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|The Survey for Ionization in Neutral Gas Galaxies. I. Description and Initial Results|
We introduce the Survey for Ionization in Neutral Gas Galaxies (SINGG),a census of star formation in H I-selected galaxies. The survey consistsof Hα and R-band imaging of a sample of 468 galaxies selected fromthe H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS). The sample spans three decadesin H I mass and is free of many of the biases that affect otherstar-forming galaxy samples. We present the criteria for sampleselection, list the entire sample, discuss our observational techniques,and describe the data reduction and calibration methods. This paperfocuses on 93 SINGG targets whose observations have been fully reducedand analyzed to date. The majority of these show a single emission linegalaxy (ELG). We see multiple ELGs in 13 fields, with up to four ELGs ina single field. All of the targets in this sample are detected inHα, indicating that dormant (non-star-forming) galaxies withMHI>~3×107 Msolar are veryrare. A database of the measured global properties of the ELGs ispresented. The ELG sample spans 4 orders of magnitude in luminosity(Hα and R band), and Hα surface brightness, nearly 3 ordersof magnitude in R surface brightness and nearly 2 orders of magnitude inHα equivalent width (EW). The surface brightness distribution ofour sample is broader than that of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)spectroscopic sample, the EW distribution is broader than prism-selectedsamples, and the morphologies found include all common types ofstar-forming galaxies (e.g., irregular, spiral, blue compact dwarf,starbursts, merging and colliding systems, and even residual starformation in S0 and Sa spirals). Thus, SINGG presents a superior censusof star formation in the local universe suitable for further studiesranging from the analysis of H II regions to determination of the localcosmic star formation rate density.
|The Classification of Galaxies: Early History and Ongoing Developments|
"You ask what is the use of classification, arrangement,systematization. I answer you; order and simplification are the firststeps toward the mastery of a subject the actual enemy is the unknown."
|Spiral galaxies observed in the near-infrared K band. I. Data analysis and structural parameters|
Deep surface photometry in the K band was obtained for 54 normal spiralgalaxies, with the aim of quantifying the percentage of faint bars andstudying the morphology of spiral arms. The sample was chosen to cover awider range of morphological types while inclination angles anddistances were limited to allow a detailed investigation of the internalstructure of their disks and future observations and studies of the diskkinematics. An additional constraint for a well defined subsample wasthat no bar structure was seen on images in the visual bands. Accuratesky projection parameters were determined from the K maps comparingseveral different methods. The surface brightness distribution wasdecomposed into axisymmetric components while bars and spiral structureswere analyzed using Fourier techniques.Bulges were best represented by a Sérsic r1/n law withan index in the typical range of 1-2. The central surface brightness ofthe exponential disk and bulge-to-disk ratio only showed weakcorrelation with Hubble type. Indications of a central point source werefound in many of the galaxies. An additional central, steep, exponentialdisk improved the fit for more than 80% of the galaxies suggesting thatmany of the bulges are oblate.Bars down to the detection level at a relative amplitude of 3% weredetected in 26 of 30 galaxies in a subsample classified as ordinary SAspirals. This would correspond to only 5% of all spiral galaxies beingnon-barred at this level. In several cases, bars are significantlyoffset compared to the starting points of the main spiral pattern whichindicates that bar and spiral have different pattern speeds. A smallfraction (10%) of the sample has complex central structuresconsisting of several sets of bars, arcs or spirals.A majority of the galaxies (60%) displays a two-armed, grand-designspiral pattern in their inner parts which often breaks up into multiplearms in their outer regions. Phase shifts between the inner and outerpatterns suggest in some cases that they belong to different spiralmodes. The pitch angles of the main two-armed symmetric spiral patternin the galaxies have a typical range of 5-30 °. The sample shows alack of strong, tight spirals which could indicate that such patternsare damped by non-linear, dynamical effects due to their high radialforce perturbations.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile; programs: ESO 63.N-0343, 65.N-0287, 66.N-0257.Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/423/849Appendix A is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org
|Star Formation Across the Taffy Bridge: UGC 12914/15|
We present Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) two-fieldmosaic CO (1-0) images of the Taffy galaxies (UGC 12914/15), which showthe distinct taffy-like radio continuum emission bridging the two spiraldisks. Large amounts of molecular gas (1.4×1010Msolar, using the standard Galactic CO-to-H2conversion applicable to Galactic disk giant molecular clouds) wereclearly detected throughout the taffy bridge between the two galaxies,which, as in the more extreme case of H I, presumably results from ahead-on collision between the two galaxies. The highest CO concentrationbetween the two galaxies corresponds to the Hα source in the taffybridge near the intruder galaxy UGC 12915. This H II region is alsoassociated with the strongest source of radio continuum in the bridgeand shows both morphological and kinematic connections to UGC 12915. Theoverall CO distribution of the entire system agrees well with that ofthe radio continuum emission, particularly in the taffy bridge. Thisargues for the star formation origin of a significant portion of theradio continuum emission. Compared with the H I morphology andkinematics, which are strongly distorted owing to the high-speedcollision, CO better defines the orbital geometry and impact parameterof the interaction, as well as the disk properties (e.g., rotation,orientation) of the progenitor galaxies. Based on the 20 cm-to-CO ratiomaps, we conclude that the starburst sites are primarily located in UGC12915 and the Hα source in the bridge and show that the moleculargas in the taffy bridge is forming into stars with star formationefficiency comparable to that of the target galaxy UGC 12914 and similarto that in the Galactic disk.
|Homogenization of the Stellar Population along Late-Type Spiral Galaxies|
We present a study of the broadband UBV color profiles for 257 Sbcbarred and nonbarred galaxies, using photoelectric aperture photometrydata from the literature. Using robust statistical methods, we haveestimated the color gradients of the galaxies, as well as the total andbulge mean colors. A comparative photometric study using CCD images wasdone. In our sample, the color gradients are negative (reddish inward)in approximately 59% of the objects, are almost null in 27%, and arepositive in 14%, considering only the face-on galaxies, which representapproximately 51% of the sample. The results do not change, essentially,when we include the edge-on galaxies. As a consequence of this study wehave also found that barred galaxies are overrepresented among theobjects having null or positive gradients, indicating that bars act as amechanism of homogenization of the stellar population. This effect ismore evident in the U-B color index, although it can also be detected inthe B-V color. A correlation between the total and bulge colors wasfound that is a consequence of an underlying correlation between thecolors of bulges and disks found by other authors. Moreover, the meantotal color is the same irrespective of the gradient regime, whilebulges are bluer in galaxies with null or positive gradients, whichindicates an increase of the star formation rate in the central regionsof these objects. We have also made a quantitative evaluation of theamount of extinction in the center of these galaxies. This was doneusing the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and the Near InfraredCamera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) Hubble Space Telescope(HST) archival data, as well as CCD B, V, and I images. We show thatalthough the extinction in the V-band can reach values up to 2 mag inthe central region, it is unlikely that dust plays a fundamental role inglobal color gradients. We found no correlation between color and O/Habundance gradients. This result could suggest that the color gradientsare more sensitive to the age rather than to the metallicity of thestellar population. However, the absence of this correlation may becaused by dust extinction. We discuss this result by considering apicture in which bars are a relatively fast, recurrent phenomenon. Theseresults are not compatible with a pure classical monolithic scenario forbulge and disk formation. On the contrary, they favor a scenario inwhich both these components are evolving in a correlated process inwhich stellar bars play a crucial role. Based partly on observationsmade at the Pico dos Dias Observatory (PDO/LNA-CNPq), Brazil.
|The 1.0 Megaparsec Galaxy Pair Sample in Low-Density Regions|
Using complete redshift catalogs, we have compiled a list of galaxypairs based solely on a pair's projected separation, rp, andvelocity difference, ΔV. We have made high-velocity precision H Iobservations of each galaxy in the sample and have reported these in theliterature. Due to the nature of the redshift catalogs, we are able toquantitatively evaluate the effects of isolation and number density ofsurrounding galaxies on each pair in the sample. For the close galaxypairs (rp<100 kpc), the degree of isolation (a measure ofthe number of near neighbors) has little effect on the median ΔV.This median is about 55 km s-1 for the 25 close pairs (ifmedium-density close pairs are omitted ΔV is even smaller, but thedifference is not statistically significant). The effect of isolation isstrong for the entire sample of galaxy pairs with separations as largeas 1.0 Mpc. For these larger separation pairs, relaxation of strictisolation requirements introduces small groups into the sample, whichdramatically increases the median ΔV. We find little evidence ofan increase in the median ΔV with decreasing rp, norwith increasing total luminosity. For our isolated pairs in low-densityregions, the overall median ΔV is only 30 km s-1. Forsimilar separations and isolation criteria, galaxy satellites withlarger luminosity ratios (i.e., less dynamical friction) in higherdensity regions have ΔV approximately twice as large. Weconjecture that our orbits are highly eccentric, so that the indirecteffect of dynamical friction leads to predominantly small ΔV.However, the halos of our galaxies may also be of low density (althoughhighly extended).
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|The Mass-to-Light Ratio of Binary Galaxies|
We report on the mass-to-light ratio determination based on a newlyselected binary galaxy sample, which includes a large number of pairswhose separations exceed a few hundred kpc. The probabilitydistributions of the projected separation and the velocity differencehave been calculated considering the contamination of optical pairs, andthe mass-to-light (M/L) ratio has been determined based on the maximumlikelihood method. The best estimate of the M/L in the B band for 57pairs is found to be 28-36 depending on the orbital parameters and thedistribution of optical pairs (solar unit: H_0=50 km s^-1 Mpc^-1). Thebest estimate of the M/L for 30 pure spiral pairs is found to be 12-16.These results are relatively smaller than those obtained in previousstudies but are consistent with each other within the errors. Althoughthe number of pairs with large separation is significantly increasedcompared with previous samples, the M/L does not show any tendency ofincrease but is found to be almost independent of the separation ofpairs beyond 100 kpc. The constancy of the M/L beyond 100 kpc mayindicate that the typical halo size of spiral galaxies is less than ~100kpc.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|Close galaxy pairs in low and medium density regions: The southern sky.|
We extend to the southern hemisphere a continuing program of optical andHI observations of galaxy pairs (Chengalur \etal 1993, 1994, 1995 andNordgren \etal 1997). These pairs are drawn from published redshiftcatalogs and represent a complete sample. We present new data of 15pairs observed with the Palomar 5-meter telescope, Mount Stromlo SidingSpring 40-inch telescope, Australia Telescope Compact Array and VLA Dsynthesis array. These galaxy pairs are all defined as close pairs(projected separations < 100 kpc). HI companions are found near fiveof 15 pairs.
|The Montreal Blue Galaxy Survey.III.Third List of UV-Bright Candidates|
We present and discuss the latest addition of the Montreal Blue Galaxy(MBG) survey. Inspection of 59 Curtis Schmidt plates resulted in theidentification of 135 new UV-bright galaxies with B < 15.5. Thisbrings the total number of MBGs to 469. New results of the V/V_m testshow that our survey is complete to B = 14.7. From our most recentspectroscopic follow-up, we confirm the discovery of one new Seyfert 1galaxy and possibly one new Seyfert 2 galaxy. We confirm also the biasof the MBG survey towards the low-excitation and metal rich StarburstNucleus Galaxies (SBNGs). The spectral characteristics of the MBGs aresimilar to those of the infrared luminous IRAS galaxies. As a commoncharacteristic, they show a mean ratio Log([NII]/Hα ) in excess of0.2 dex as compared to normal disk HII regions. In general, the MBGshave lower far-infrared luminosities (LIR < 10(11)Lsun) and are nearer (z < 0.05) than the luminous IRASgalaxies. The distribution of the morphologies of the MBGs indicates ahigh number of early-type spirals (Sb and earlier). Nearly half of thesegalaxies also possess a bar. In our sample, the fraction of galaxieswith bars depends on the morphology and increases towards the late-typespirals. However, if we consider only isolated galaxies, the late-typespirals show a clear tendency to be barred. Signs of a recentinteraction with neighbor galaxies are obvious only in 24% of ourcandidates. Although this number is only a lower limit, it isnevertheless sufficiently low to suggest that in a majority of massivegalaxies the burst of star formation do not depends solely on dynamicalprocesses.
|Scaleheights of 486 southern spiral galaxies and some statistical correlation|
Based on Peng's method (1988), we obtain scaleheights of 486 southernspiral galaxies, the images of which are taken from the Digitized SkySurvey at Xinglong Station of Beijing Astronomical Observatory. Thefitted spiral arms of 70 galaxies are compared with their images to gettheir optimum inclinations. The scaleheights of other 416 ones arelisted in Table A1 in Appendix. After compiling and analyzing the data,we find some statistical correlations. The most interesting results arethat a flatter galaxy is bluer and looks brighter, and galaxies becomeflatter along the Hubble sequence Sab -- Scd. Based on photographic dataof the National Geographic Society -- Palomar Observatory Sky Survey(NGS-POSS) obtained using the Oschin Telescope Palomar Mountain. TheNGS-POSS was funded by a grant from the National Geographic Society tothe California Institute of Technology. The plates were processed intothe present compressed digital form with their permission. The DigitizedSky Survey was produced at the Space Telescope Science Institute underUS Government grant NAG W-2166. Table A1 is available in electronic fromonly, via anonymous ftp 126.96.36.199 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Candidates for a southern extension of the Karachentsev catalogue of isolated pairs of galaxies.|
|The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies|
The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies (CSRG) is a comprehensivecompilation of diameters, axis ratios, relative bar position angles, andmorphologies of inner and outer rings, pseudorings, and lenses in 3692galaxies south of declination -17 deg. The purpose of the catalog is toevaluate the idea that these ring phenomena are related to orbitalresonances with a bar or oval in galaxy potentials. The catalog is basedon visual inspection of most of the 606 fields of the Science ResearchCouncil (SRC) IIIa-J southern sky survey, with the ESO-B, ESO-R, andPalomar Sky surveys used as auxiliaries when needed for overexposed coreregions. The catalog is most complete for SRC fields 1-303 (mostly southof declination -42 deg). In addition to ringed galaxies, a list of 859mostly nonringed galaxies intended for comparison with other catalogs isprovided. Other findings from the CSRG that are not based on statisticsare the identification of intrinsic bar/ring misalignment; bars whichunderfill inner rings; dimpling of R'1pseudorings; pointy, rectangular, or hexagonal inner or outer ringshapes; a peculiar polar-ring-related system; and other extreme examplesof spiral structure and ring morphology.
|Quantitative Morphology of Bars in Spiral Galaxies|
As suggested by numerical simulations, the axis ratio of the bar is afundamental parameter to describe the dynamical evolution of a barredgalaxy. In a first-order approximation considering bars as ellipticalfeatures, visual measurements of bar axis ratios and lengths of 136spiral galaxies were performed on photographs of good linear scale.Despite the limitations affecting such measurements, morphologicalproperties of bars in spirals along the Hubble sequence as well as therelationship between the bar axis ratio and nuclear star formationactivity are studied. It is found that the relative length of bars inearly-type galaxies is, on average, about a factor of 3 larger than thelength observed in late-type spirals. Also, a relation between barlengths and bulge diameters is observed for both early-type andlate-type spirals, confirming results from previous works. Furthermore,although the number of objects is small, there is an apparentcorrelation between the presence of nuclear star formation activity andthe bar axis ratio: about 71% of the starburst galaxies included in thesample have a strong bar (b/a < 0.6). The introduction of thesequantitative parameters in galaxy classification schemes is discussed.
|On the size and formation mechanism of the largest star-forming complexes in spiral and irregular galaxies|
The average diameters of the largest star complexes in most of thespiral and irregular galaxies in the Sandage and Bedke Atlas of Galaxieswere measured from the Atlas photographs. The complex diametersDc correlate with galaxy magnitude as Dc = 0.18 -0.14MB, which has about the same slope as the correlation forthe largest H II regions studied by Kennicutt. There is no obviouscorrelation between Dc and either Hubble type or spiral armclass at a given magnitude. The variation of Dc withMB closely matches the expected variation in thecharacteristic length of the gaseous gravitational instabilityconsidering that the rotation curve varies with MB and thatthe stability parameter Q is about 1 in the outer regions of the disk.This match corresponds to an effective velocity dispersion of 6.1 km/sthat is about the same for all spiral and irregular galaxies.
|Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members|
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.
|Southern Sky Redshift Survey - The catalog|
The catalog of radial velocities for galaxies which comprise thediameter-limited sample of the Southern Sky Redshift Survey ispresented. It consolidates the data of observations carried out at theLas Campanas Observatory, Observatorio Nacional, and South AfricanAstronomical Observatory. The criteria used for the sample selection aredescribed, as well as the observational procedures and the techniqueutilized to obtain the final radial velocities. The intercomparisonbetween radial velocity measurements from different telescopes indicatesthat the final data base is fairly homogeneous with a typical error ofabout 40 km/s. The sample is at present 90 percent complete, and themissing galaxies are predominantly objects with very low surfacebrightness for which it is very difficult to obtain optical redshifts.
|Weakly barred early-type ringed galaxies. III - The remarkable outer-ringed S0+ galaxy NGC 7020|
The southern S0+ galaxy NGC 7020 presents an unusual morphology: itincludes a very regular outer ring which is completely detached andwhich envelops an inner ring/lens zone with an exotic hexagonal shape.The ring has a high contrast compared with those usually observed inbarred galaxies, yet NGC 7020 is not obviously barred. In this paper,the structure of this galaxy is studied by means of UBVRI CCD surfacephotometry. The photometry reveals a complex system and shows that mostof the recent star formation in the galaxy has taken place in the outerring. Two bright knots are found on the major axis of the hexagonal zonethat appear to be true enhancements of old stars rather than youngassociations. Between these knots and the bulge there are dips in thesurface brightness and a clear zone of rectangular isophotes.
|Revised supernova rates in Shapley-Ames galaxies|
Observations of 855 Shapley Ames galaxies made from November 1, 1980 toOctober 31, 1988, together with improved supernova luminosities, havebeen used to derive the frequency of supernovae of different types, andthe results are presented in tables. From a uniform database of 24supernovae discovered, the following SN rates are found, expressed in SNper century per 10 to the 10th L(B)(solar): SN Ia, 0.3; SN Ib, 0.3; andSN II, 1.0. The present data confirm the relatively high frequency of SNII in late-type galaxies that has been found by many previousinvestigators.
|Mass-to-Light Ratios of Binary Galaxies. III. Analysis|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1987ApJS...64..427S&db_key=AST
|The spatial distribution of 10 micron luminosity in spiral galaxies|
The present ground-based 10-micron observations of 133 nearby luminous,noninteracting IR galaxies indicate that about 40 percent of theearly-type barred spirals are associated with enhanced 10-micronluminosity in the central (about 1-kpc diameter) region. The luminositysource may be either Seyfert activity or star formation, or both. Thedifference in bar-central luminosity association in early- and late-typespirals indicates that the bulge/disk ratio may be an importantparameter in the determination of central IR luminosity in barredspirals.
|The supernova rate in Shapley-Ames galaxies|
A visual search for SNs in 748 Shapley-Ames galaxies during the 5-yearperiod from November 1, 1980 to October 31, 1985 has yielded SN rates of0.3h-squared, 0.4h-squared, and 1.1h-squared for objects of types Ia,Ib, and II, respectively. These data are judged to imply that Tammann's(1974, 1982) SN rates are probably too high by a factor of about 3. Fora Galactic luminosity of 2 x 10 to the 10th solar L(B), the predicted SNrates in the Milky Way system are 0.6h-squared, 0.8h-squared, and2.2h-squared/century, respectively, for the three aforementioned types.
|Study of a complete sample of galaxies. II - Spectroscopy of the nuclei|
Spectroscopic observations of a complete sample of 320 galaxies (fromthe Revised Shapley Ames Catalog of Sandage and Tammann, 1981) withdeclination less than or equal to +20 deg, galactocentric velocity lessthan 3000 km/s, and absolute magnitude brighter than M(B) = -21.0 arereported. The 400-700-nm spectra were obtained with resolution about 1nm using the Boller and Chivens spectrograph and image-dissector scannerat the Cassegrain focus of the 1.52-m telescope at ESO on 36 nightsduring 1980-1983. The data are presented in extensive tables and spectraand briefly characterized. The majority of the spectra are classified asH II regions ionized by hot stars or as Seyfert-like nebulosities.
|Southern Galaxy Catalogue.|
|Candidate Galaxies for Study of the Local Velocity Field and Distance Scale Using Space Telescope - Part Two - the More Difficult Cases|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985AJ.....90.2001S&db_key=AST
|Observations of H I in southern galaxies. I|
H I has been detected in 19 of 51 southern galaxies observed in the21-cm line. A comparison of the present results with those of Fisher andTully (1981) and Reif et al. (1982) for the same galaxies showssystematic differences that cannot be explained by calibrationprocedures. Two objects, NGC 2915 and IC 4662, are noted to be ofinterest in virtue of their high H I surface density.
|The dependence on distance and redshift of the velocity vectors of the sun, the Galaxy, and the Local Group with respect to different extragalactic frames of reference|
The solar apex S is confirmed to move steadily from S-prime toS-asterisk, when the mean redshift of the reference frame increases fromsmall to large values, on the basis of a new analysis of the solarmotion and Hubble ratio. Most of the change takes place in the 0-4000km/sec interval. The velocity vectors increase steadily, and thedirections of the apexes drift progressively as the mean distance orredshift of the reference frame increases. The frame of referencedefined by galaxies at z greater than 0.01 is essentially at rest withrespect to background radiation, suggesting that any intrinsic dipolaranisotropy of the background radiation is probably less than about0.0001.
|Study of a complete sample of galaxies. I - UBV aperture photometry|
UBV photometry was performed over the period September 1979-February1984 on 320 galaxies in the Revised Shapely-Ames catalog of galaxies(1981). The galaxies chosen had radial velocities under 3000 km/sec,declinations of no more than +20 deg and absolute magnitudes of at most-21.0. V, B-V and U-B data are provided for all the objects, along withdata for other galaxies which were either Seyfert galaxies or had astarburst nucleus.
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