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K-band Properties of Galaxy Clusters and Groups: Brightest Cluster Galaxies and Intracluster Light
We investigate the near-infrared K-band properties of the brightestcluster galaxies (BCGs) in a sample of 93 X-ray galaxy clusters andgroups, using data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Our clustersample spans a factor of 70 in mass, making it sensitive to any clustermass-related trends. We derive the cumulative radial distribution forthe BCGs in the ensemble and find that 70% of the BCGs are centered inthe cluster to within 5% of the virial radius r200; thisquantifies earlier findings that BCG position coincides with the clustercenter as defined by the X-ray emission peak. We study the correlationsbetween the luminosity of the BCGs (Lb) and the mass and theluminosity of the host clusters, finding that BCGs in more massiveclusters are more luminous than their counterparts in less massivesystems and that the BCGs become less important in the overall clusterlight (L200) as cluster mass increases. By examining a largesample of optically selected groups, we find that these correlationshold for galactic systems less massive than our clusters(<3×1013 Msolar). From the differencesbetween luminosity functions in high- and low-mass clusters, we arguethat BCGs grow in luminosity mainly by merging with other luminousgalaxies as the host clusters grow hierarchically; the decreasing BCGluminosity fraction (Lb/L200) with cluster massindicates that the rate of luminosity growth in BCGs is slow compared tothe rate at which clusters acquire galaxy light from the field or othermerging clusters. Utilizing the observed correlation between the clusterluminosity and mass and a merger tree model for cluster formation, weestimate that the amount of intracluster light (ICL) increases withcluster mass; our calculations suggest that in 1015Msolar clusters more than 50% of total stellar mass is inICL, making the role of ICL very important in the evolution andthermodynamic history of clusters. The cluster baryon fractionaccounting for the ICL is in good agreement with the value derived fromcosmic microwave background observations. The inclusion of ICL reducesthe discrepancy between the observed cluster cold baryon fraction andthat found in hydrodynamical simulations. Based on the observed ironabundance in the intracluster medium, we find that the ICL predicted byour model, together with the observed galaxy light, match the ironmass-to-light ratio expected from simple stellar population models,provided that the Salpeter initial mass function is adopted. The ICLalso makes it easier to produce the ``iron excess'' found in the centralregions of cool-core clusters.

Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Brightest Cluster Galaxies
We used the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 toobtain I-band images of the centers of 81 brightest cluster galaxies(BCGs), drawn from a volume-limited sample of nearby BCGs. The imagesshow a rich variety of morphological features, including multiple ordouble nuclei, dust, stellar disks, point-source nuclei, and centralsurface brightness depressions. High-resolution surface brightnessprofiles could be inferred for 60 galaxies. Of those, 88% havewell-resolved cores. The relationship between core size and galaxyluminosity for BCGs is indistinguishable from that of Faber et al.(published in 1997, hereafter F97) for galaxies within the sameluminosity range. However, the core sizes of the most luminous BCGs fallbelow the extrapolation of the F97 relationshiprb~L1.15V. A shallower relationship,rb~L0.72V, fits both the BCGs and thecore galaxies presented in F97. Twelve percent of the BCG sample lacks awell-resolved core; all but one of these BCGs have ``power law''profiles. Some of these galaxies have higher luminosities than anypower-law galaxy identified by F97 and have physical upper limits onrb well below the values observed for core galaxies of thesame luminosity. These results support the idea that the centralstructure of early-type galaxies is bimodal in its physical propertiesbut also suggest that there exist high-luminosity galaxies withpower-law profiles (or unusually small cores). The BCGs in the lattercategory tend to fall at the low end of the BCG luminosity function andtend to have low values of the quantity α (the logarithmic slopeof the metric luminosity as a function of radius, at 10 kpc). Sincetheoretical calculations have shown that the luminosities andα-values of BCGs grow with time as a result of accretion, thissuggests a scenario in which elliptical galaxies evolve from power-lawprofiles to core profiles through accretion and merging. This isconsistent with theoretical scenarios that invoke the formation ofmassive black hole binaries during merger events. More generally, theprevalence of large cores in the great majority of BCGs, which arelikely to have experienced several generations of galaxy merging,underscores the role of a mechanism that creates and preserves cores insuch merging events.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., underNASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated withproposal 8683.

The peculiar motions of early-type galaxies in two distant regions - II. The spectroscopic data
We present the spectroscopic data for the galaxies studied in the EFARproject, which is designed to measure the properties and peculiarmotions of early-type galaxies in two distant regions. We have obtained1319 spectra of 714 early-type galaxies over 33 observing runs on 10different telescopes. We describe the observations and data reductionsused to measure redshifts, velocity dispersions and the Mgb and Mg_2Lick linestrength indices. Detailed simulations and intercomparison ofthe large number of repeat observations lead to reliable error estimatesfor all quantities. The measurements from different observing runs arecalibrated to a common zero-point or scale before being combined,yielding a total of 706 redshifts, 676 velocity dispersions, 676 Mgblinestrengths and 582 Mg_2 linestrengths. The median estimated errors inthe combined measurements are Delta cz=20 km s^-1, Delta sigma sigma=9.1 per cent, Delta Mgb Mgb=7.2 per cent and Delta Mg_2=0.015 mag.Comparison of our measurements with published data sets shows nosystematic errors in the redshifts or velocity dispersions, and onlysmall zero-point corrections to bring our linestrengths on to thestandard Lick system. We have assigned galaxies to physical clusters byexamining the line-of-sight velocity distributions based on EFAR andZCAT redshifts, together with the projected distributions on the sky. Wederive mean redshifts and velocity dispersions for these clusters, whichwill be used in estimating distances and peculiar velocities and to testfor trends in the galaxy population with cluster mass. The spectroscopicparameters presented here for 706 galaxies combine high-quality data,uniform reduction and measurement procedures, and detailed erroranalysis. They form the largest single set of velocity dispersions andlinestrengths for early-type galaxies published to date.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

The peculiar motions of early-type galaxies in two distant regions. III - The photometric data
We present R-band CCD photometry for 776 galaxies observed in the EFARproject. The photometry is compared with photoelectric data, showingthat a common zero-point good to better than 1 per cent and a precisionof 0.03 mag per zero-point have been achieved. We give the circularlyaveraged surface brightness profiles and the photometric parameters ofthe 762 program galaxies, D(n) diameters, half-luminosity radii, totalmagnitudes, and average effective surface brightnesses. More than 80percent of the profiles have a global S/N ratio larger than 300. Theextrapolation needed to derive total magnitudes is less than 10 percentfor 80 percent of the fits. More than 80 percent of the galaxies havemean effective surface brightness larger than the observed skybrightness. In 90 percent of the profiles the estimate of thecontamination of the sky by the galaxy light is less than 1 percent. Wederive total magnitudes and half-luminosity radii to better than 0.15mag and 25 percent, respectively, for 90 percent of our sample. Incontrast, external comparisons show that data in the literature can bestrongly affected by systematic errors due to large extrapolations,small radial range, sky subtraction errors, seeing effects, and the useof a simple R exp 1/4 fit. The resulting errors can easily amount tomore than 0.5 mag in the total magnitudes and 50 percent in thehalf-luminosity radii.

The Peculiar Motions of Early-Type Galaxies in Two Distant Regions. I. Cluster and Galaxy Selection
The EFAR project is a study of 736 candidate elliptical galaxies in 84clusters lying in two regions, toward Hercules-Corona Borealis andPerseus-Pisces-Cetus, at distances cz ~ 6000-15,000 km s^-1^. In thispaper (the first of a series), we present an introduction to the EFARproject and describe in detail the selection of the clusters andgalaxies in our sample. Fundamental data for the galaxies and clustersare given, including accurate new positions for each galaxy andredshifts for each cluster. The galaxy selection functions aredetermined by using diameters measured from Schmidt sky survey imagesfor 2185 galaxies in the cluster fields. Future papers in this serieswill present the spectroscopic and photometric observations of thissample, investigate the properties of the fundamental plane forelliptical galaxies, and determine the large- scale peculiar velocityfields in these two regions of the universe.

Photometric and morphological analysis of UCM galaxies. II. Statistical results and interpretation.
We present the results of Thuan & Gunn r CCD imaging observations ofthe Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) sample of emission-linegalaxies (ELGs) selected by the presence of Hα emission in lowresolution objective-prism spectra. In this work, a total of 212 objectsfrom the UCM survey have been photometrically and morphologicallycharacterized. In a previous paper, the observations, basic reductionsand morphological classification for the UCM objects were presented.Here, we analyse the statistical properties of the sample and theirinterpretations. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) Oursurvey is specially effective in the detection of ELGs smaller and lessluminous than normal spirals (the median values of the UCM sample areM_r_=-20.6 and D_24_=19.4kpc, for H_0_=50km/s/Mpc). (2) The samplepresents a very heterogeneous morphological population of galaxies.There is a clear predominance of late-type galaxies, with 66% being Sbor later. (3) We have found a set of galaxies specially interesting. Inparticular, we propose 9 candidates to BCD (blue compact dwarf galaxy),five of them previously unknown. (4) About 10% of the ELGs of the sampleshow typical parameters of S0 types, and in the subsample of 16 UCMinteracting galaxies, 25% are S0 type galaxies. (5) In the set of UCMgalaxies inside the Coma cluster, 71% exhibit Hubble types Sb or later.

Photometric and morphological analysis of UCM galaxies. I. Observations and reductions. Morphological classifications.
We present the results of Thuan & Gunn r CCD imaging observations ofthe Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) sample of emission-linegalaxies (ELGs), selected by the presence of Hα emission inlow-resolution objective prism spectra. In this work we characterizephotometrically and morphologically a total of 212 objects from the UCMsurvey. This Paper presents the observations and basic reductions, andlists a set of photometric parameters calculated for each UCM object. Inaddition, for the first time in a ELGs sample, we have determined themorphological classification of the objects using simultaneously fivedifferent criteria.

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

Brightest cluster galaxies as standard candles
We investigate the use of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) as standardcandles for measuring galaxy peculiar velocities on large scales. Wehave obtained precise large-format CCD surface photometry and redshiftsfor an all-sky, volume-limited (z less than or = 0.05) sample of 199BCG. We reinvestigate the Hoessel (1980) relationship between the metricluminosity, Lm, within the central 10 kpc/h of the BCGs andthe logarithmic slope of the surface brightness profile, alpha. TheLm-alpha relationship reduces the cosmic scatter inLm from 0.327 mag to 0.244 mag, yielding a typical distanceaccuracy of 17% per BCG. Residuals about the Lm-alpharelationship are independent of BCG luminosity, BCG B - Rccolor, BCG location within the host cluster, and richness of the hostcluster. The metric luminosity is independent of cluster richness evenbefore correcting for its dependence on alpha, which provides furtherevidence for the unique nature of the BCG luminosity function. Indeed,the BCG luminosity function, both before and after application of thealpha-correction, is consistent with a single Gaussian distribution.Half the BCGs in the sample show some evidence of small color gradientsas a function of radius within their central 50 kpc/h regions but withalmost equal numbers becoming redder as becoming bluer. However, withthe central 10 kpc/h the colors are remarkably constant -- the mean B -Rc color is 1.51 with a dispersion of only 0.06 mag. Thenarrow photometric and color distributions of the BCGs, the lack of'second-parameter' effects, as well as the unique rich clusterenvironment of BCGs, argue that BCGs are the most homogeneous distanceindicators presently available for large-scale structure research.

Photoelectric and CCD photometry of E and S0 galaxies
We present BR photoelectric photometry for 352 E and S0 galaxies thatare part of a large survey of the properties and peculiar motions ofgalaxies in distant clusters. Repeat measurements show our internalerrors to be 2-3 percent in B and R and 1-2 percent in B-R. Comparisonsof BR and BVR reductions for 10 galaxies also observed in V show smallsystematic errors due to differences between the spectral energydistributions of stars and galaxies. External comparisons with B-Vcolors in the literature confirm that these colors are good to 1percent. We also describe R-band CCD observations for 95 of the galaxiesand place these on a BR photometric system for photoelectric and CCDphotomerry, with a common zero-point good to better than 1 percent. Wefind the rms precision of both our photoelectric and CCD R magnitudes tobe 2-3 percent for galaxies as faint as R = 15.

IRAS observations of H-alpha selected emission-line galaxies
We present the results of IRAS observations of the UCM (UniversidadComplutense de Madrid) sample of emission-line galaxies, which have beenselected from wide-dispersion H-alpha objective-prism plates. These dataare intended to provide a convenient summary of the relevant FIRproperties of these galaxies. Color-color diagrams, as interpreted bytheoretical models, suggest that emission from UCM galaxies is mainlydue to dust heated directly by photons emitted in active star-formingregions. Statistical analysis of some samples, including the IRASminisurvey and blue-selected objective-prism samples, have beenperformed. Comparisons, based on FIR luminosity distributions, with theIRAS minisurvey make evident the lower metallicity of the CUM galaxieswhich cannot be considered as a parent population of IRAS-detectedgalaxies.

The stellar content of central dominant galaxies. II - Colors of cD envelopes
The study presents deep g- and r-band CCD imaging of three richclusters, A2589, A2634, and A407, containing cD galaxies or structurespossibly relating to cD envelopes. Scattered light r exp -2 halos weremodeled and subtracted from the images. The (g-r) color profiles of thecDs NGC 7647 (A2589) and NGC 7720 (A2634) down to the start of theenvelopes are found to be quite flat. There is no evidence of a changein color at the surface brightness break that signifies the start of thecD envelope, nor are the colors of the envelope dramatically blue. Thecolor profile of the D galaxy NGC 7728 also in A2634 displays a steeperblueward color gradient than NGC 7720. A407, which has nine nuclei in acommon envelope, may also possess a red envelope in comparison to itshigher surface brightness region, and thus may evolve into a cD similarto NGC 7647. The implications for cD envelope formation and evolutionare discussed.

A dynamical analysis of twelve clusters of galaxies
Four-hundred-twenty-eight new redshift measurements for galaxies in thevicinity of 12 Abell clusters are presented. The data are supplementedby previously published data with 3 deg of each cluster center. Thecluster selection, the variety of telescopes and instrumentation used toobtain the galaxy redshifts, and the available X-ray observations arediscussed. Each cluster is exmained in some detail, with the emphasisplaced on the nature of the observed velocity distributions. Robust andresistant estimators of the velocity location and scale are applied inorder to quantify these distributions. The offset in velocity space ofthe dominant galaxy in each cluster or subcluster is considered withrespect to the central location in the velocity space of the cluster asa whole, and the physical implications of significant offsets found inseveral clusters are discussed. Dynamical estimates of the masses ofclusters and/or subclusters are obtained; for clearly bimodal systems,two-body models are employed to specify their likely dynamical state.

New measurements of radial velocities in clusters of galaxies. III
Redshifts have been obtained for 95 galaxies in eight Abell galaxyclusters using the multiobject spectrograph SILFID. Data on individualgalaxies are presented, and the accuracy of the determined velocities isdiscussed as well as some properties of the cluster. Near completesamples of galaxies have been obtained for the clusters A957, A2063, andA2589 in their central regions.

Bound populations around cD galaxies
Velocity measurements of a complete sample of galaxies within aprojected separation of 200 kpc are presented for the cD clusters A2271,A2589, and A2634. The aim of the measurements was to search for thepresence of a bound population of satellite galaxies that are in theprocess of merging with the cD. It is concluded that the question of thefrequency of bound populations around cD galaxies remains open sincemost clusters have not yet been observed in the detail that is requiredto discover these populations.

The structure of brightest cluster members. III - cD envelopes
Single-band photographic and CCD surface photometry is used to determineluminosity and structural properties of the extended, faint envelopesaround 27 cD galaxies. The distribution of envelope light follows asimilar slope as other cluster luminous material. Several correlationsbetween envelope luminosity and cluster properties substantiatearguments for the dynamical formation of envelopes. A correlationbetween underlying galaxy luminosity and envelope luminosity implies aparallel but separate process between the growth of the first-rankedelliptical by mergers and cD envelope formation. Strong color gradients,in particular the blue disk colors as predicted by other studies, werenot found upon examination of multicolor profiles for three cDenvelopes.

The structure of brightest cluster members. II - Mergers
Surface photometry of 342 bright elliptical galaxies in 103 clusters isanalyzed for evidence of mergers. Structural differences betweenbrightest cluster members (BCMs) and normal ellipticals can besummarized as having enlarged characteristic radii and shallow profileslopes (beta greater than -1.7). Profile morphology criteria for theelliptical types gE, D, and cD are outlined. Comparison of observationswith numerical simulations of mergers strongly suggests a past historyof dynamical growth for BCMs. Weak correlations of global clusterproperties to BCMs supports the hypothesis proposed by Merritt (1984)that mergers are important in early subgroups before virialization andformation of a cluster identity.

The bright end of the color-magnitude relation for early-type galaxies in clusters
UBVR photoelectric photometry is presented for bright early-typegalaxies in clusters. The sample is comprised of 26 first ranked clustermembers, 14 fainter cluster members, and two field galaxies. The colorsof first ranked galaxies in clusters appear to be independent of clustermorphology. A color difference as large as 0.1 mag in U - B between cDand normal first ranked cluster galaxies can be ruled out on the basisof the present data at the 5 sigma level.

A catalog of morphological types in 55 rich clusters of galaxies
Data are presented from a study of 55 rich clusters of galaxies. Thedata include positions, morphological types, estimated total magnitudes,bulge sizes, and ellipticities for about 6000 galaxies, as determinedfrom high scale photographic plates. Data reduction procedures aredescribed, and a brief analysis of cluster richness, which indicatesthat Abell richness classes are only rough indicators of total clustermembership, is included.

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Right ascension:23h23m57.40s
Aparent dimensions:1.778′ × 0.977′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 7647

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