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An Atlas of [N II] and [O III] Images and Spectra of Planetary Nebulae
We present an atlas of Hubble Space Telescope images and ground-based,long-slit, narrowband spectra centered on the 6584 Å line of [NII] and the 5007 Å line of [O III]. The spectra were obtained fora variety of slit positions across each target (as shown on the images)in an effort to account for nonspherical nebular geometries in a robustmanner. We have extended the prolate ellipsoidal shell model originallydevised by Aaquist, Zhang, and Kwok to generate synthetic images, aswell as long-slit spectra. Using this model, we have derived basicparameters for the subsample of PNe that present ellipsoidal appearancesand regular kinematic patterns. We find differences between ourparameters for the target PNe as compared to those of previous studies,which we attribute to increased spatial resolution for our image dataand the inclusion of kinematic data in the model fits. The data andanalysis presented in this paper can be combined with detections ofnebular angular expansion rates to determine precise distances to the PNtargets.

The Abundances of Light Neutron-Capture Elements in Planetary Nebulae. I. Photoionization Modeling and Ionization Corrections
We have conducted a large-scale survey of 120 planetary nebulae (PNe) tosearch for the near-infrared emission lines [Kr III] 2.199 μm and [SeIV] 2.287 μm. The neutron (n)-capture elements Se and Kr may beenriched in a PN if its progenitor star experienced s-processnucleosynthesis and third dredge-up. In order to determine Se and Krabundances, we have added these elements to the atomic databases of thephotoionization codes Cloudy and XSTAR, which we use to deriveionization correction factors (ICFs) to account for the abundances ofunobserved Se and Kr ions. However, much of the atomic data governingthe ionization balance of these two elements are unknown, and have beenapproximated from general principles. We find that uncertainties in theatomic data can lead to errors approaching 0.3 dex in the derived Seabundances and up to 0.2-0.25 dex for Kr. To reduce the uncertainties inthe Kr ionization balance stemming from the approximate atomic data, wehave modeled 10 bright PNe in our sample, selected because they exhibitemission lines from multiple Kr ions in their optical and near-infraredspectra. We have empirically adjusted the uncertain Kr atomic data untilthe observed line intensities of the various Kr ions are adequatelyreproduced by our models. Using the adjusted Kr atomic data, we havecomputed a grid of models over a wide range of physical parameters(central star temperature, nebular density, and ionization parameter)and derived formulae that can be used to compute Se and Kr ICFs. In thesecond paper of this series, we will apply these ICFs to our full sampleof 120 PNe, which comprises the first large-scale survey of n-captureelements in PNe.This paper includes data taken at the McDonald Observatory of theUniversity of Texas at Austin.

Chemical abundances in planetary nebulae and stellar evolution.
I will review basic aspects of galactic Planetary Nebulae focussing onstatus of art on their chemical abundances and relationship with thestellar evolution theory.

Planetary Nebula Abundances and Morphology: Probing the Chemical Evolution of the Milky Way
This paper presents a homogeneous study of abundances in a sample of 79northern Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) whose morphological classeshave been uniformly determined. Ionic abundances and plasma diagnosticswere derived from selected optical line strengths in the literature, andelemental abundances were estimated with the ionization correctionfactor developed by Kingsbourgh & Barlow in 1994. We compare theelemental abundances to the final yields obtained from stellar evolutionmodels of low- and intermediate-mass stars, and we confirm that mostbipolar PNe have high nitrogen and helium abundance and are the likelyprogeny of stars with main-sequence mass greater than 3Msolar. We derive =0.27 and discuss the implication of such ahigh ratio in connection with the solar neon abundance. We determine theGalactic gradients of oxygen and neon and foundΔlog(O/H)/ΔR=-0.01 dex kpc-1 andΔlog(Ne/H)/ΔR=-0.01 dex kpc-1. These flat PNgradients are irreconcilable with Galactic metallicity gradientsflattening with time.

An Extended FUSE Survey of Diffuse O VI Emission in the Interstellar Medium
We present a survey of diffuse O VI emission in the interstellar medium(ISM) obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE).Spanning 5.5 yr of FUSE observations, from launch through 2004 December,our data set consists of 2925 exposures along 183 sight lines, includingall of those with previously published O VI detections. The data wereprocessed using an implementation of CalFUSE version 3.1 modified tooptimize the signal-to-noise ratio and velocity scale of spectra from anaperture-filling source. Of our 183 sight lines, 73 show O VIλ1032 emission, 29 at >3 σ significance. Six of the 3σ features have velocities |vLSR|>120 kms-1, while the others have |vLSR|<=50 kms-1. Measured intensities range from 1800 to 9100 LU (lineunit; 1 photon cm-2 s-1 sr-1), with amedian of 3300 LU. Combining our results with published O VI absorptiondata, we find that an O VI-bearing interface in the local ISM yields anelectron density ne=0.2-0.3 cm-3 and a path lengthof 0.1 pc, while O VI-emitting regions associated with high-velocityclouds in the Galactic halo have densities an order of magnitude lowerand path lengths 2 orders of magnitude longer. Although the O VIintensities along these sight lines are similar, the emission isproduced by gas with very different properties.Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far UltravioletSpectroscopic Explorer. FUSE is operated for NASA by Johns HopkinsUniversity under NASA contract NAS5-32985.

On near Chandrasekhar mass central stars of planetary nebulae
Aims.A recent spectroscopic analysis of central stars of planetarynebulae (CSPNe) claims that the sample studied includes five CSPNe withmasses very close to the Chandrasekhar limit of white dwarfs. This claimis tested using available kinematical and chemical abundanceinformation. Methods.Kinematical parameters are extracted fromGalactic orbits and compared with parameters expected for populations ofdifferent ages. The chemistry of the nebulae is compared with averagevalues for different types. Results.The reported high masses arenot supported by our investigation. The claimed high central star massesare in contradiction with all other evidence. A more consistent pictureemerges if CSPN masses close to the peak of the white dwarf massdistribution are assumed.

The structure of planetary nebulae: theory vs. practice
Context.This paper is the first in a short series dedicated to thelong-standing astronomical problem of de-projecting the bi-dimensional,apparent morphology of a three-dimensional mass of gas. Aims.Wefocus on the density distribution in real planetary nebulae (and alltypes of expanding nebulae). Methods. We introduce some basictheoretical notions, discuss the observational methodology, and developan accurate procedure for determining the matter radial profile withinthe sharp portion of nebula in the plane of the sky identified by thezero-velocity-pixel-column (zvpc) of high-resolution spectral images.Results. The general and specific applications of the method (andsome caveats) are discussed. Moreover, we present a series of evolutivesnapshots, combining illustrative examples of both model and trueplanetary nebulae. Conclusions. The zvpc radial-densityreconstruction - added to tomography and 3D recovery developed at theAstronomical Observatory of Padua (Italy) - constitutes a very usefultool for looking more closely at the spatio-kinematics, physicalconditions, ionic structure, and evolution of expanding nebulae.

Full polarization study of SiO masers at 86 GHz
Aims.We study the polarization of the SiO maser emission in arepresentative sample of evolved stars in order to derive an estimate ofthe strength of the magnetic field, and thus determine the influence ofthis magnetic field on evolved stars. Methods: .We madesimultaneous spectroscopic measurements of the 4 Stokes parameters, fromwhich we derived the circular and linear polarization levels. Theobservations were made with the IF polarimeter installed at the IRAM 30m telescope. Results: . A discussion of the existing SiO masermodels is developed in the light of our observations. Under the Zeemansplitting hypothesis, we derive an estimate of the strength of themagnetic field. The averaged magnetic field varies between 0 and 20Gauss, with a mean value of 3.5 Gauss, and follows a 1/r law throughoutthe circumstellar envelope. As a consequence, the magnetic field mayplay the role of a shaping, or perhaps collimating, agent of thecircumstellar envelopes in evolved objects.

Photospheric opacity and over-expanded envelopes of asymptotic giant branch stars
I suggest that the behavior of the photospheric opacity in oxygen-rich(similar to solar abundance) upper asymptotic giant branch stars maycause these stars to substantially expand for a few thousand years. Iterm this process over-expansion. This may occur when the photospheric(effective) temperature drops to Tp ˜ 3000 K, and becausethe opacity sharply increases as temperature further decreases down toTp ˜ 2000 K. The much higher opacity implies a much lowerphotospheric density, which stabilizes the envelope structure. As massloss proceeds, the star eventually contracts to become a post-asymptoticgiant branch star. Some possible outcomes of the over-expanded phase arediscussed: (1) The over-expanded phase may be connected to the formationof semi-periodic concentric arcs (rings; shells); (2) the over-expandedphase may be related to the positive correlation between the mass lossrate and the transition to axisymmetric mass loss geometry; and (3) anover-expanded asymptotic giant branch star, which doubles its radius, issomewhat more likely to swallow a low mass companion.

On the nitrogen abundance of fast, low-ionization emission regions: the outer knots of the planetary nebula NGC 7009
We have constructed a 3D photoionization model of a planetary nebula(PN) similar in structure to NGC 7009 with its outer pair of knots (alsoknown as FLIERs - fast, low-ionization emission regions). The work ismotivated by the fact that the strong [NII]λ6583 line emissionfrom FLIERs in many PNe has been attributed to a significant localoverabundance of nitrogen. We explore the possibility that the apparentenhanced nitrogen abundance previously reported in the FLIERs may be dueto ionization effects. The model is constrained by the results obtainedby Gonçalves et al. from the analysis of both Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST) [OIII] and [NII] images, and long-slit spectra of NGC7009. Our model is indeed able to reproduce the main spectroscopic andimaging characteristics of the bright inner rim of NGC 7009 and itsouter pairs of knots, assuming homogeneous elemental abundancesthroughout the nebula, for nitrogen as well as all the other elementsincluded in the model.We also study the effects of a narrow slit on our non-sphericallysymmetric density distribution, via the convolution of the model resultswith the profile of the long slit used to obtain the spectroscopicobservations that constrained our model. This effect significantlyenhances the [NII]/Hβ emission, more in the FLIERs than in theinner rim.Because of the fact that the (N+/N)/(O+/O) ratiopredicted by our models is 0.60 for the rim and is 0.72 for the knots,so clearly in disagreement with the N+/N = O+/Oassumption of the ionization correction factor (icf) method, the icfswill be underestimated by the empirical scheme, in both components, rimand knots, but more so in the knots. This effect is partly responsiblefor the apparent inhomogeneous N abundance empirically derived. Thedifferences in the above ratio in these two components of the nebula maybe due to a number of effects including charge exchange - as pointed outpreviously by other authors - and the difference in the ionizationpotentials of the relevant species - which makes this ratio extremelysensitive to the shape of the local radiation field. Because of thelatter, a realistic density distribution is essential to the modellingof a non-spherical object, if useful information is to be extracted fromspatially resolved observations, as in the case of NGC 7009.

Precatalysmic binary systems.
Not Available

A Possible Hidden Population of Spherical Planetary Nebulae
We argue that relative to nonspherical planetary nebulae (PNs),spherical PNs are about an order of magnitude less likely to be detectedat distances of several kiloparsecs. Noting the structure similarity ofhalos around nonspherical PNs to that of observed spherical PNs, weassume that most unobserved spherical PNs are also similar in structureto the spherical halos around nonspherical PNs. The fraction ofnonspherical PNs with detected spherical halos around them, taken from arecent study, leads us to the claim of a large (relative to that ofnonspherical PNs), hidden population of spherical PNs in the visibleband. Building a toy model for the luminosity evolution of PNs, we showthat the claimed detection fraction of spherical PNs based on halosaround nonspherical PNs is compatible with observational sensitivities.We use this result to update earlier studies on the different PN-shapingroutes in the binary model. We estimate that ~30% of all PNs arespherical, namely, that their progenitors did not interact with anybinary companion. This fraction is to be compared with the ~3% fractionof observed spherical PNs among all observed PNs. From all PNs, ~15% owetheir moderate elliptical shape to the interaction of their progenitorswith planets, while ~55% of all PNs owe their elliptical or bipolarshapes to the interaction of their progenitors with stellar companions.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission bands in selected planetary nebulae: a study of the behaviour with gas phase C/O ratio
Airborne and space-based low-resolution spectroscopy in the 1980sdiscovered tantalizing quantitative relationships between the gas phaseC/O abundance ratio in planetary nebulae (PNe) and the fractions oftotal far-infrared (FIR) luminosity radiated by the 7.7- and 11.3-μmbands (the C = C stretch and C-H bend, respectively), of polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Only a very small sample of nebulae wasstudied in this context, limited by airborne observations of the7.7-μm band, or the existence of adequate IRAS Low ResolutionSpectrometer data for the 11.3-μm band. To investigate these trendsfurther, we have expanded the sample of planetaries available for thisstudy using Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) low-resolution spectrasecured with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer and the Long WavelengthSpectrometer. The new sample of 43 PNe, of which 17 are detected in PAHemission, addresses the range from C/O = 0.2-13 with the objective oftrying to delineate the pathways by which carbon dust grains might haveformed in planetaries. For the 7.7-μm and 11.3-μm bands, weconfirm that the ratio of band strength to total infrared (IR)luminosity is correlated with the nebular C/O ratio. Expressed inequivalent width terms, the cut-on C/O ratio for the 7.7-μm band isfound to be 0.6+0.2-0.4, in good accord with thatfound from sensitive ground-based measurements of the 3.3-μ band.

On the progenitor of V838 Monocerotis
We summarize and analyze the available observational data on theprogenitor and the environment of V838 Mon. From the availablephotometric data for the progenitor of V838 Mon we exclude thepossibility that the object before eruption was an evolved red giantstar (AGB or RGB star). We find that most likely it was a main sequenceor pre-main sequence star of ˜ 5-10~ Mȯ. From thelight echo structure and evolution we conclude that the reflecting dustis of interstellar nature rather than blown by V838 Mon in the past. Wediscuss the IRAS and CO data for interstellar medium observed near theposition of V838 Mon. Several interstellar molecular regions have radialvelocities similar to that of V838 Mon, so dust seen in the light echomight be related to one of them.

The evolution of planetary nebulae. III. Internal kinematics and expansion parallaxes
A detailed theoretical study of the basic internal kinematics ofplanetary nebulae is presented, based on 1D radiation-hydrodynamicssimulations of circumstellar envelopes around central stars of 0.595 and0.696 Mȯ. By means of observable quantities like radialsurface-brightness distributions and emission-line profiles computedfrom the models, a comparison with real objects was performed andrevealed a reasonable agreement. This allowed to draw importantconclusions by investigating the kinematics of these models in detail.Firstly, it is shown that the determination of kinematical ages,normally considered to be simple if size and expansion rate of an objectare given, can seriously be flawed. Secondly, the expansion law of aplanetary nebula is different from what is assumed for derivingspatio-kinematical models. Thirdly and most importantly, ourhydrodynamical models help to correctly use existing angular expansionmeasurements for distance determinations. The mere combination of theangular expansion rates with the spectroscopic expansion velocitiesleads always to a serious underestimate of the distance, the degree ofwhich depends on the evolutionary state of the object. The necessarycorrection factor varies between 3 and 1.3. Individual correctionfactors can be estimated with an accuracy of about 10% by matching ourhydrodynamical models to real objects. As a result, revised distancesfor a few objects with reliable angular expansion rates are presented.But even these corrected distances are not always satisfying: they stillappear to be inconsistent with other distance determinations and, evenmore disturbing, with the accepted theory of post-asymptotic giantbranch evolution. As a byproduct of the angular expansion measurements,the transition times from the vicinity of the asymptotic giant branch tothe planetary-nebula regime could be estimated. They appear to beshorter than assumed in the present evolutionary calculations.

The distances of less-evolved planetary nebulae: a further test of statistical distance scales
It has recently been pointed out that a number of the methods used todetermine planetary nebulae (PNe) distances may be appreciably in error.Whilst the scales of Zhang (1995), Bensby & Lundstrom (2001) andothers are appropriate for higher radio brightness temperaturesTB, those of Phillips and Daub are more relevant whereTB is small.We note, in the following, that the absolute bolometric magnitudes ofless-evolved PNe are likely to be similar. The mean value of can therefore be used to constrain PNe distancesD, and confirm the distance scales for higher TB outflows. Wehave used this procedure to evaluate distances to a further 47 PNe, andwe find that the mean values of are consistent with those ofCahn, Kaler & Stanghellini (1992), Zhang (1995), Phillips et al.(2004) and van de Steene & Zijlstra (1995). They are, as expected,inconsistent with the lower TB scale of Phillips (2002a).

Integral Field Spectroscopy of Faint Halos of Planetary Nebulae
We present the first integral field spectroscopy observations of the twoplanetary nebulae NGC 3242 and NGC 4361 with the VIMOS instrumentattached to VLT-UT3. By co-adding a large number of spaxels, we reach anemission-line detection limit of 5×10-18 ergscm-2 s-1 arcsec-2. In the case of NGC3242, we succeed in determining some properties of the halo. The radialsurface brightness profile in [O III] implies increasing mass lossbefore the formation of the planetary nebula. Traces of the mysterious``rings'' are clearly visible. We find for the first time an apparenttemperature gradient across a halo: from about 16,000 K close to theshell/halo transition to 20,000 K at the halo's outer edge. No lineemission is seen in the suspected halo region of NGC 4361 down to thesensitivity limit.

Modelling of aspherical nebulae - I. A quick pseudo-3D photoionization code
We describe a pseudo-3D photoionization code, NEBU&LOWBAR;3D, and itsassociated visualization tool, VISNEB&LOWBAR;3D, which are able to treata wide variety of nebular geometries easily and rapidly, by combiningmodels obtained with a 1D photoionization code. The only requirement forthe code to work is that the ionization source is unique and notextended. It is applicable as long as the diffuse ionizing radiationfield is not dominant and strongly inhomogeneous. As examples of thecapabilities of these new tools, we consider two very differenttheoretical cases. One is that of a high-excitation planetary nebulathat has an ellipsoidal shape with two polar density knots. The other isthat of a blister HII region, for which we have also constructed aspherical model (the spherical impostor), which has exactly the sameHβ surface brightness distribution as the blister model and thesame ionizing star.We present and comment upon line intensity maps corresponding todifferent viewing angles. We also use the computed line intensities toderive physical properties of the model in the same way as an observerwould do for a real object. For example, we derive the `apparent' valueof N/O for the entire nebula and along spectral slits of differentorientations. For this, we take the electron temperature and densityderived from the [NII]5755Å/[NII]6583Åand[OII]3726Å/[OII]3729Åratios, respectively, and we adopt thecommon recipe: N/O = N+/O+. Interestingly, we findthat, in the case of our high-excitation nebula, the derived N/O iswithin 10-20 per cent of the real value, even when the slit crosses thehigh-density knots. On the other hand, for the blister HII region andits spherical impostor, we find that the apparent N/O is much smallerthan the true one (about 0.68 and 0.5 of it, respectively).These two examples warn against preconceived ideas when interpretingspectroscopic and imaging data of HII regions and planetary nebulae. Thetools NEBU&LOWBAR;3D and VISNEB&LOWBAR;3D, which will be made publiclyavailable in the future, should facilitate the performance of numericalexperiments, to yield a better understanding of the physics ofaspherical ionized nebulae.

The [Fe IV] Discrepancy: Constraining the Iron Abundances in Nebulae
We study the current discrepancy between the model-predicted andmeasured concentrations of Fe++ and Fe+3 inionized nebulae. We calculate a set of photoionization models, updatedwith the atomic data relevant to the problem, and compare their resultswith those derived for the available nebulae where both [Fe III] and [FeIV] lines have been measured. Our new model results are closer to themeasured values than the results of previous calculations, but adiscrepancy remains. This discrepancy translates into an uncertainty inthe derived Fe abundances of a factor of up to ~4. We explore thepossible causes of this discrepancy and find that errors in the Featomic data may be the most likely explanation. The discrepancy can befully accounted for by any of the following changes: (1) an increase bya factor of ~10 in the recombination rate (radiative plus dielectronic,or charge transfer) for Fe+3, (2) an increase by a factor of2-3 in the effective collision strengths for Fe++, or (3) adecrease by a factor of 2-3 in the effective collision strengths forFe+3. We derive the Fe abundances implied by these threeexplanations and use the results to constrain the degree of depletion ofFe in our sample nebulae. The Galactic H II regions and planetarynebulae are found to have high depletion factors, with less than 5% oftheir Fe atoms in the gas phase. The extragalactic H II regions (LMC 30Doradus, SMC N88A, and SBS 0335-052) have somewhat lower depletions. Themetal-deficient blue compact galaxy SBS 0335-052 could have from 13% to40% of Fe in the gas phase. The depletions derived for the differentobjects define a trend of increasing depletion at higher metallicities.

The Chemical Composition of Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Regard to Inhomogeneity in the Gas Density in Their Envelopes
The results of a study of the chemical compositions of Galacticplanetary nebulae taking into account two types of inhomogeneity in thenebular gas density in their envelopes are reported. New analyticalexpressions for the ionization correction factors have been derived andare used to determine the chemical compositions of the nebular gas inGalactic planetary nebulae. The abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S, and Arhave been found for 193 objects. The Y Z diagrams for various Heabundances are analyzed for type II planetary nebulae separately andjointly with HII regions. The primordial helium abundance Y p andenrichment ratio dY/dZ are determined, and the resulting values arecompared with the data of other authors. Radial abundance gradients inthe Galactic disk are studied using type II planetary nebulae.

Helium recombination spectra as temperature diagnostics for planetary nebulae
Electron temperatures derived from the HeI recombination line ratios,designated Te(HeI), are presented for 48 planetary nebulae(PNe). We study the effect that temperature fluctuations inside nebulaehave on the Te(HeI) value. We show that a comparison betweenTe(HeI) and the electron temperature derived from the Balmerjump of the HI recombination spectrum, designated Te(HI),provides an opportunity to discriminate between the paradigms of achemically homogeneous plasma with temperature and density variations,and a two-abundance nebular model with hydrogen-deficient materialembedded in diffuse gas of a `normal' chemical composition (i.e.~solar), as the possible causes of the dichotomy between the abundancesthat are deduced from collisionally excited lines and those deduced fromrecombination lines. We find that Te(HeI) values aresignificantly lower than Te(HI) values, with an averagedifference of = 4000 K. Theresult is consistent with the expectation of the two-abundance nebularmodel but is opposite to the prediction of the scenarios of temperaturefluctuations and/or density inhomogeneities. From the observeddifference between Te(HeI) and Te(HI), we estimatethat the filling factor of hydrogen-deficient components has a typicalvalue of 10-4. In spite of its small mass, the existence ofhydrogen-deficient inclusions may potentially have a profound effect inenhancing the intensities of HeI recombination lines and thereby lead toapparently overestimated helium abundances for PNe.

The evolution of planetary nebulae. II. Circumstellar environment and expansion properties
We investigate and discuss the expansion properties of planetary nebulaeby means of 1D radiation-hydrodynamics models computed for differentinitial envelope configurations and central star evolutionary tracks. Inparticular, we study how the expansion depends on the initial densitygradient of the circumstellar envelope and show that it is possible toderive information on the very last mass-loss episodes during the star'sfinal evolution along and off the asymptotic giant branch. To facilitatethe comparison of the models with real objects, we have also computedobservable quantities like surface brightness and emission-lineprofiles. With the help of newly acquired high-resolution emission-lineprofiles for a sample of planetary nebulae we show that models withinitial envelopes based on the assumption of a stationary wind outflowfail to explain the observed expansion speeds of virtually all of theobserved planetary nebulae. Instead it must be assumed that during thevery last phase of evolution along the final asymptotic giant branchevolution the mass-loss rate increases in strength, resulting in a muchsteeper slope of the circumstellar radial density distribution. Underthese conditions, the expansion properties of the nebular gas differconsiderably from the self-similar solutions found for isothermalconditions. Furthermore, the mass loss must remain at a rather highlevel until the stellar remnant begins to evolve quickly towards thecentral star regime. Current theoretical computations of dust-drivenmass-loss which are restricted to rather low temperatures cannot beapplied during the star's departure from the asymptotic giant branch.Based on observations obtained at the 3.5 μm NTT and the 1.2 μmCAT telescope of the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, and at the2.6 μm NOT telescope operated on the island of La Palma by NOTSA, inthe Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the InstitutodeAstrofísica de Canarias.Dedicated to Prof. V. Weidemann on the occasion of his 80th birthday,October 3, 2004.

Unresolved Hα Enhancements at High Galactic Latitude in the WHAM Sky Survey Maps
We have identified 85 regions of enhanced Hα emission at|b|>10deg subtending approximately 1° or less on theWisconsin Hα Mapper (WHAM) sky survey. These high-latitude ``WHAMpoint sources'' have Hα fluxes of 10-11-10-9ergs cm-2 s-1, radial velocities within about 70km s-1 of the LSR, and line widths that range from less than20 to about 80 km s-1 (FWHM). Twenty-nine of theseenhancements are not identified with either cataloged nebulae or hotstars and appear to have kinematic properties that differ from thoseobserved for planetary nebulae. Another 14 enhancements are near hotevolved low-mass stars that had no previously reported detections ofassociated nebulosity. The remainder of the enhancements are catalogedplanetary nebulae and small, high-latitude H II regions surroundingmassive O and early B stars.

Some implications of the introduction of scattered starlight in the spectrum of reddened stars
This paper presents new investigations on coherent scattering in theforward direction (orders of magnitude; conservation of energy;dependence of scattered light on geometry and wavelength), and on howscattered light contamination in the spectrum of reddened stars ispossibly related to as yet unexplained observations (the diminution ofthe 2200 Å bump when the obscuring material is close to the star,the difference between Hipparcos and photometric distances). This paperthen goes on to discuss the fit of the extinction curve, a possible roleof extinction by the gas in the far-UV, and the reasons of theinadequacy of the Fitzpatrick and Massa [ApJSS, 72 (1990) 163] fit.

A reexamination of electron density diagnostics for ionized gaseous nebulae
We present a comparison of electron densities derived from opticalforbidden line diagnostic ratios for a sample of over a hundred nebulae.We consider four density indicators, the [O II]λ3729/λ3726, [S II] λ6716/λ6731, [Cl III]λ5517/λ5537 and [Ar IV] λ4711/λ4740 doubletratios. Except for a few H II regions for which data from the literaturewere used, diagnostic line ratios were derived from our own high qualityspectra. For the [O II] λ3729/λ3726 doublet ratio, we findthat our default atomic data set, consisting of transition probabilitiesfrom Zeippen (\cite{zeippen1982}) and collision strengths from Pradhan(\cite{pradhan}), fit the observations well, although at high electrondensities, the [O II] doublet ratio yields densities systematicallylower than those given by the [S II] λ6716/λ6731 doubletratio, suggesting that the ratio of transition probabilities of the [OII] doublet, A(λ3729)/A(λ3726), given by Zeippen(\cite{zeippen1982}) may need to be revised upwards by approximately 6per cent. Our analysis also shows that the more recent calculations of[O II] transition probabilities by Zeippen (\cite{zeippen1987a}) andcollision strengths by McLaughlin & Bell (\cite{mclaughlin}) areinconsistent with the observations at the high and low density limits,respectively, and can therefore be ruled out. We confirm the earlierresult of Copetti & Writzl (\cite{copetti2002}) that the [O II]transition probabilities calculated by Wiese et al. (\cite{wiese}) yieldelectron densities systematically lower than those deduced from the [SII] λ6716/λ6731 doublet ratio and that the discrepancy ismost likely caused by errors in the transition probabilities calculatedby Wiese et al. (\cite{wiese}). Using our default atomic data set for [OII], we find that Ne([O II])  Ne([S II]) ≈Ne([Cl III])< Ne([Ar IV]).

Chemical abundances of planetary nebulae from optical recombination lines - II. Abundances derived from collisionally excited lines and optical recombination lines
In Paper I, we presented spectrophotometric measurements of emissionlines from the ultraviolet (UV) to the far-infrared for 12 Galacticplanetary nebulae (PNe) and derived nebular thermal and densitystructures using a variety of plasma diagnostics. The measurements andplasma diagnostic results are used in the current paper to determineelemental abundances in these nebulae. Abundance analyses are carriedout using both strong collisionally excited lines (CELs) and weakoptical recombination lines (ORLs) from heavy element ions.Assuming electron temperatures and densities derived from HIrecombination spectra (line and continuum), we are able to determine theORL C abundance relative to hydrogen for all the PNe in our sample, Nand O abundances for 11 of them and Ne abundances for nine of them. Inall cases, ORL abundances are found to be systematically higher than thecorresponding values deduced from CELs. In NGC 40, the discrepancybetween the abundances derived from the two types of emission linereaches a factor of 17 for oxygen. For the other 10 PNe, thediscrepancies for oxygen vary from 1.6 to 3.1. In general, collisionallyexcited infrared fine-structure lines, which have excitation energiesless than 103 K and consequently emissivities that areinsensitive to electron temperature and temperature fluctuations, yieldionic abundances comparable to those derived from optical/UV CELs. For agiven nebula, the discrepancies between the ORL and CEL abundances areof similar magnitude for different elements. In other words, relativeabundance ratios such as C/O, N/O and Ne/O deduced from the traditionalmethod based on strong CELs are comparable to those yielded by ORLs, fora wide range of ORL to CEL oxygen abundance ratios, varying from nearunity to over a factor of 20.We have also determined ORL abundances relative to hydrogen for thethird-row element magnesium for 11 nebulae in our sample. In strongcontrast to the cases for second-row elements, Mg abundances derivedfrom the MgII 3d-4f λ4481 ORL are nearly constant for all the PNeanalysed so far and agree within the uncertainties with the solarphotospheric value.In accordance with results from previous studies, the ORL to CELabundance ratio is correlated with the difference between the electrontemperatures derived from the [OIII] forbidden-line ratio, on the onehand, and from the hydrogen recombination Balmer discontinuity, on theother. We find that the discrepancy between the ORL and CEL abundancesis correlated with nebular absolute diameter, surface brightness, theelectron density derived from [SII] CELs, and excitation class. Theresults confirm that the dichotomy of temperatures and heavy elementalabundances determined from the two types of emission line, which hasbeen widely observed in PNe, is a strong function of nebular evolution,as first pointed out by Garnett and Dinerstein.Our analyses show that temperature fluctuations and/or densityinhomogeneities are incapable of explaining the large discrepanciesbetween the heavy elemental abundances and electron temperaturesdetermined from the two types of emission line. Our analyses support thebi-abundance model of Liu et al., who have proposed that PNe containanother previously unseen component of ionized gas which, highlyenriched in heavy elements, has an electron temperature of<~103 K and emits strongly in recombination lines but notin CELs. Our determinations of low average emission temperatures fromthe observed line intensity ratios of HeI and OII ORLs lend furthersupport to this scenario.

Chemical abundances of planetary nebulae from optical recombination lines - I. Observations and plasma diagnostics
We have obtained deep optical spectra of medium resolution for a sampleof 12 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe). Optical recombination lines(ORLs) from carbon, nitrogen and oxygen have been detected in 11 of themand neon ORLs in nine of them. All spectra were obtained by scanning along slit across the nebular surface, yielding relative line intensitiesfor the entire nebula that are suitable for comparison with integratedline fluxes measured in other wavelength regions using space-bornefacilities, such as the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and theInternational Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). For 11 PNe, ISO infraredspectra between 2.4 and 197 μm are available, most of them taken byourselves, plus a Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) infrared spectrum ofNGC 6210. IUE ultraviolet (UV) spectra are available for all nebulaeexcept one in our sample. The UV, optical and infrared spectra have beencombined to study nebular thermal and density structures and todetermine elemental abundances.We have determined UV to optical extinction curves towards these PNe byexamining observed fluxes of HI and HeII recombination lines, radiofree-free continuum flux density, and UV to optical nebular continua.For 11 PNe in our sample, the derived optical reddening curves are foundto be consistent with the standard Galactic extinction law for atotal-to-selective extinction ratio, R≡A(V)/EB-V= 3.1.However, the optical extinction curve towards Hu 1-2 yields R= 2.0. TheUV extinction towards Hu 1-2 and NGC 6572 is also found to be muchsteeper than the standard Galactic reddening law. In contrast, the UVextinction curve along the sight lines towards NGC 6210 is found to bemuch shallower, although in the latter case the uncertainties involvedare quite large.Electron temperatures and densities have been derived using a variety ofdiagnostic ratios of collisionally excited lines (CELs) in the UV,optical and infrared. The results show clear stratifications, both intemperature and density. Lines emitted by ions formed in regions ofhigher ionization degree yield higher temperatures than lines arisingfrom regions of lower ionization degree, while densities deduced fromratios of infrared diagnostic CELs of low critical densities, such asthe [OIII] 88-μm/52-μm ratio, are systematically lower than thosederived from UV and optical diagnostic lines, which in general have muchhigher critical densities than the infrared fine-structure lines.Electron temperatures have also been derived from the ratio of thenebular continuum Balmer discontinuity to H 11 for 11 PNe. For four ofthese, the Balmer jump temperatures are more than 1000 K lower thanvalues derived from the [OIII] optical collisionally excited diagnosticline ratio. With a difference of 3580 K, NGC 40 has the lowest Balmerjump temperature relative to the [OIII] optical forbidden-linetemperature. High-order Balmer line decrements have been used todetermine electron densities. The results are consistent with valuesderived from forbidden-line density-diagnostics.

Planetary nebula distances re-examined: an improved statistical scale
The distances of planetary nebulae (PNe) are still quite uncertain.Although observational estimates are available for a small proportion ofPNe, based on statistical parallax and the like, such distances are verypoorly determined for the majority of galactic PNe. In particular,estimates of so-called `statistical' distance appear to differ byfactors of ~2.7.We point out that there is a well-defined correlation between the 5-GHzluminosity of the sources, L5, and their brightnesstemperatures, TB. This represents a different trend to thoseinvestigated in previous statistical analyses, and permits us todetermine independent distances to a further 449 outflows. Thesedistances are shown to be closely comparable to those determined using aTB-R correlation, providing that the latter trend is taken tobe non-linear.This non-linearity in the TB-R plane has not been noted inprevious analyses, and is likely responsible for the broad (andconflicting) ranges of distance that have previously been published.Finally, we point out that there is a close accord between observedtrends within the L5-TB and TB-Rplanes, and the variation predicted through nebular evolutionarymodelling. This is used to suggest that observational biases areprobably modest, and that our revised distance scale is reasonablytrustworthy.

Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud: A Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Analysis
We observed seven central stars of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the LargeMagellanic Cloud (LMC) with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorerand performed a model-based analysis of these spectra in conjunctionwith Hubble Space Telescope spectra in the UV and optical range todetermine the stellar and nebular parameters. Most of the objects showwind features, and they have effective temperatures ranging from 38 to60 kK with mass-loss rates of ~=5×10-8Msolar yr-1. Five of the objects have typical LMCabundances. One object (SMP LMC 61) is a [WC4] star, and we fit itsspectra with He/C/O-rich abundances typical of the [WC] class and findits atmosphere to be Fe-deficient. Most objects have very hot(T>~2000 K) molecular hydrogen (H2) in their nebulae,which may indicate a shocked environment. One of these (SMP LMC 62) alsodisplays O VI λλ1032, 1038 nebular emission lines, rarelyobserved in PNe.Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA FUSE and archivaldata. FUSE is operated for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University underNASA contract NAS5-32985.

Electron temperatures and densities of planetary nebulae determined from the nebular hydrogen recombination spectrum and temperature and density variations
A method is presented to derive electron temperatures and densities ofplanetary nebulae (PNe) simultaneously, using the observed hydrogenrecombination spectrum, which includes continuum and line emission. Bymatching theoretical spectra to observed spectra around the Balmer jumpat about 3646 Å, we determine electron temperatures and densitiesfor 48 Galactic PNe. The electron temperatures based on this method -hereafter Te(Bal) - are found to be systematically lower thanthose derived from [OIII] λ4959/λ4363 and [OIII] (88 μm+ 52 μm)/λ4959 ratios - hereafterTe([OIII]na) andTe([OIII]fn). The electron densities based on thismethod are found to be systematically higher than those derived from[OII] λ3729/λ3726, [SII] λ6731/λ6716,[ClIII] λ5537/λ5517, [ArIV] λ4740/λ4711 and[OIII] 88 μm/52 μm ratios. These results suggest that temperatureand density fluctuations are generally present within nebulae. Thecomparison of Te([OIII]na) and Te(Bal)suggests that the fractional mean-square temperature variation(t2) has a representative value of 0.031. A majority oftemperatures derived from the Te([OIII]fn) ratioare found to be higher than those of Te([OIII]na),which is attributed to the existence of dense clumps in nebulae - those[OIII] infrared fine-structure lines are suppressed by collisionalde-excitation in the clumps. By comparingTe([OIII]fn), Te([OIII]na)and Te(Bal) and assuming a simple two-density-componentmodel, we find that the filling factor of dense clumps has arepresentative value of 7 × 10-5. The discrepanciesbetween Te([OIII]na) and Te(Bal) arefound to be anticorrelated with electron densities derived from variousdensity indicators; high-density nebulae have the smallest temperaturediscrepancies. This suggests that temperature discrepancy is related tonebular evolution. In addition, He/H abundances of PNe are found to bepositively correlated with the difference betweenTe([OIII]na) and Te(Bal), suggestingthat He/H abundances might have been overestimated generally because ofthe possible existence of H-deficient knots. Electron temperatures anddensities deduced from spectra around the Paschen jump regions at 8250Åare also obtained for four PNe: NGC 7027, NGC 6153, M 1-42 andNGC 7009. Electron densities derived from spectra around the Paschenjump regions are in good agreement with the corresponding values derivedfrom spectra around the Balmer jump, whereas temperatures deduced fromthe spectra around the Paschen jump are found to be lower than thecorresponding values derived from spectra around the Balmer jump for allthe four cases. The reason remains unclear.

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Right ascension:19h44m48.15s
Apparent magnitude:10

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NGC 2000.0NGC 6826

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