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On the nature of bulges in general and of box/peanut bulges in particular: input from N-body simulations
Objects designated as bulges in disc galaxies do not form a homogeneousclass. I distinguish three types: the classical bulges, the propertiesof which are similar to those of ellipticals and which form by collapseor merging; boxy and peanut bulges, which are seen in near-edge-ongalaxies and which are in fact just a part of the bar seen edge-on; and,finally, disc-like bulges, which result from the inflow of (mainly) gasto the centre-most parts, and subsequent star formation. I make adetailed comparison of the properties of boxy and peanut bulges withthose of N-body bars seen edge-on, and answer previously voicedobjections about the links between the two. I also present and analysesimulations where a boxy/peanut feature is present at the same time as aclassical spheroidal bulge, and compare them with observations. Finally,I propose a nomenclature that can help to distinguish between the threetypes of bulges and avoid considerable confusion.

Bar Diagnostics in Edge-On Spiral Galaxies. III. N-Body Simulations of Disks
Present in over 45% of local spirals, boxy and peanut-shaped bulges aregenerally interpreted as edge-on bars and may represent a key phase inbar evolution. Aiming to test such claims, the kinematic properties ofself-consistent three-dimensional N-body simulations of bar-unstabledisks are studied. Using Gauss-Hermite polynomials to describe themajor-axis stellar kinematics, a number of characteristic bar signaturesare identified in edge-on disks: (1) a major-axis light profile with aquasi-exponential central peak and a plateau at moderate radii (Freemantype II profile); (2) a ``double-hump'' rotation curve; (3) a sometimesflat central velocity dispersion peak with a plateau at moderate radiiand occasional local central minimum and secondary peak; and (4) anh3-V correlation over the projected bar length. All of thesekinematic features are spatially correlated and can easily be understoodfrom the orbital structure of barred disks. They thus provide a reliableand easy-to-use tool to identify edge-on bars. Interestingly, they areall produced without dissipation and are increasingly realized to becommon in spirals, lending support to bar-driven evolution scenarios forbulge formation. So called ``figure-of-eight'' position-velocitydiagrams are never observed, as expected for realistic orbitalconfigurations. Although not uniquely related to triaxiality,line-of-sight velocity distributions with a high-velocity tail (i.e., anh3-V correlation) appear as particularly promising tracers ofbars. The stellar kinematic features identified grow in strength as thebar evolves and vary only slightly for small inclination variations.Many can be used to trace the bar length. Comparisons with observationsare encouraging and support the view that boxy and peanut-shaped bulgesare simply thick bars viewed edge-on.

Stellar Kinematics of Boxy Bulges: Large-Scale Bars and Inner Disks
Long-slit stellar kinematic observations were obtained along the majoraxis of 30 edge-on spiral galaxies, 24 with a boxy or peanut-shaped(B/PS) bulge and six with other bulge types for comparison. Such B/PSbulges are identified in at least 45% of highly inclined systems, and agrowing body of theoretical and observational work suggests that theyare the edge-on projection of thickened bars. Profiles of the meanstellar velocity V, the velocity dispersion σ, as well as theasymmetric (h3) and symmetric (h4) deviations froma pure Gaussian are presented for all objects. Comparing these profileswith stellar kinematic bar diagnostics developed from N-bodysimulations, we find bar signatures in 24 of our sample galaxies (80%).Galaxies with a B/PS bulge typically show a double-humped rotation curvewith an intermediate dip or plateau. They also frequently show a ratherflat central velocity dispersion profile accompanied by a secondary peakor plateau, and numerous galaxies have a local central σ minimum(>~40%). The h3 profiles display up to three slopereversals. Most importantly, h3 is normally correlated with Vover the presumed bar length, contrary to expectations from axisymmetricdisks. These characteristic bar signatures strengthen the case for aclose relationship between B/PS bulges and bars and leave little roomfor other explanations of the bulges' shape. We also find thath3 is anticorrelated with V in the very center of mostgalaxies (>~60%), indicating that these objects additionally harborcold and dense decoupled (quasi-) axisymmetric central stellar disks,which may be related to the central light peaks. These central diskscoincide with previously identified star-forming ionized-gas disks(nuclear spirals) in gas-rich systems, and we argue that they formed outof gas accumulated by the bar at its center through inflow. As suggestedby N-body models, the asymmetry of the velocity profile (h3)appears to be a reliable tracer of asymmetries in disks, allowing us todiscriminate between axisymmetric and barred disks seen in projection.B/PS bulges (and thus a large fraction of all bulges) appear to be madeup mostly of disk material, which has acquired a large vertical extentthrough bar-driven vertical instabilities. Their formation is thusprobably dominated by secular evolution processes rather than merging.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data
We present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere.

A catalog of warps in spiral and lenticular galaxies in the Southern hemisphere
A catalog of optical warps of galaxies is presented. This can beconsidered complementary to that reported by Sánchez-Saavedra etal. (\cite{sanchez-saavedra}), with 42 galaxies in the northernhemisphere, and to that by Reshetnikov & Combes(\cite{reshetnikov99}), with 60 optical warps. The limits of the presentcatalog are: logr 25 > 0.60, B_t< 14.5, delta (2000) <0deg, -2.5 < t < 7. Therefore, lenticular galaxies havealso been considered. This catalog lists 150 warped galaxies out of asample of 276 edge-on galaxies and covers the whole southern hemisphere,except the Avoidance Zone. It is therefore very suitable for statisticalstudies of warps. It also provides a source guide for detailedparticular observations. We confirm the large frequency of warpedspirals: nearly all galaxies are warped. The frequency and warp angle donot present important differences for the different types of spirals.However, no lenticular warped galaxy has been found within the specifiedlimits. This finding constitutes an important restriction fortheoretical models.

Morphology, Kinematics and Spectroscopy of the Pavus Triple System
Not Available

Orbital dynamics of three-dimensional bars - III. Boxy/peanut edge-on profiles
We present families, and sets of families, of periodic orbits thatprovide building blocks for boxy and peanut (hereafter b/p) edge-onprofiles. We find cases where the b/p profile is confined to the centralparts of the model and cases where a major fraction of the barparticipates in this morphology. A b/p feature can be built either by 3Dfamilies associated with 3D bifurcations of the x1 family, or, in somemodels, even by families related with the z-axis orbits and existingover large energy intervals. The `X'feature observed inside the boxy bulges of several edge-on galaxies canbe attributed to the peaks of successive x1v1 orbits, provided theirstability allows it. However in general, the x1v1 family has to overcomethe obstacle of a S ->Δ-> S transition in order to supportthe structure of a b/p feature. Other families that can be the backbonesof b/p features are x1v4 and z3.1s. The morphology and the size of theboxy or peanut-shaped structures we find in our models are determined bythe presence and stability of the families that support b/p features.The present study favours the idea that the observed edge-on profilesare the imprints of families of periodic orbits that can be found inappropriately chosen Hamiltonian systems, describing the potential ofthe bar.

Edge-on boxy profiles in non-barred disc galaxies
Boxy edge-on profiles can be accounted for not only in models of barredgalaxies, but also in models of normal (non-barred) galaxies. Thus thepresence of a bar is not a sine qua non condition for the appearance ofthis feature, as often assumed. We show that a `boxy' or a `peanut'structure in the central parts of a model is due to the presence ofvertical resonances at which stable families of periodic orbitsbifurcate from the planar x1 family. The orbits of these families reachin their projections on the equatorial plane a maximum distance from thecentre, beyond which they increase their mean radii by increasing onlytheir deviations from the equatorial plane. The resulting orbitalprofiles are `stair-type' and constitute the backbone for the observedboxy structures in edge-on views of N-body models and, we believe, inedge-on views of disc galaxies. Since the existence of verticalresonances is independent of barred or spiral perturbations in the disc,`boxy' profiles may appear also in almost axisymmetric cases.

Southern Isolated Galaxy Triplets
Seventy-six isolated triple systems of galaxies with declinatiosnδ<-3° were selected using ESO/SERC and POSS-I sky surveydata. The equatorial coordinates, configuration types, angular sizes,component angular separations, component morphological types, totalmagnitudes, and other parameters are reported for each triplet.Radial-velocity estimates are available for all components in 33 of the76 triplets. The median values of the main dynamicalparameters—radial-velocity dispersion, mean harmonic radius,absolute magnitudes of member galaxies, and mass-to-luminosityratios—are similar to those obtained earlier for 83 isolatedtriple systems with δ>-3°.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. II. NIR observations
We have observed 60 edge-on galaxies in the NIR in order to study thestellar distribution in galaxies with box/peanut-shaped bulges. The muchsmaller amount of dust extinction at these wavelengths allows us toidentify in almost all target galaxies with box/peanut-shaped bulges anadditional thin, central component in cuts parallel to the major axis.This structure can be identified with a bar. The length of thisstructure scaled by the length of the bulge correlates with themorphologically classified shape of the bulge. This newly establishedcorrelation is therefore mainly interpreted as the projection of the barat different aspect angles. Galaxies with peanut bulges have a bar seennearly edge-on and the ratio of bar length to thickness, 14 +/- 4, canbe directly measured for the first time. In addition, the correlation ofthe boxiness of bulges with the bar strength indicates that the barcharacteristic could partly explain differences in the bulge shape.Furthermore, a new size relation between the box/peanut structure andthe central bulge is found. Our observations are discussed in comparisonto a N-body simulation for barred galaxies (Pfenniger & Friedli\cite{pfe}). We conclude that the inner region of barred disk galaxiesare build up by three distinct components: the spheroidal bulge, a thinbar, and a b/p structure most likely representing the thick part of thebar. Based on observations collected at ESO/La Silla (61.A-0143),DSAZ/Calar Alto, and TIRGO/Gornergrat.}

The Nature of Boxy/Peanut-Shaped Bulges in Spiral Galaxies
We present a systematic observational study of the relationship betweenbars and boxy/peanut-shaped (B/PS) bulges. We first review and discussproposed mechanisms for their formation, focusing on accretion andbar-buckling scenarios. Using new methods relying on the kinematics ofedge-on disks, we then look for bars in a large sample of edge-on spiralgalaxies with a B/PS bulge and in a smaller control sample of edge-onspirals with more spheroidal bulges. We present position-velocitydiagrams of the ionized gas obtained from optical long-slitspectroscopy. We show that almost all B/PS bulges are due to a thick barviewed edge-on, while only a few extreme cases may be due to theaccretion of external material. This strongly supports the bar-bucklingmechanism for the formation of B/PS bulges. None of the galaxies in thecontrol sample show evidence for a bar, which suggests conversely thatbars are generally B/PS.We consider the effects of dust in the disk ofthe galaxies but conclude that it does not significantly affect ourresults. Unusual emission-line ratios correlating with kinematicalstructures are observed in many objects, and we argue that this isconsistent with the presence of strong bars in the disk of the galaxies.As expected from N-body simulations, the boxy-peanut transition appearsto be related to the viewing angle, but more work is required to derivethe precise orientation of the bars in the bulges. The reliableidentification of bars in edge-on spiral galaxies opens up for the firsttime the possibility of studying observationally the vertical structureof bars.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies
The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies (CSRG) is a comprehensivecompilation of diameters, axis ratios, relative bar position angles, andmorphologies of inner and outer rings, pseudorings, and lenses in 3692galaxies south of declination -17 deg. The purpose of the catalog is toevaluate the idea that these ring phenomena are related to orbitalresonances with a bar or oval in galaxy potentials. The catalog is basedon visual inspection of most of the 606 fields of the Science ResearchCouncil (SRC) IIIa-J southern sky survey, with the ESO-B, ESO-R, andPalomar Sky surveys used as auxiliaries when needed for overexposed coreregions. The catalog is most complete for SRC fields 1-303 (mostly southof declination -42 deg). In addition to ringed galaxies, a list of 859mostly nonringed galaxies intended for comparison with other catalogs isprovided. Other findings from the CSRG that are not based on statisticsare the identification of intrinsic bar/ring misalignment; bars whichunderfill inner rings; dimpling of R'1pseudorings; pointy, rectangular, or hexagonal inner or outer ringshapes; a peculiar polar-ring-related system; and other extreme examplesof spiral structure and ring morphology.

Total and effective colors of 501 galaxies in the Cousins VRI photometric system
Total color indices (V-R)T, (V-I)T and effectivecolor indices (V-R)e, (V-I)e in the Cousins VRIphotometric system are presented for 501 mostly normal galaxies. Thecolors are computed using a procedure outlined in the Third ReferenceCatalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) whereby standard color curvesapproximated by Laplace-Gauss integrals are fitted to observedphotoelectric multiaperture photometry. 11 sources of such photometrywere used for our analysis, each source being assigned an appropriateweight according to a rigorous analysis of residuals of the data fromthe best-fitting standard color curves. Together with the integrated B-Vand U-B colors provided in RC3, our analysis widens the range ofwavelength of homogeneously defined colors of normal galaxies of allHubble types. We present color-color and color-type relations that canbe modeled to understand the star formation history of galaxies.

Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.

The dynamics and structure of the S0 galaxy NGC 7332
Spectroscopic and photometric observations of the edge-on S0 galaxy NGC7332 are presented. The spectra show the galaxy to possess a rapidlycounter-rotating extended gas disk as detected from both (O III) 5007 Aand H alpha emission. Multiple slit orientations at a variety ofposition angles clearly show the decoupling of the angular momentabetween the stellar and gaseous components. The gas is distributedasymmetrically and displays noncircular motions indicating that it hasnot reached equilibrium. These observations are strong evidence insupport of an accretion process having occurred in NGC 7332. Broad R andB band CCD images show the boxy isophotes that NGC 7332 has long beenknown to possess while offset spectra taken parallel to the major andminor axes display the cylindrical rotation common to galaxies withbox-shaped bulges. The bulge of NGC 7332 is well described by anr1/4-law on both the major and minor axes while the outerdisk is exponential. The B-R color of the disk is uniform; the onlyindication of a trend to blue colors is a Delta(B-Rc)/Deltalog r= -0.04 +/- 0.01 gradient seen perpendicular to the bulge and disk.There exists a 10 sec long region of nearly constant surface brightnessalong the major axis between the bulge and disk components. Not likelydue to absorbing material, the relation of this feature to the alreadycomplicated structure of the galaxy is considered.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

The stellar dynamics of 'box/peanut' galactic bulges
This paper presents detailed multi-color CCD photometry andabsorption-line spectroscopy of the edgeon Sa/Sab galaxy NGC 1055. Thebox/peanut isophotal distortions within the bulge component arespatially extensive, extending to 8.3 kpc in galactocentric distance and9.7 kpc in Z-height at an estimated surface brightness of 26-26.5 (B)mag/sq arcsec. The bulge displays a constant circular velocity to thelimiting Z-heights in the spectra (2.1 and 4.1 kpc along positionsaligned perpendicular to the major axis). The high degree of orderedmotion inferred from this 'cylindrical rotation' velocity field alsoconcurs with the highly centrally concentrated velocity dispersiondistribution. The derived kinematic profiles show evidence for'cylindrical rotation' even in those regions of the observed luminositydistribution in which the bulge appears neither boxy nor peanut-shaped.These data are modeled using a self-consistent numerical scheme whichutilities a distribution function dependent upon the two classicalintegrals of the motion (total stellar energy and the component ofangular momentum about the rotation axis). The optimum solutions thusdetermined are found to provide a good description of the box/peanutbulge in NGC 1055, confirming previous conclusions that the distributionfunctions for such bulges do not require the presence of a thirdintegral of the motion nor a significant degree of triaxiality. Thegeneral conclusions derived from numerical modeling of the Sab NGC 1055and the Sbc NGC 3079 (Shaw et al. 1993) are equivalent despite thegrossly dissimilar structural scale of the box/peanut bulges in thesesystems.

The stellar dynamics of 'box/peanut' galactic bulges. I - NGC 3079
Photometry and extensive 2D kinematics of the edge-on Sc galaxy NGC 3079are presented. An attempt is made to describe the derived observationalproperties of the box/peanut bulge in the system using theself-consistent numerical simulation scheme of Rowley (1988). In commonwith all other such systems observed to date, the box/peanut bulgedisplays a velocity field which 'rotates on cylinders' to the limit ofthe data. The velocity dispersion distribution is strongly peaked to thecenter, falling from about 150 km/s to the intrinsic resolution of about60 km/s exterior to the central 10 arcsec. Modeling the observationalproperties of the bulge with self-consistent numerical simulations showsthat the box/peanut morphology can be accounted for solely by adistribution function comprising two integrals of the motion withoutrecourse to a significant contribution from a third integral.

Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.

UBVRI photoelectric photometry of ten southern galaxies
This paper reports UBVRI photoelectric photometry of ten southern spiralgalaxies with diaphragms ranging from 7 to 77 arc seconds. Total B and Vmagnitudes calculated through standard aperture-magnitude curve fittingsare also reported.

The supergalactic plane redshift survey
Redshift measurements, about 1000 of which are new, are presented for1314 galaxies in a survey toward the apex of the large-scale streamingflow for ellipticals. The velocity histogram shows that the excess ingalaxy number counts in this area is due to a substantial concentrationof galaxies with discrete peaks at V about 3000 km/s and V about 4500km/s. After correction for the sampling function, the centroid of thedensity distribution is found to be near V about 4500 km/s.Normalization to the more extensive SSRS survey, which was selected bythe same criteria, shows that the region studied contains a considerableoverdensity of galaxies from 2000 to 6000 km/s. This result is in goodagreement with the 'great attractor' model suggested by Lynden-Bell etal. (1988) which attributes the peculiar motions of elliptical galaxiesover a large region of space to an extensive mass overdensity whichincludes the Hydra-Centaurus and Pavo-Indus superclusters. The centroidof the density enhancement is also consistent with new data by Dresslerand Faber (1990) of peculiar motions of elliptical and spiral galaxies,both of which show a zero crossing of the Hubble line at approximately4500-5000 km/s.

Observations of edge-on galaxies at 843 MHz
With the intention of investigating cosmic ray distribution andpropagation in the haloes of normal spiral galaxies, 30 edge-on galaxieswere observed at 843 MHz with the Molonglo Observatory SynthesisTelescope. Some results of this study are presented here. Of the 24galaxies detected, sixteen were partially resolved. Fourteen of thecorresponding maps are presented as overlays on optical images. Theseven galaxies with unresolved or marginally resolved emission were allof morphological type SO or Sa. Three galaxies, NGC 2613, IC 5052, andNGC 7184, each appear to possess two weak continuum maxima and should bereobserved so that more sensitive maps can be made.

Characterising 'box/peanut' galactic bulge morphology
Principal component analyses have been conducted on a large sample ofedge-on galaxies displaying 'box' or 'peanut' shaped bulge distortionsin order to identify the characteristic photometric properties of themorphology. The identified parameter space is strictly two-dimensional,indicating that no single parameter exists by which box/peanutmorphology could be fully characterized. The most significant parametersare measures of bulge dimension, and the bulge-to-total luminosityratio. It is shown that weak boxes and extreme peanuts are merelyextrema in a homogeneous family of isophotal distortions. The resultsalso suggest that the disk component is not an important constraint onthe formation and/or subsequent evolution of box/peanut bulgedistortions.

Low-luminosity radio sources in early-type galaxies
A sensitive radio continuum survey of 114 nearby E and S0 galaxies hasbeen made to search for weak sources. The radio detection rate is 42percent, with a flux limit of 0.8 mJy at 5 GHz. By deriving the radioluminosity function for a complete sample, it is shown that most brightearly-type galaxies have low-luminosity nonthermal radio sources.Galaxies of similar optical luminosity vary widely in radio luminosity,but a characteristic radio power rises roughly as the optical luminositysquared. S0 galaxies have weaker radio sources on average thanelliptical galaxies, but this can be explained by the low luminosity ofmost S0 bulges relative to ellipticals. No correlation is found betweenradio power and axial ratio for galaxies with radio luminosities below10 to the 23rd W/Hz.

On the relationship between radio emission and optical properties in early-type galaxies
To study the origin of radio activity in early-type galaxies, thepossible dependence of their radio emission on basic optical parameters,such as the absolute magnitude, the central velocity dispersion sigma,and the mean surface brightness mu is explored. A sample of 743 E and SOgalaxies is used which is based on three independent radio surveys ofoptically selected galaxies with virtually complete information onmagnitudes, morphological types, redshift distances, diameters, andradio fluxes. For both E and SO galaxies, only the absolute magnitudeappears to be directly related to the radio activity, while sigma and mudo not. Also, a significant dependence of the apparent flattening onradio power is confirmed for E galaxies. Some relevant implications ofthese results are discussed.

Magnitude calibration in the Cordoba Atlas
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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:19h18m39.70s
Aparent dimensions:2.57′ × 0.603′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 6771

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