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|The Complex X-Ray Morphology of NGC 7618: A Major Group-Group Merger in the Local Universe?|
We present results from a short Chandra ACIS-S observation of NGC 7618,the dominant central galaxy of a nearby (z=0.017309, d=74.1 Mpc) group.We detect a sharp surface brightness discontinuity 14.4 kpc north of thenucleus subtending an angle of 130° with an X-ray tail extending ~70kpc in the opposite direction. The temperature of the gas inside andoutside the discontinuity is 0.79+/-0.03 and 0.81+/-0.07 keV,respectively. There is marginal evidence for a discontinuous change inthe elemental abundance (Zinner=0.65+/-0.25,Zouter=0.17+/-0.21 at 90% confidence), suggesting that thismay be an ``abundance'' front. Fitting a two-temperature model to theASCA GIS spectrum of the NGC 7618/UGC 12491 pair shows the presence of asecond, much hotter (T=~2.3 keV) component. We consider severalscenarios for the origin of the edge and the tail, including a radiolobe/IGM interaction, nonhydrostatic ``sloshing,'' equal-mass merger andcollision, and ram pressure stripping. In the last case, we consider thepossibility that NGC 7618 is falling into UGC 12491 or that both groupsare falling into a gas-poor cluster potential. There are significantproblems with the first two models, however, and we conclude that thediscontinuity and tail are most likely the result of ram pressurestripping of the NGC 7618 group, as it falls into a larger dark matterpotential.
|Scaling Mass Profiles around Elliptical Galaxies Observed with Chandra and XMM-Newton|
We investigated the dynamical structure of 53 elliptical galaxies usingthe Chandra archival X-ray data. In X-ray-luminous galaxies, temperatureincreases with radius and gas density is systematically higher at theoptical outskirts, indicating the presence of a significant amount ofthe group-scale hot gas. In contrast, X-ray-dim galaxies show a flat ordeclining temperature profile against radius and the gas density isrelatively lower at the optical outskirts. Thus, it is found thatX-ray-bright and faint elliptical galaxies are clearly distinguished bythe temperature and gas density profile. The mass profile is well scaledby a virial radius r200 rather than an optical half-radiusre, is quite similar at (0.001-0.03)r200 betweenX-ray-luminous and dim galaxies, and smoothly connects to those profilesof clusters of galaxies. At the inner region of(0.001-0.01)r200 or (0.1-1)re, the mass profilewell traces a stellar mass with a constant mass-to-light ratio ofM/LB=3-10 Msolar/Lsolar. TheM/LB ratio of X-ray-bright galaxies rises up steeply beyond0.01r200 and thus requires a presence of massive dark matterhalo. From the deprojection analysis combined with the XMM-Newton data,we found that X-ray-dim galaxies NGC 3923, NGC 720, and IC 1459 alsohave a high M/LB ratio of 20-30 at 20 kpc, comparable to thatof X-ray-luminous galaxies. Therefore, dark matter is indicated to becommon in elliptical galaxies; their dark matter distribution, as wellas that of galaxy clusters, almost follows the NFW profile.
|A Fundamental Plane Relation for the X-Ray Gas in Normal Elliptical Galaxies|
We report on the discovery of a new correlation between globalparameters of the hot interstellar gas in elliptical galaxies. Wereanalyze archival Chandra data for 30 normal early-type systems,removing the contributions of resolved and unresolved point sources toreveal the X-ray morphology of the hot gas. We determine the half-lightradius, RX, and the mean surface brightness, IX,from the gas surface brightness profiles. A spectral analysis determinesthe temperature, TX, of the gas within 3 optical effectiveradii. We find that the galaxies lie on an X-ray gas fundamental plane(XGFP) of the formTX~R0.28XI0.22X.This is close to, but distinct from, a simple luminosity-temperaturerelation. The intrinsic width of the XGFP is only 0.07 dex, nearlyidentical to that of the stellar (optical) fundamental plane (SFP). Thisis surprising since X-ray gas masses are typically ~10-2 ofthe stellar masses. We show that the XGFP is not a simple consequence ofthe virial theorem or hydrostatic equilibrium and that it is essentiallyindependent of the SFP. The XGFP thus represents a genuinely newconstraint on the hydrodynamical evolution of elliptical galaxies.
|Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data|
We present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere.
|The Optical and Near-Infrared Morphologies of Isolated Early-Type Galaxies|
To study early-type galaxies in their simplest environments, we haveconstructed a well-defined sample of 30 isolated galaxies. The samplecontains all early-type galaxies listed in the Third Reference Catalogueof Bright Galaxies (RC3) with no other cataloged galaxy with a knownredshift lying within a projected radius of 1h-1100 Mpc and +/-1000 km s-1 (where weuse the recession velocities in the RC3). We have obtained optical andnear-infrared images of 23 of the galaxies and of a comparison sample of13 early-type galaxies in X-ray-detected poor groups of galaxies. Wehave applied the techniques of unsharp-masking, galaxy model division,and color maps to search for morphological features that might provideclues to the evolution of these galaxies. Evidence for dust features isfound in approximately 75% of both the isolated and group galaxies (17of 22 and 9 of 12, respectively). However, shells or tidal features aremuch more prevalent in our isolated sample than in our group sample (9of 22=41% vs. 1 of 12=8%, respectively). The isolation and colors ofthese shell galaxies make it unlikely that tidal interactions orasymmetric star formation are the causes of such features. One modelthat is not ruled out is that mergers produce the shells. If shells anddust are both merger signatures, the absence of shells in groupelliptical galaxies implies that shells (1) form more easily, (2) areyounger, and/or (3) are longer lived in isolated environments.
|The Arizona-New Mexico Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxies. I. Data for the Western End of the Perseus Supercluster|
We present new optical spectroscopic data for 347 galaxies in the regionof the Perseus supercluster. The new data were obtained using theSteward Observatory 2.3 m telescope and cover the whole optical window.Included are redshifts (for 345 objects), absorption-line equivalentwidths, a continuum index measuring the 4000 Å break, andemission-line flux ratios. After 11 objects are rejected for being toofaint and redshifts for 26 objects are added from the literature, wearrive at a complete sample of 361 galaxies. The distribution ofredshifts for the whole sample is examined, and we show the relationshipof the continuum index to morphology.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|Redshifts of galaxies in the south west region of the Perseus supercluster|
Redshifts for 33 galaxies have been measured making it possible to studythe spatial distribution of a complete sample of 125 galaxies brighterthan the 14.5 mag in a large area west of the Perseus supercluster. Itis shown that the Perseus supercluster connects to another large scalestructure: the A 2634-A 2666 supercluster.
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