-ray variabilitypattern, we can estimate a likely lower limit of a few parsec to thedistance of the inner walls of the torus in this object. Remarkably,IRAS 13218+0552 was not detected by XMM-Newton, despite being currentlyclassified as a Seyfert 1 with a large [OIII] flux. However, theoriginal classification was likely to be affected by an extreme velocityoutflow component in the emission lines. The object likely harbors anhighly obscured AGN and should be re-classified as a type 2 source.

The infrared continuum of active galactic nuclei
We discuss the different physical processes contributing to the infraredcontinuum of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), assuming that bothphotoionization from the active centre and shocks ionize and heat thegas and dust contained in an ensemble of clouds surrounding the nucleus.In our model, radiation transfer of primary and secondary radiationthroughout a cloud is calculated consistently with collisional processesdue to the shock. We consider that the observed continuum corresponds toreprocessed radiation from both dust and gas in the clouds. Collisionalprocesses are important in the presence of shocks. The grains aresputtered crossing the shock front. The models are constrained bysputtering as well as by the far-infrared data. The model is applied tothe continuum of Seyfert galaxies from which the best estimate of thenuclear, stellar subtracted, emission is available. The results showthat radiation-dominated high-velocity clouds are more numerous inSeyfert 1-1.5 whereas shock-dominated low-velocity clouds are dominantin Seyfert type 2. This result is in full agreement with the unifiedmodel for AGNs, by which high-velocity clouds, placed deeper into thecentral region and therefore reached by a more intense radiation, shouldplay a more significant role in the spectra of broad-line objects. Wecould therefore conclude that in type 2 objects, radiation is partlysuppressed by a central dusty medium with a high dust-to-gas ratio. Oncethe model approach is tested, a grid of models is used to provide aphenomenological analysis of the observed infrared spectral energydistribution. This empirical method is a useful tool to rapidly accessthe physical conditions of the AGN emitting clouds. For this, analyticalforms are derived for the two processes contributing to the infraredemission: dust emission and thermal bremsstrahlung produced by thenarrow-line region clouds. Their relative contribution provides ameasurement of the dust-to-gas ratio.

The Tully-Fisher Relation for Hickson Compact Groups
We investigate the properties of the B-band Tully-Fisher (TF) relationfor 25 compact group galaxies, using Vmax derived from 2-Dvelocity maps. Our main result is that the majority of the HicksonCompact Group (HCG) galaxies lie on the TF relation, although with largescatter. However, 20% of the galaxies, including the lowest-masssystems, seem to have higher B luminosities, for a given mass, oralternatively, a mass which is too low for their luminosities. We favourthe scenario of brightening of the outliers due to either enhanced starformation or merging, rather than truncation of the dark halo due tointeractions, to explain the position of the outliers on the TFrelation.

Studies of Extragalactic Formaldehyde and Radio Recombination Lines
We present the most sensitive and extensive survey yet performed ofextragalactic H2CO 6 cm (4.829 GHz) emission/absorption.Sixty-two sources were observed with the C-band system of the AreciboTelescope to a 1 σ rms noise level of ~0.3 mJy. We report a newdetection of H2CO 6 cm absorption toward NGC 520 and theconfirmation of H2CO 6 cm absorption toward several sources.We report confirmation of H2CO 6 cm emission toward the OHmegamasers Arp 220, IC 860, and IRAS 15107+0724. At present these arethe only extragalactic H2CO 6 cm emitters independentlyconfirmed. A characterization of the properties of formaldehydeabsorbers and emitters based on infrared properties of the galaxies isdiscussed. We also conducted a simultaneous survey of the H110αhydrogen recombination line toward a sample of 53 objects. We report thedetection of H110α toward the giant extragalactic H II region NGC604 in M33.

Classification of Spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory PHT-S Database
We have classified over 1500 infrared spectra obtained with the PHT-Sspectrometer aboard the Infrared Space Observatory according to thesystem developed for the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) spectra byKraemer et al. The majority of these spectra contribute to subclassesthat are either underrepresented in the SWS spectral database or containsources that are too faint, such as M dwarfs, to have been observed byeither the SWS or the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Low ResolutionSpectrometer. There is strong overall agreement about the chemistry ofobjects observed with both instruments. Discrepancies can usually betraced to the different wavelength ranges and sensitivities of theinstruments. Finally, a large subset of the observations (~=250 spectra)exhibit a featureless, red continuum that is consistent with emissionfrom zodiacal dust and suggest directions for further analysis of thisserendipitous measurement of the zodiacal background.Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), aEuropean Space Agency (ESA) project with instruments funded by ESAMember States (especially the Principle Investigator countries: France,Germany, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) and with the participation ofthe Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

A Green Bank Telescope Search for Water Masers in Nearby Active Galactic Nuclei
Using the Green Bank Telescope, we have conducted a survey for 1.3 cmwater maser emission toward the nuclei of nearby active galaxies, themost sensitive large survey for H2O masers to date. Among 145galaxies observed, maser emission was newly detected in 11 sources andconfirmed in one other. Our survey targeted nearby (v<12,000 kms-1), mainly type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) north ofδ=-20deg and includes a few additional sources as well.We find that more than one-third of Seyfert 2 galaxies have strong maseremission, although the detection rate declines beyond v~5000 kms-1 because of sensitivity limits. Two of the masersdiscovered during this survey are found in unexpected hosts: NGC 4151(Seyfert 1.5) and NGC 2782 (starburst). We discuss the possiblerelations between the large X-ray column to NGC 4151 and a possiblehidden AGN in NGC 2782 to the detected masers. Four of the masersdiscovered here, NGC 591, NGC 4388, NGC 5728, and NGC 6323, havehigh-velocity lines symmetrically spaced about the systemic velocity, alikely signature of molecular gas in a nuclear accretion disk. The masersource in NGC 6323, in particular, reveals the classic spectrum of a``disk maser'' represented by three distinct groups of Dopplercomponents. Future single-dish and VLBI observations of these fourgalaxies could provide a measurement of the distance to each galaxy andof the Hubble constant, independent of standard candle calibrations.

Comparison of Nuclear Starburst Luminosities between Seyfert 1 and 2 Galaxies Based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
We report on infrared K- (2-2.5 μm) and L-band (2.8-4.1 μm) slitspectroscopy of 23 Seyfert 1 galaxies in the CfA and 12 μm samples. Apolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission feature at 3.3 μm inthe L band is primarily used to investigate nuclear star-formingactivity in these galaxies. The 3.3 μm PAH emission is detected in 10sources (=43%), demonstrating that detection of nuclear star formationin a significant fraction of Seyfert 1 galaxies is now feasible. For thePAH-detected nuclei, the surface brightness values of the PAH emissionare as high as those of typical starbursts, suggesting that the PAHemission probes the putative nuclear starbursts in the dusty tori aroundthe central active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The magnitudes of the nuclearstarbursts are quantitatively estimated from the observed 3.3 μm PAHemission luminosities. The estimated starburst luminosities relative tosome indicators of AGN powers in these Seyfert 1 galaxies are comparedwith 32 Seyfert 2 galaxies in the same samples that we have previouslyobserved. We find that there is no significant difference in nuclearstarburst to AGN luminosity ratios of Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies and thatnuclear starburst luminosity positively correlates with AGN power inboth types. Our results favor a slightly modified AGN unification model,which predicts that nuclear starbursts occurring in the dusty tori ofSeyfert galaxies are physically connected to the central AGNs, ratherthan the classical unification paradigm, in which the dusty tori simplyhide the central AGNs of Seyfert 2 galaxies and reprocess AGN radiationas infrared dust emission in Seyfert galaxies. No significantdifferences in nuclear star formation properties are recognizablebetween Seyfert 1 galaxies in the CfA and 12 μm samples.

Circumnuclear Structure and Black Hole Fueling: Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Imaging of 250 Active and Normal Galaxies
Why are the nuclei of some galaxies more active than others? If mostgalaxies harbor a central massive black hole, the main difference isprobably in how well it is fueled by its surroundings. We investigatethe hypothesis that such a difference can be seen in the detailedcircumnuclear morphologies of galaxies using several quantitativelydefined features, including bars, isophotal twists, boxy and diskyisophotes, and strong nonaxisymmetric features in unsharp-masked images.These diagnostics are applied to 250 high-resolution images of galaxycenters obtained in the near-infrared with NICMOS on the Hubble SpaceTelescope. To guard against the influence of possible biases andselection effects, we have carefully matched samples of Seyfert 1,Seyfert 2, LINER, starburst, and normal galaxies in their basicproperties, taking particular care to ensure that each was observed witha similar average scale (10-15 pc pixel-1). Severalmorphological differences among our five different spectroscopicclassifications emerge from the analysis. The H II/starburst galaxiesshow the strongest deviations from smooth elliptical isophotes, whilethe normal galaxies and LINERs have the least disturbed morphology. TheSeyfert 2s have significantly more twisted isophotes than any othercategory, and the early-type Seyfert 2s are significantly more disturbedthan the early-type Seyfert 1s. The morphological differences betweenSeyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s suggest that more is at work than simply theviewing angle of the central engine. They may correspond to differentevolutionary stages.

Near-infrared K-Band Spectroscopic Investigation of Seyfert 2 Nuclei in the CfA and 12 Micron Samples
We present near-infrared K-band slit spectra of the nuclei of 25 Seyfert2 galaxies in the CfA and 12 μm samples. The strength of the COabsorption features at 2.3-2.4 μm produced by stars is measured interms of a spectroscopic CO index. A clear anticorrelation between theobserved CO index and the nuclear K-L color is present, suggesting thata featureless hot dust continuum heated by an active galactic nucleus(AGN) contributes significantly to the observed K-band fluxes in thenuclei of Seyfert 2 galaxies. After correction for this AGNcontribution, we estimate nuclear stellar K-band luminosities for allsources and CO indices for sources with modestly large observed COindices. The corrected CO indices for 10 (=40%) Seyfert 2 nuclei arefound to be as high as those observed in star-forming or elliptical(=spheroidal) galaxies. We combine the K-band data with measurements ofthe L-band 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissionfeature, another powerful indicator for star formation, and find thatthe 3.3 μm PAH to K-band stellar luminosity ratios are substantiallysmaller than those of starburst galaxies. Our results suggest that the3.3 μm PAH emission originates in the putative nuclear starbursts inthe dusty tori surrounding the AGNs, because of its high surfacebrightness, whereas the K-band CO absorption features detected at thenuclei are dominated by old bulge (=spheroid) stars and thus may not bea powerful indicator for the nuclear starbursts. We see no cleardifference in the strength of the CO absorption and PAH emissionfeatures between the CfA and 12 μm Seyfert 2 galaxies.

Hydrocarbon Dust Absorption in Seyfert Galaxies and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies
We present new spectroscopic observations of the 3.4 μm absorptionfeature in the Seyfert galaxies NGC 1068 and NGC 7674 and theultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 08572+3915. A signature of CH bondsin aliphatic hydrocarbons, the 3.4 μm feature indicates the presenceof organic material in Galactic and extragalactic dust. Here we comparethe 3.4 μm feature in all the galaxies in which it has been detected.In several cases, the signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolutionpermit a detailed examination of the feature profile, something whichhas rarely been attempted in extragalactic lines of sight. The 3.4 μmband in these galaxies closely resembles that seen in the Galacticdiffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and in newly formed dust in aprotoplanetary nebula. The similarity implies a common carrier for thecarbonaceous component of dust, and one which is resistant to processingin the interstellar and/or circumnuclear medium. We also examine themid-IR spectrum of NGC 1068, because absorption bands in the 5-8 μmregion further constrain the chemistry of the 3.4 μm band carrier.While weak features like those present in the mid-IR spectrum of diffusedust toward the Galactic center would be undetectable in NGC 1068, thestrong bands found in the spectra of many proposed dust analog materialsare clearly absent, eliminating certain candidates and productionmechanisms for the carrier. The absence of strong absorption features at5-8 μm is also consistent with the interpretation that the similarityin the 3.4 μm feature in NGC 1068 to that in Galactic lines of sightreflects real chemical similarity in the carbonaceous dust.Based on observations with the UK Infrared Telescope, Mauna KeaObservatory, Hawaii.

10 Micron Imaging of Seyfert Galaxies from the 12 Micron Sample
We present small-aperture (1.5") photometry and new high-resolutionimages at 10 μm (N band) for 87 Seyfert galaxies from the Extended 12μm Sample drawn from the IRAS database. With this data we hope totest the predictions of the unified model for active galactic nuclei andto search for bright, extended circumnuclear 10 μm emission. Wedetected 62 Seyfert galaxies, 18 of which have no previously publishedsmall-aperture photometry. All the detected sources, both Seyfert 1'sand Seyfert 2's, show a central point source. The 31 Seyfert 1's and 31Seyfert 2's that we detected have similar luminosity distributions.Except for previously known bright extended 10 μm structure aroundArp 220, NGC 1068, and NGC 7469, we see definitive evidence for brightextended emission around only one new object: Mrk 1239. Four otherSeyfert 1's and six other Seyfert 2's show evidence of faint, low-levelextended emission. One Seyfert 1 and two Seyfert 2's show evidence ofsignificantly increased flux over previously published small-aperturevalues. We also compared the N-band data with the J-Ks colorthat we derived from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). There is adistinct trend of redder central bulge J-Ks colorscorresponding to brighter absolute N-band magnitudes. In color-magnitudespace there is a definite grouping of Seyfert 1's and Seyfert 2's, withtwo sets of outliers.

Galaxy Interaction and the Starburst-Seyfert Connection
Galaxy interactions are studied in terms of the starburst-Seyfertconnection. The starburst requires a high rate of gas supply. Since theefficiency for supplying the gas is high in a galaxy interaction,although the companion is not necessarily discernible, Seyfert galaxieswith circumnuclear starbursts are expected to be interacting. Since thelarge amounts of circumnuclear gas and dust obscure the broad-lineregion, they are expected to be observed as Seyfert 2 galaxies. Theactive galactic nucleus itself does not require a high rate of gassupply. Seyfert galaxies without circumnuclear starbursts are notnecessarily expected to be interacting even at the highest luminosities.They are not necessarily expected to evolve from Seyfert galaxies withcircumnuclear starbursts. We derive these and other theoreticalexpectations and confirm them with statistics on observational data ofmagnitude-limited samples of Seyfert galaxies.

Milliarcsec-scale radio structure of a matched sample of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies
We have obtained mas-scale resolution very long baseline interferometry({VLBI}) images of a sample of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies at 5 GHz(wavelength, λ = 6 cm). The Seyferts of the two types were chosento be matched in several orientation-independent properties, primarilyin order to rigorously test predictions of the unified scheme. Wedetected all the 15 objects that we observed. In this paper we describethe observations and data reduction procedures, and present the {VLBI}radio images as well as simultaneous Very Large Array images that weobtained for these 15 Seyferts.Full Fig. \ref{maps1} and Tables \ref{vla_param}, \ref{vlbi_param} areonly available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.orgTables \ref{vlbi_res} and \ref{vla_res} are also available in electronicform the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/425/99

The ISOPHOT 170 μm Serendipity Survey II. The catalog of optically identified galaxies%
The ISOPHOT Serendipity Sky Survey strip-scanning measurements covering≈15% of the far-infrared (FIR) sky at 170 μm were searched forcompact sources associated with optically identified galaxies. CompactSerendipity Survey sources with a high signal-to-noise ratio in at leasttwo ISOPHOT C200 detector pixels were selected that have a positionalassociation with a galaxy identification in the NED and/or Simbaddatabases and a galaxy counterpart visible on the Digitized Sky Surveyplates. A catalog with 170 μm fluxes for more than 1900 galaxies hasbeen established, 200 of which were measured several times. The faintest170 μm fluxes reach values just below 0.5 Jy, while the brightest,already somewhat extended galaxies have fluxes up to ≈600 Jy. For thevast majority of listed galaxies, the 170 μm fluxes were measured forthe first time. While most of the galaxies are spirals, about 70 of thesources are classified as ellipticals or lenticulars. This is the onlycurrently available large-scale galaxy catalog containing a sufficientnumber of sources with 170 μm fluxes to allow further statisticalstudies of various FIR properties.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.Members of the Consortium on the ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey (CISS) areMPIA Heidelberg, ESA ISO SOC Villafranca, AIP Potsdam, IPAC Pasadena,Imperial College London.Full Table 4 and Table 6 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/422/39

The relation between AGN hard X-ray emission and mid-infrared continuum from ISO spectra: Scatter and unification aspects
We use mid-infrared spectral decomposition to separate the 6 μmmid-infrared AGN continuum from the host emission in the ISO lowresolution spectra of 71 active galaxies and compare the results toobserved and intrinsic 2-10 keV hard X-ray fluxes from the literature.We find a correlation between mid-infrared luminosity and absorptioncorrected hard X-ray luminosity, but the scatter is about an order ofmagnitude, significantly larger than previously found with smallerstatistics. Main contributors to this scatter are likely variations inthe geometry of absorbing dust, and AGN variability in combination withnon-simultaneous observations. There is no significant differencebetween type 1 and type 2 objects in the average ratio of mid-infraredand hard X-ray emission, a result which is not consistent with the mostsimple version of a unified scheme in which an optically andgeometrically thick torus dominates the mid-infrared AGN continuum. Mostprobably, significant non-torus contributions to the AGN mid-IRcontinuum are masking the expected difference between the two types ofAGN.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/465Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA member states (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands, and the UK) with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

Motion and properties of nuclear radio components in Seyfert galaxies seen with VLBI
We report EVN, MERLIN and VLBA observations at 18 cm, 6 cm and 3.6 cm ofthe Seyfert galaxies NGC 7674, NGC5506, NGC 2110 and Mrk1210 to study their structure and proper motions on pc scalesand to add some constraints on the many possible causes of theradio-quietness of Seyferts. The component configurations inNGC 7674 and NGC 2110 are simple,linear structures, whereas the configurations in NGC5506 and Mrk 1210 have multiple componentswith no clear axis of symmetry. We suggest that NGC7674 is a low-luminosity compact symmetric object. Comparingthe images at different epochs, we find a proper motion in NGC7674 of (0.92±0.07) c between the two centralcomponents separated by 282 pc and, in NGC 5506, wefind a 3 σ upper limit of 0.50 c for the components separated by3.8 pc. Our results confirm and extend earlier work showing that theoutward motion of radio components in Seyfert galaxies isnon-relativistic on pc scales. We briefly discuss whether thisnon-relativistic motion is intrinsic to the jet-formation process orresults from deceleration of an initially relativistic jet byinteraction with the pc or sub-pc scale interstellar medium. We combinedour sample with a list compiled from the literature of VLBI observationsmade of Seyfert galaxies, and found that most Seyfert nuclei have atleast one flat-spectrum component on the VLBI scale, which was not seenin the spectral indices measured at arcsec resolution. We found alsothat the bimodal alignment of pc and kpc radio structures displayed byradio galaxies and quasars is not displayed by this sample of Seyferts,which shows a uniform distribution of misalignment between0° and 90°. The frequent misalignmentcould result from jet precession or from deflection of the jet byinteraction with gas in the interstellar medium.

Dust masses and star formation in bright IRAS galaxies. Application of a physical model for the interpretation of FIR observations
We address the problem of modeling the far-infrared (FIR) spectrum andderiving the star-formation rate (SFR) and the dust mass of spiralgalaxies. We use the realistic physical model of Popescu et al.(\cite{popescu}) to describe the overall ultra-violet (UV), optical andFIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of a spiral galaxy. The modeltakes into account the 3-dimensional old and young stellar distributionsin the bulge and the disk of a galaxy, together with the dust geometry.The geometrical characteristics of the galaxy and the intrinsic opticaland near-infrared spectra are determined by the galaxy's observed K-bandphotometry. The UV part of the spectrum is assumed to be proportional tothe SFR through the use of population synthesis models. By solving theradiative transfer equation, we are able to determine the absorbedenergy, the dust temperature and the resulting FIR spectrum. The modelhas only three free parameters: SFR, dust mass, and the fraction of theUV radiation which is absorbed locally by dense dust in the HII regions.Using this model, we are able to fit well the FIR spectra of 62 brightIRAS galaxies from the ``SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey" of Dunne etal. (\cite{dunne1}). As a result, we are able to determine, amongothers, their SFR and dust mass. We find that, on average, the SFR (inabsolute units), the star-formation efficiency, the SFR surface densityand the ratio of FIR luminosity over the total intrinsic luminosity, arelarger than the respective values of typical spiral galaxies of the samemorphological type. We also find that the mean gas-to-dust mass ratio isclose to the Galactic value, while the average central face-on opticaldepth of these galaxies in the V band is 2.3. Finally, we find a strongcorrelation between SFR or dust mass and observed FIR quantities liketotal FIR luminosity or FIR luminosity at 100 and 850 μm. Thesecorrelations yield well-defined relations, which can be used todetermine a spiral galaxy's SFR and dust-mass content from FIRobservations.

Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. VI. HI observations and the K-band Tully-Fisher relation
This paper reports a study of the effect of a bar on the neutralhydrogen (HI) content of starburst and Seyfert galaxies. We also makecomparisons with a sample of ``normal'' galaxies and investigate howwell starburst and Seyfert galaxies follow the fundamental scalingTully-Fisher (TF) relation defined for normal galaxies. 111 Markarian(Mrk) IRAS galaxies were observed with the Nançay radiotelescope,and HI data were obtained for 80 galaxies, of which 64 are newdetections. We determined the (20 and 50%) linewidths, the maximumvelocity of rotation and total HI flux for each galaxy. Thesemeasurements are complemented by data from the literature to form asample of Mrk IRAS (74% starburst, 23% Seyfert and 3% unknown) galaxiescontaining 105 unbarred and 113 barred ones. Barred galaxies have lowertotal and bias-corrected HI masses than unbarred galaxies, and this istrue for both Mrk IRAS and normal galaxies. This robust result suggeststhat bars funnel the HI gas toward the center of the galaxy where itbecomes molecular before forming new stars. The Mrk IRAS galaxies havehigher bias-corrected HI masses than normal galaxies. They also showsignificant departures from the TF relation, both in the B and K bands.The most deviant points from the TF relation tend to have a strongfar-infrared luminosity and a low oxygen abundance. These resultssuggest that a fraction of our Mrk IRAS galaxies are still in theprocess of formation, and that their neutral HI gas, partly of externalorigin, has not yet reached a stationary state.Based on observations obtained at the large radiotelescope ofObservatoire de Nançay, operated by Observatoire de Paris.Tables 5 and 6 are only (and Table 4 also) available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/515

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:23h27m56.80s
Aparent dimensions:1.122′ × 1′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 7674

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