Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

NGC 6670



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

Multiwavelength Star Formation Indicators: Observations
We present a compilation of multiwavelength data on different starformation indicators for a sample of nearby star forming galaxies. Herewe discuss the observations, reductions and measurements of ultravioletimages obtained with STIS on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST),ground-based Hα, and VLA 8.46 GHz radio images. These observationsare complemented with infrared fluxes, as well as large-apertureoptical, radio, and ultraviolet data from the literature. This databasewill be used in a forthcoming paper to compare star formation rates atdifferent wave bands. We also present spectral energy distributions(SEDs) for those galaxies with at least one far-infrared measurementsfrom ISO, longward of 100 μm. These SEDs are divided in two groups,those that are dominated by the far-infrared emission, and those forwhich the contribution from the far-infrared and optical emission iscomparable. These SEDs are useful tools to study the properties ofhigh-redshift galaxies.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 mtelescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical ResearchConsortium.

Ultraviolet-to-Far-Infrared Properties of Local Star-forming Galaxies
We present the results of a multiwavelength study of nearby galaxiesaimed at understanding the relation between the ultraviolet andfar-infrared emission in star-forming galaxies. The data set comprisesnew ultraviolet (from HST STIS), ground-based Hα, and radiocontinuum observations, together with archival infrared data (from IRASand ISO). The local galaxies are used as benchmarks for comparison ofthe infrared-to-ultraviolet properties with two populations ofhigh-redshift galaxies: the submillimeter star-forming galaxies detectedby SCUBA and the ultraviolet-selected Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). Inaddition, the long wavelength baseline covered by the present dataenables us to compare the star formation rates (SFRs) derived from theobserved ultraviolet, Hα, infrared, and radio luminosities and togauge the impact of dust opacity in the local galaxies. We also derive anew calibration for the nonthermal part of the radio SFR estimator,based on the comparison of 1.4 GHz measurements with a new estimator ofthe bolometric luminosity of the star-forming regions. We find that moreactively star-forming galaxies show higher dust opacities, which is inline with previous results. We find that the local star-forming galaxieshave a lower Fλ(205 μm)/Fλ(UV)ratio by 2-3 orders of magnitude than the submillimeter-selectedgalaxies and may have a similar or somewhat higherFλ(205 μm)/Fλ(UV) ratio thanLBGs. The Fλ(205 μm)/Fλ(UV) ratioof the local galaxy population may be influenced by the cool dustemission in the far-infrared heated by nonionizing stellar populations,which may be reduced or absent in the LBGs.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 mtelescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical ResearchConsortium.

Cold and warm dust along a merging galaxy sequence
We investigate the cold and warm dust properties during galaxyinteractions using a merging galaxy sample ordered into a chronologicalsequence from pre- to post-mergers. Our sample comprises a total of 29merging systems selected to have far-infrared and submillimetreobservations. The submillimetre data are mainly culled from theliterature, while for five galaxies (NGC 3597, 3690, 6090, 6670 and7252) the submillimetre observations are presented here for the firsttime. We use the 100- to 850-μm flux density ratio,f100/f850, as a proxy for the mass fraction of thewarm and cold dust in these systems. We find evidence for an increase inf100/f850 along the merging sequence from early toadvanced mergers, and interpret this trend as an increase of the warmrelative to the cold dust mass. We argue that the two key parametersaffecting the f100/f850 flux ratio is the starformation rate and the dust content of individual systems relative tothe stars. Using a sophisticated model for the absorption andre-emission of the stellar ultraviolet radiation by dust, we show thatthese parameters can indeed explain both the increase and the observedscatter in f100/f850 along the merging galaxysequence. We also discuss our results under the hypothesis thatelliptical galaxies are formed via disc galaxy mergers.

Warm Molecular Gas in Galaxy-Galaxy Merger NGC 6090
We present Submillimeter Array observations of the CO (2-1) and (3-2)transitions toward the merging galaxies of NGC 6090. The high-resolutionCO data reveal three gas concentrations. The main component is peakingin the overlap region between the two galaxies, where the near-IR andradio continuum emission are weak. The CO (2-1) emission from theface-on galaxy NGC 6090E is somewhat stronger than that from the edge-ongalaxy NGC 6090W. The CO (3-2) emission peaks in the overlap region,similar to the CO (2-1) emission. More than 50% of the CO (3-2) emissionarises from the 2" (1.2 kpc) area of the overlap region. There appearsto be CO (3-2) emission toward the nuclear region and the northwest armof NGC 6090E, while no CO (3-2) emission is detected toward NGC 6090W.Unlike the CO gas, most of the radio continuum emission comes from NGC6090E. The strong CO emission, together with the weak radio continuumemission, suggests that star formation in the overlap region has notproceeded long enough to produce significant numbers of supernovae thatwould be detectable from their radio continuum emission.

The Star Formation Rate and Dense Molecular Gas in Galaxies
HCN luminosity is a tracer of dense molecular gas,n(H2)>~3×104cm-3, associatedwith star-forming giant molecular cloud (GMC) cores. We present theresults and analysis of our survey of HCN emission from 65 infraredgalaxies, including nine ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIGs,LIR>~1012Lsolar), 22 luminousinfrared galaxies (LIGs,1011Lsolar0.06 are LIGs or ULIGs. Normal spiralsall have similar and low dense gas fractionsLHCN/LCO=0.02-0.05. The global star formationefficiency depends on the fraction of the molecular gas in a densephase.

An IRAS High Resolution Image Restoration (HIRES) Atlas of All Interacting Galaxies in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample
The importance of far-infrared observations for our understanding ofextreme activity in interacting and merging galaxies has beenillustrated by many studies. Even though two decades have passed sinceits launch, the most complete all-sky survey to date from which far-IRselected galaxy samples can be chosen is still that of the InfraredAstronomical Satellite (IRAS). However, the spatial resolution of theIRAS all-sky survey is insufficient to resolve the emission fromindividual galaxies in most interacting galaxy pairs, and hence previousstudies of their far-IR properties have had to concentrate either onglobal system properties or on the properties of very widely separatedand weakly interacting pairs. Using the HIRES image reconstructiontechnique, it is possible to achieve a spatial resolution ranging from30" to 1.5m (depending on wavelength and detector coverage), whichis a fourfold improvement over the normal resolution of IRAS. This issufficient to resolve the far-IR emission from the individual galaxiesin many interacting systems detected by IRAS, which is very importantfor meaningful comparisons with single, isolated galaxies. We presenthigh-resolution 12, 25, 60, and 100 μm images of 106 interactinggalaxy systems contained in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS,Sanders et al.), a complete sample of all galaxies having a 60 μmflux density greater than 5.24 Jy. These systems were selected to haveat least two distinguishable galaxies separated by less than threeaverage galactic diameters, and thus we have excluded very widelyseparated systems and very advanced mergers. Additionally, some systemshave been included that are more than three galactic diameters apart,yet have separations less than 4' and are thus likely to suffer fromconfusion in the RBGS. The new complete survey has the same propertiesas the prototype survey of Surace et al. We find no increased tendencyfor infrared-bright galaxies to be associated with other infrared-brightgalaxies among the widely separated pairs studied here. We find smallenhancements in far-IR activity in multiple galaxy systems relative toRBGS noninteracting galaxies with the same blue luminosity distribution.We also find no differences in infrared activity (as measured byinfrared color and luminosity) between late- and early-type spiralgalaxies.

Optical Imaging of Very Luminous Infrared Galaxy Systems: Photometric Properties and Late Evolution
A sample of 19 low-redshift (0.03

The ISOPHOT 170 μm Serendipity Survey II. The catalog of optically identified galaxies%
The ISOPHOT Serendipity Sky Survey strip-scanning measurements covering≈15% of the far-infrared (FIR) sky at 170 μm were searched forcompact sources associated with optically identified galaxies. CompactSerendipity Survey sources with a high signal-to-noise ratio in at leasttwo ISOPHOT C200 detector pixels were selected that have a positionalassociation with a galaxy identification in the NED and/or Simbaddatabases and a galaxy counterpart visible on the Digitized Sky Surveyplates. A catalog with 170 μm fluxes for more than 1900 galaxies hasbeen established, 200 of which were measured several times. The faintest170 μm fluxes reach values just below 0.5 Jy, while the brightest,already somewhat extended galaxies have fluxes up to ≈600 Jy. For thevast majority of listed galaxies, the 170 μm fluxes were measured forthe first time. While most of the galaxies are spirals, about 70 of thesources are classified as ellipticals or lenticulars. This is the onlycurrently available large-scale galaxy catalog containing a sufficientnumber of sources with 170 μm fluxes to allow further statisticalstudies of various FIR properties.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.Members of the Consortium on the ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey (CISS) areMPIA Heidelberg, ESA ISO SOC Villafranca, AIP Potsdam, IPAC Pasadena,Imperial College London.Full Table 4 and Table 6 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/422/39

Star Formation Across the Taffy Bridge: UGC 12914/15
We present Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) two-fieldmosaic CO (1-0) images of the Taffy galaxies (UGC 12914/15), which showthe distinct taffy-like radio continuum emission bridging the two spiraldisks. Large amounts of molecular gas (1.4×1010Msolar, using the standard Galactic CO-to-H2conversion applicable to Galactic disk giant molecular clouds) wereclearly detected throughout the taffy bridge between the two galaxies,which, as in the more extreme case of H I, presumably results from ahead-on collision between the two galaxies. The highest CO concentrationbetween the two galaxies corresponds to the Hα source in the taffybridge near the intruder galaxy UGC 12915. This H II region is alsoassociated with the strongest source of radio continuum in the bridgeand shows both morphological and kinematic connections to UGC 12915. Theoverall CO distribution of the entire system agrees well with that ofthe radio continuum emission, particularly in the taffy bridge. Thisargues for the star formation origin of a significant portion of theradio continuum emission. Compared with the H I morphology andkinematics, which are strongly distorted owing to the high-speedcollision, CO better defines the orbital geometry and impact parameterof the interaction, as well as the disk properties (e.g., rotation,orientation) of the progenitor galaxies. Based on the 20 cm-to-CO ratiomaps, we conclude that the starburst sites are primarily located in UGC12915 and the Hα source in the bridge and show that the moleculargas in the taffy bridge is forming into stars with star formationefficiency comparable to that of the target galaxy UGC 12914 and similarto that in the Galactic disk.

The IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample
IRAS flux densities, redshifts, and infrared luminosities are reportedfor all sources identified in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample(RBGS), a complete flux-limited survey of all extragalactic objects withtotal 60 μm flux density greater than 5.24 Jy, covering the entiresky surveyed by IRAS at Galactic latitudes |b|>5°. The RBGS includes629 objects, with median and mean sample redshifts of 0.0082 and 0.0126,respectively, and a maximum redshift of 0.0876. The RBGS supersedes theprevious two-part IRAS Bright Galaxy Samples(BGS1+BGS2), which were compiled before the final(Pass 3) calibration of the IRAS Level 1 Archive in 1990 May. The RBGSalso makes use of more accurate and consistent automated methods tomeasure the flux of objects with extended emission. The RBGS contains 39objects that were not present in the BGS1+BGS2,and 28 objects from the BGS1+BGS2 have beendropped from RBGS because their revised 60 μm flux densities are notgreater than 5.24 Jy. Comparison of revised flux measurements forsources in both surveys shows that most flux differences are in therange ~5%-25%, although some faint sources at 12 and 25 μm differ byas much as a factor of 2. Basic properties of the RBGS sources aresummarized, including estimated total infrared luminosities, as well asupdates to cross identifications with sources from optical galaxycatalogs established using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Inaddition, an atlas of images from the Digitized Sky Survey with overlaysof the IRAS position uncertainty ellipse and annotated scale bars isprovided for ease in visualizing the optical morphology in context withthe angular and metric size of each object. The revised bolometricinfrared luminosity function, φ(Lir), forinfrared-bright galaxies in the local universe remains best fit by adouble power law, φ(L)~Lα, withα=-0.6(+/-0.1) and α=-2.2(+/-0.1) below and above the``characteristic'' infrared luminosityL*ir~1010.5Lsolar,respectively. A companion paper provides IRAS High Resolution (HIRES)processing of over 100 RBGS sources where improved spatial resolutionoften provides better IRAS source positions or allows for deconvolutionof close galaxy pairs.

The Far-Infrared Energy Distributions of Seyfert and Starburst Galaxies in the Local Universe: Infrared Space Observatory Photometry of the 12 Micron Active Galaxy Sample
New far-infrared photometry with ISOPHOT aboard the Infrared SpaceObservatory (ISO) is presented for 58 galaxies with homogeneouspublished data for another 32 galaxies, all belonging to the 12 μmgalaxy sample-in total, 29 Seyfert 1 galaxies, 35 Seyfert 2 galaxies,and 12 starburst galaxies, or about half of the 12 μm active galaxysample, plus 14 normal galaxies for comparison. ISO and InfraredAstronomical Satellite (IRAS) data are used to define color-colordiagrams and spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Thermal dust emissionat two temperatures (one cold at 15-30 K and one warm at 50-70 K) canfit the 60-200 μm SED, with a dust emissivity law proportional to theinverse square of the wavelength. Seyfert 1 galaxies and Seyfert 2galaxies are indistinguishable longward of 100 μm, while, as alreadyseen by IRAS, the former have flatter SEDs shortward of 60 μm. A mildanticorrelation is found between the [200-100] color and the ``60 μmexcess.'' We infer that this is due to the fact that galaxies with astrong starburst component and thus a strong 60 μm flux have asteeper far-infrared turnover. In non-Seyfert galaxies, increasing theluminosity corresponds to increasing the star formation rate, whichenhances the 25 and 60 μm emission. This shifts the peak emissionfrom around 150 μm in the most quiescent spirals to shorter than 60μm in the strongest starburst galaxies. To quantify these trendsfurther, we identified with the IRAS colors three idealized infraredSEDs: pure quiescent disk emission, pure starburst emission, and pureSeyfert nucleus emission. Even between 100 and 200 μm, the quiescentdisk emission remains much cooler than the starburst component. Seyfertgalaxies have 100-200 μm SEDs ranging from pure disks to purestarbursts, with no apparent contribution from their active nuclei atthose wavelengths. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project withinstruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries:France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA.

Molecular Gas and the Modest Star Formation Efficiency in the ``Antennae'' Galaxies: Arp 244=NGC 4038/9
We report here a factor of 5.7 higher total CO flux in Arp 244 (the``Antennae'' galaxies) than that previously accepted in the literature(thus a total molecular gas mass of 1.5×1010Msolar), based on our fully sampled CO(1-0) observations atthe NRAO 12 m telescope. Currently, much of the understanding andmodeling of the star formation in Arp 244 has been derived using a muchlower molecular gas mass. It is imperative to reconsider everything, asthe high molecular gas mass might provide sufficient fuel forultraluminous extreme starburst in Arp 244 once the merging advances tolate stage. Our observations show that the molecular gas peakspredominately in the disk-disk overlap region between the nuclei,similar to the far-infrared (FIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) emission. Thebulk of the molecular gas is forming into stars with a normal starformation efficiency (SFE) LIR/M(H2)~4.2Lsolar/Msolar, the same as that of giant molecularclouds in the Galactic disk. Additional supportive evidence is theextremely low fraction of the dense molecular gas in Arp 244, revealedby our detections of the HCN(1-0) emission, which traces the activestar-forming gas at density >~104 cm-3. Usingthe high-resolution BIMA+NRAO 12 m telescope, full-synthesis CO(1-0)images and our VLA continuum maps at 20 cm, we estimate the local SFEindicated by the ratio map of the radio continuum to CO(1-0) emission,down to kiloparsec scale. Remarkably, the local SFE stays roughly thesame over the bulk of the molecular gas distribution. Only somelocalized regions show the highest radio-to-CO ratios that we haveidentified as the sites of the most intense starbursts with SFE>~20Lsolar/Msolar. Here we have assumed that the 20 cmemission is a fairly good indicator of star formation down to kiloparsecscale in Arp 244 because of the well-known correlation between the FIRand the radio continuum emission. These starburst regions are confinedexclusively to the dusty patches seen in the Hubble Space Telescopeoptical images near the CO and FIR peaks where the violent starburstsare presumably heavily obscured. Nevertheless, recent large-scale starformation is going on throughout the system (e.g., concentrations ofnumerous super-star clusters and MIR ``hotspots''), yet the measuredlevel is more suggestive of a moderate starburst (SFE>~10Lsolar/Msolar) or a weak to normal star formation(SFE~4 Lsolar/Msolar), not necessarily occurringat the high concentrations of the molecular gas reservoir. The overallstarburst from the bulk of the molecular gas is yet to be initiated asmost of the gas further condenses into a kiloparsec scale in the finalcoalescence.

Gas Distribution and Starburst Activity in the Widely Separated Interacting Galaxy Pair NGC 6670
We present high-resolution H I 21 cm line, 20 cm radio continuum, and CO(1-0) line observations of the luminous infrared galaxy pair NGC 6670.NGC 6670 consists of two edge-on disk galaxies (NGC 6670E and NGC 6670W)with a projected nuclear separation of ~16 kpc. While there are nooptically identified tidal features and the molecular disks are notdistorted much, we have detected a 90 kpc long H I tail, which suggeststhat the galaxies are interacting and have already experienced at leastone close encounter. The galaxies appear to be gravitationally bound andin a prograde-prograde orbit, which is the most efficient for producingtidal tails. Our observations suggest that the H I at larger galacticradii has been ejected to form the tails and the remnant H I disks havebeen perturbed by the interaction. In particular, we find that the H Idisk of NGC 6670E appears to have been nearly destroyed. We concludethat the previous encounter between the galaxies had a large impactparameter and that the system is still in an early stage of interaction.Even though NGC 6670 is in an early stage of interaction, we find thatthere is evidence for nuclear starbursts already present. The CO (1-0)observations show large molecular gas reservoirs in the central regions,and the 20 cm radio continuum observations reveal enhanced starformation activity in the nuclear regions of both galaxies. The spatialextent of the 20 cm emission and the far-infrared-radio correlationfurther rule out active galactic nuclei as the source of the IRluminosity from NGC 6670. We estimate the ratioLIR/MH2, which is often used as anindicator of star formation efficiency, in the nuclear regions of NGC6670E and NGC 6670W to be 18 and 11 Lsolar/Msolar,respectively. The nuclear star formation efficiency of these twogalaxies has been elevated to the level observed in other nearbystarburst galaxies (LIR/MH2>10Lsolar/Msolar). Other indicators of starburstactivity, such as CO brightness temperature and infrared surfacebrightness, are also observed.

Cold gas and star formation in a merging galaxy sequence
We explore the evolution of the cold gas (molecular and neutralhydrogen) and star formation activity during galaxy interactions, usinga merging galaxy sequence comprising both pre- and post-mergercandidates. Data for this study come from the literature, but aresupplemented by some new radio observations presented here. First, weconfirm that the ratio of far-infrared luminosity to molecular hydrogenmass (LFIRM(H2); star formation efficiency)increases close to nuclear coalescence. After the merging of the twonuclei there is evidence that the star formation efficiency declinesagain to values typical of ellipticals. This trend can be attributed toM(H2) depletion arising from interaction induced starformation. However, there is significant scatter, likely to arise fromdifferences in the interaction details (e.g., disc-to-bulge ratio,geometry) of individual systems. Secondly, we find that the centralmolecular hydrogen surface density, ΣH2,increases close to the final stages of the merging of the two nuclei.Such a trend, indicating gas inflows caused by gravitationalinstabilities during the interaction, is also predicted by numericalsimulations. Furthermore, there is evidence for a decreasing fraction ofcold gas mass from early interacting systems to merger remnants,attributed to neutral hydrogen conversion into other forms (e.g., stars,hot gas) and molecular hydrogen depletion resulting from ongoing starformation. The evolution of the total-radio to blue-band luminosityratio, reflecting the total (disc and nucleus) star formation activity,is also investigated. Although this ratio is on average higher than thatfor isolated spirals, we find a marginal increase along the mergingsequence, attributed to the relative insensitivity of disc starformation to interactions. However, a similar result is also obtainedfor the nuclear radio emission, although galaxy interactions arebelieved to significantly affect the activity (star formation, AGN) inthe central galaxy regions. Nevertheless, the nuclear-radio to blue-bandluminosity ratio is significantly elevated compared with that forisolated spirals. Finally, we find that the FIR-radio flux ratiodistribution of interacting galaxies is consistent with star formationbeing the main energizing source.

The ISOPHOT 170 μ m serendipity survey. I. Compact sources with galaxy associations
The first set of compact sources observed in the ISOPHOT 170 μmSerendipity Survey is presented. From the slew data with low(I100 μm <= 15 MJy/sr) cirrus background, 115well-observed sources with a high signal-to-noise ratio in all detectorpixels having a galaxy association were extracted. Of the galaxies withknown optical morphologies, the vast majority are classified as spirals,barred spirals, or irregulars. The 170 μm fluxes measured from theSerendipity slews have been put on an absolute flux level by usingcalibration sources observed additionally with the photometric mappingmode of ISOPHOT. For all but a few galaxies, the 170 μm fluxes aredetermined for the first time, which represents a significant increasein the number of galaxies with measured Far-Infrared (FIR) fluxes beyondthe IRAS 100 μm limit. The 170 μm fluxes cover the range 2 <~F170 μm la 100 Jy. Formulae for the integrated FIR fluxesF40-220μm and the total infrared fluxesF1-1000μm incorporating the new 170 μm fluxes areprovided. The large fraction of sources with a high F170μm / F100 μm flux ratio indicates that a cold(TDust la 20 K) dust component is present in many galaxies.The detection of such a cold dust component is crucial for thedetermination of the total dust mass in galaxies, and, in cases with alarge F170 μm / F100 μm flux ratio,increases the dust mass by a significant factor. The typical mass of thecoldest dust component is MDust = 107.5 +/- 0.5Msun , a factor 2-10 larger than that derived from IRASfluxes alone. As a consequence, the majority of the derived gas-to-dustratios are much closer to the canonical value of ~ 160 for the MilkyWay. By relaxing the selection criteria, it is expected that theSerendipity Survey will eventually lead to a catalog of 170 μm fluxesfor ~ 1000 galaxies. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project withinstruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries:France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. Members of the Consortium on the ISOPHOTSerendipity Survey (CISS) are MPIA Heidelberg, ESA ISO SOC Villafranca,AIP Potsdam, IPAC Pasadena, Imperial College London.

Molecular Gas Depletion and Starbursts in Luminous Infrared Galaxy Mergers
Most luminous infrared galaxies (LIGs) are closely interacting/mergingsystems that are rich in molecular gas. Here we study the relationshipbetween the stage of the galaxy-galaxy interactions, the molecular gasmass, and the star formation rate as deduced from the infraredluminosity L_IR in LIGs. We find a correlation between the CO (1-0)luminosity [a measure of molecular mass M(H_2)] and the projectedseparation of merger nuclei (the indicator of merging stages) in asample of 50 LIG mergers, which shows that the molecular gas contentdecreases as merging advances. The starburst is due to enhanced starformation in preexisting molecular clouds and not to the formation ofmore molecular clouds from atomic gas. Because of the starbursts, themolecular content is being rapidly depleted as merging progresses. Thisis further supported by an anticorrelation between L_IR/M(H_2), theglobal measure of the star formation rate per unit gas mass, and theprojected separation that implies an enhanced star formation``efficiency'' in late-stage mergers compared with that of earlymergers. This is the first evidence connecting the depletion ofmolecular gas with starbursts in interacting galaxies.

Mid-Infrared Images of Luminous Infrared Galaxies in a Merging Sequence
We report mid-infrared observations of several luminous infraredgalaxies (LIGs) carried out with the Infrared Space Observatory. Oursample was chosen to represent different phases of a merger sequence ofgalaxy-galaxy interaction with special emphasis on early/intermediatestages of merging. The mid-infrared emission of these LIGs showsextended structures for the early and intermediate mergers, indicatingthat most of the mid-infrared luminosities are not from a central activegalactic nucleus. Both the infrared hardness (indicated by the IRAS 12,25, and 60 μm flux density ratios) and the peak-to-total flux densityratios of these LIGs increase as projected separation of theseinteracting galaxies become smaller, consistent with increasing starformation activities that are concentrated to a smaller area as themerging process advances. These observations provide among the firstobservational constraint of largely theoretically based scenarios.

The Pico DOS Dias Survey Starburst Galaxies
We discuss the nature of the galaxies found in the Pico dos Dias Survey(PDS) for young stellar objects. The PDS galaxies were selected from theIRAS Point Source catalog. They have flux density of moderate or highquality at 12, 25, and 60 μm and spectral indices in the ranges -3.00<= alpha(25, 12) <= + 0.35 and -2.50 <= alpha(60, 25) <=+0.85. These criteria allowed the detection of 382 galaxies, which are amixture of starburst and Seyfert galaxies. Most of the PDS Seyfertgalaxies are included in the catalog of warm IRAS sources by de Grijp etal. The remaining galaxies constitute a homogeneous sample of luminous[log F (L_B/L_ȯ) = 9.9 +/- 0.4] starburst galaxies, 67% of whichwere not recognized as such before. The starburst nature of the PDSgalaxies is established by comparing their L_IR/L_B ratios and IRAScolors with a sample of emission-line galaxies from the literaturealready classified as starburst galaxies. The starburst galaxies show anexcess of FIR luminosity, and their IRAS colors are significantlydifferent from those of Seyfert galaxies-99% of the starburst galaxiesin our sample have a spectral index alpha(60, 25) < -1.9. As opposedto Seyfert galaxies, very few PDS starbursts are detected in X-rays. Inthe infrared, the starburst galaxies form a continuous sequence withnormal galaxies. But they generally can be distinguished from normalgalaxies by their spectral index alpha(60, 25) > -2.5. This colorcutoff also marks a change in the dominant morphologies of the galaxies:the normal IRAS galaxies are preferentially late-type spirals (Sb andlater), while the starbursts are more numerous among early-type spirals(earlier than Sbc). This preference of starbursts for early-type spiralsis not new, but a trait of the massive starburst nucleus galaxies(Coziol et al.). As in other starburst nucleus galaxy samples, the PDSstarbursts show no preference for barred galaxies. No difference isfound between the starbursts detected in the FIR and those detected onthe basis of UV excess. The PDS starburst galaxies represent the FIRluminous branch of the UV-bright starburst nucleus galaxies, with meanFIR luminosity log (L_IR/L_ȯ) = 10.3 +/- 0.5 and redshifts smallerthan 0.1. They form a complete sample limited in flux in the FIR at 2 x10^-10 ergs cm^-2 s^-1.

A 1.425 GHz Atlas of the IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample, Part II
Galaxies with δ >= -45^deg^ and |b| >= 10^deg^ in the IRASBright Galaxy Sample, Part II, were observed at 1.425 GHz by the VeryLarge Array in its B, CnB, C, DnC, and D configurations. An atlas ofradio contour maps and a table listing the principal radio sourceparameters (position, flux density, angular size) are given. This atlasof 187 galaxies supplements the 1.49 GHz atlas of 313 galaxies in therevised Bright Galaxy Sample, Part I. Together, they are complete forextragalactic sources stronger than S = 5.24Jy at λ = 60 micronsin the area |b| > 10^deg^, δ > -45^deg^. To the extent thatthe far-infrared and radio brightness distributions overlap, these radiomaps provide the most accurate positions and high-resolution images ofthe brightest extragalactic far-infrared sources.

Soft X-Ray Properties of Seyfert Galaxies in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey
We present the results of ROSAT All-Sky Survey observations of Seyfertand IR luminous galaxies from the extended 12 micron galaxy sample andthe optically selected CfA sample. Detections are available for 80%(44/55) of the Seyfert 1's and 34% (23/67) of the Seyfert 2's in the 12micron sample, and for 76% (26/34) of the Seyfert 1's and 38% (6/16) ofthe Seyfert 2's in the CfA sample. Roughly half of the Seyfert galaxies(mostly Seyfert 1's) have been fitted to an absorbed power-law model,yielding an average photon index of {GAMMA} = 2.26 +/- 0.11 for 43Seyfert 1's and {GAMMA} = 2.45 +/- 0.18 for 10 Seyfert 2's, with bothtypes having a median value of 2.3. The soft X-ray luminosity correlateswith the 12 micron luminosity, with Seyfert 1's having relatively moresoft X-ray emission than Seyfert 2's of similar mid-IR luminosities by afactor of 1.6 +/- 0.3. Several physical interpretations of these resultsare discussed, including the standard unified model for Seyfertgalaxies. Infrared luminous non- Seyferts are shown to have similardistributions of soft X-ray luminosity and X-ray-to-IR slope as Seyfert2's, suggesting that some of them may harbor obscured active nuclei (ashas already been shown to be true for several objects) and/or that thesoft X-rays from some Seyferts 2's may be nonnuclear. A soft X-rayluminosity function (XLF) is calculated for the 12 micron sample, whichis described well by a single power law with a slope of - 1.75. Thenormalization of this XLF agrees well with that of a hard X-ray selectedsample. Several of our results, related to the XLF and the X- ray-to-IRrelation, are shown to be consistent with the hard X-ray observations ofthe 12 micron sample by Barcons et al.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

Optical Spectroscopy of Luminous Infrared Galaxies. II. Analysis of the Nuclear and Long-Slit Data
A spectroscopic survey of a sample of 200 luminous IRAS galaxies (LIGs:L_ir_^7^ > 3 x 10^10^ L_sun_; H_0_ = 75 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^) was carriedout using the Palomar 5 meter and University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescopes.Kim et al. (1995) described the data-taking and data-reductionprocedures and presented line and continuum measurements extracted fromthe nucleus of these objects. In this paper, the nuclear data arecombined with circumnuclear measurements on 23 of these galaxies toinvestigate the properties of the line-emitting gas and underlyingstellar population in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear spectra ofthese galaxies were classified as H II region-like" or "AGN-like" usinga large number of line-ratio diagnostics corrected for the underlyingstellar absorption features. This correction is an important source oferrors in some previous studies. The emission-line spectra of many AGNswere found to-be of relatively low ionization level and were thereforeclassified as LINER. We confirm that both the fraction of LIGs with AGNspectra and the fraction of Seyferts among the AGN increase withinfrared luminosity, reaching values of 62% and 54% at the highestobserved luminosities, respectively. The fraction of LINERs, on theother hand, is relatively constant at ~27%. The source of the ionizationof the emission-line gas often is a function of the distance from thenucleus. Based on the emission-line ratios and the strengths of thestellar absorption features, circumnuclear starburst activity is acommon feature of LIGs, regardless of their nuclear spectral types. Theemission-line, absorption-line, continuum, radio, and IRAS properties ofthe LINERs suggest that most of the LINER emission in theseinfrared-selected galaxies is produced through shock ionization ratherthan photoionization by a genuine active nucleus. The nuclear region ofSeyfert LIGs is found to be slightly less reddened than that of theLINERs and H II galaxies. The dust distribution generally isconcentrated toward the nucleus, in agreement with the often peakydistribution of the molecular gas observed in these galaxies. Inverteddust profiles in which the nucleus appears less dusty than thecircumnuclear region are observed in only three LIGs, all of which haveAGN emission-line characteristics (one Seyfert 2 galaxy and two LINERs).Low nuclear dust content appears to favor the detection of activenuclei. This may be due to selection effects or may reflect realphysical differences between these classes of objects: galaxies withSeyfert emission lines may be at a more advanced stage of dustdestruction/expulsion than H II LIGs. Complex optical depth effects mayalso explain these results without invoking a smaller amount of dust inthe nucleus. The Hβ and Mg I b absorption features are stronger inthe nuclei of AGNs (especially among the LINERs) than in H II LIGs,suggesting that AGN LIGs are at a more advanced stage of stellarevolution than H II LIGs. Further support for this scenario comes fromthe fact that AGNs are found more frequently in advanced mergers than HII galaxies (only two Seyfert galaxies are detected in systems withwell-separated nuclei). However, this last result may be a luminosityeffect rather than an effect related to the dominant nuclear source ofionization. Moreover, the absorption-line data may simply reflect thefact that galaxies with powerful H II regions show evidence for youngstars while galaxies with AGNs do not. The radial variations of theHβ and Mg I b absorption features indicate the presence of a strongsource of featureless continuum in the nucleus of nearly all LIGs,regardless of their nuclear spectral types. Contamination by thecircumnuclear starburst prevents us from determining the extent of thiscontinuum source. The [O III] profiles of both Seyfert and LINER LIGswere found to be broader on average than those of H II objects. Nearly20% of the LIGs in our sample have line widths larger than 600 km s^-1^.We find that most of the galaxies in which we could determine the radialvariations of the [O III] line width present broader profiles in thecircumnuclear region than at the nucleus. When combined with publisheddata on a few other well-studied LIGs, these results suggest thatlarge-scale nuclear winds are common in these objects and are anefficient way of getting rid of the obscuring material in the nuclearregion. The spatially extended LINER emission observed in many of theseobjects is probably due to shock ionization resulting from theinteraction of the wind-accelerated gas with the ambient material of thehost galaxy.

Optical Spectroscopy of Luminous Infrared Galaxies. I. Nuclear Data
A spectroscopic survey of a large sample of luminous infrared galaxies[log (L_ir_/L_sun_)^7^ ~ 10.5-12.5; H_0_ = 75 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^] has beencarried out using the Palomar 5 m telescope,, and the University ofHawaii 2.2 m telescope. Long-slit spectra covering 375o-8000 A at aresolution of ~10 A were obtained of 200 IRAS galaxies, including 114objects from the IRAS Bright Galaxy Survey, and 86 objects with fainterinfrared fluxes selected on the basis of their "warm" far-infrared(S_60_/S_100_) colors. The methods of observation and data reduction arediscussed. An atlas of the spectra extracted from the nuclear region ofthese objects is presented along with a large number of parametersdescribing the properties of the emission lines, the stellar absorptionlines, and the continuum emission that were measured from the spectra.An analysis of these data is presented in a companion paper (Veilleux etal. 1995) along with a discussion of the spatial variations of theseparameters in a subsample of twenty-three objects.

Multiwavelength Energy Distributions and Bolometric Luminosities of the 12 Micron Galaxy Sample
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...453..616S&db_key=AST

The IRAS Bright Galaxy Survey - Part II: Extension to Southern Declinations (delta ~< -30), and Low Galactic Latitudes (f<|b|
Complete IRAS Observations and redshifts are reported for all sourcesidentified in the IRAS Bright Galaxy Survey-Part II (hereafter referredto as BGS_2_). Source positions, radial velocities, optical magnitudes,and total flux densities, peak flux densities, and spatial extents at12, 25, and 100 ,microns are reported for 288 sources having 60 micronflux densities > 5.24 Jy, the completeness limit of the originalBright Galaxy Survey [Soifer et al., AJ, 98,766(1989)], hereafterreferred to as BGS_1_. These new data represent the extension of theIRAS Bright Galaxy Survey to southern declinations,δ<~-30^deg^, and low Galactic latitudes,5^deg^<|b|<30^deg^. Although the sky coverage of the BGS_2_ (~19935 deg^2^) is 37% larger than the sky coverage of the BGS_1_, thenumber of sources is 8% smaller due primarily to large scale structurein the local distribution of galaxies. Otherwise, the sources in theBGS_2_ show similar relationships between number counts and flux densityas observed for the 313 sources in the BGS_1_. The BGS_2_ along with theearlier BGS, represents the best sample currently available for definingthe infrared properties of galaxies in the local (z <~ 0.1) Universe.

The extended 12 micron galaxy sample
We have selected an all-sky (absolute value of b greater than or equalto 25 deg) 12 micron flux-limited sample of 893 galaxies from the IRASFaint Source Catalog, Version 2 (FSC-2). We have obtained accurate totalfluxes in the IRAS wavebands by using the ADDSCAN procedure for allobjects with FSC-2 12 micron fluxes greater than 0.15 Jy and increasingflux densities from 12 to 60 microns, and defined the sample by imposinga survey limit of 0.22 Jy on the total 12 micron flux. Its completenessis verified, by means of the classical log N - log S andV/Vmax tests, down to 0.30 Jy, below which we have measuredthe incompleteness down to the survey limit, using the log N - log Splot, for our statistical analysis. We have obtained redshifts (mostlyfrom catalogs) for virtually all (98.4%) the galaxies in the sample.Using existing catalogs of active galaxies, we defined a subsample of118 objects consisting of 53 Seyfert 1s and quasars, 63 Seyfert 2s, andtwo blazars (approximately 13% of the full sample), which is the largestunbiased sample of Seyfert galaxies ever assembled. Since the 12 micronflux has been shown to be about one-fifth of the bolometric flux forSeyfert galaxies and quasars, the subsample of Seyferts (includingquasars and blazars) is complete not only to 0.30 Jy at 12 microns butalso with respect to a bolometric flux limit of approximately 2.0 x10-10 ergs/s/sq cm. The average value of V/Vmaxfor the full sample, corrected for incompleteness at low fluxes, is 0.51+/- 0.04, expected for a complete sample of uniformly distributedgalaxies, while the value for the Seyfert galaxy subsample is 0.46 +/-0.10. We have derived 12 microns and far-infrared luminosity functionsfor the AGNs, as well as for the entire sample. We extracted from oursample a complete subsample of 235 galaxies flux-limited (8.3 Jy) at 60microns. The 60 micron luminosity function computed for this subsampleis in satisfactory agreement with the ones derived from the brightgalaxy sample (BGS) and the deep high-galactic latitude sample, bothselected at 60 microns.

An 18-cm OH and 21-cm H I survey of luminous far-infrared galaxies. II - H I properties
As a part of the present 18-cm OH and 21-cm H I survey of luminousfar-infrared galaxies, the paper provides H I data obtained at Nancayfor 88 IRAS galaxies, with FIR luminosity above 10 to the 10th solarluminosity. Among them, 64 are measured here for the first time. Whenrestricting to radial velocities smaller than 11,000 km/s, the detectionrate is equal to 85 percent, independent of the distance. These galaxiesappear as giant ones in dimension, total mass and total blue luminosity.All these parameters increase with increasing FIR luminosity. ExtremeFIR luminosity is thus related to gigantism, which could be the resultof mergers. These galaxies are also deficient in their relative H Icontent, in the sense that their global relative H I content issignificantly smaller than in classical galaxies of the Hubble sequence.

Models for infrared emission from IRAS galaxies
The far-infrared spectra of galaxies detected in four wavelength bandsby IRAS have been modeled in terms of a cool disk component, a warmerstarburst component, and a Seyfert component peaking at 25 microns.Although the models are found to fit the observed spectra of non-Seyfertand several Seyfert galaxies, a more complex geometry for the dustdistribution is indicated for NGC 1068 and many other Seyfert galaxies.In some cases, the dust in the narrow-line region has a nonsphericallysymmetric geometry.

The 12 micron galaxy sample. I - Luminosity functions and a new complete active galaxy sample
An all-sky 12 micron flux-limited sample of active galaxies was selectedfrom the IRAS Point Source Catalog. Most of the sample galaxies are inexisting catalogs, and 99 percent have measured redshifts. The 12-micronand the far-infrared luminosity functions of active and normal galaxiesare derived using IRAS co-added data. A total of 22 percent of thesample galaxies harbor active nuclei. The sample consists almost equallyof Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2, and LINER nuclei. The derived luminosityfuctions for Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies are indistinguishable fromthose of the optically selected CfA sample. Thus, 12 micron selection isthe most efficient available technique for finding complete activegalaxy samples.

IRAS observations of an optically selected sample of interacting galaxies
IRAS observations of a large, morphologically selected sample ofstrongly interacting disk-type galaxies have demonstrated thatgalaxy-galaxy collisions can lead to enhanced infrared emission, but notin all cases. Infrared luminosities of the interacting galaxies span alarge range, but are about a factor of 2 higher, on average, than thoseof isolated disk galaxies. The data suggest the existence of a cutoff inblue luminosity, below which no galaxies show markedly enhanced infraredemission. Only the most strongly interacting systems in the sample showextreme values of infrared excess, suggesting that deep,interpenetrating collisions are necessary to drive infrared emission toextreme levels. Comparisons with optical indicators of star formationshow that infrared excess and color temperatures correlate with thelevel of star-formation activity in the interacting galaxies. Allinteracting galaxies in our sample that exhibit an infrared excess andhave higher than normal color temperatures also have optical indicatorsof high levels of star formation. It is not necessary to invokeprocesses other than star formation to account for the enhanced infraredluminosity in this sample of interacting galaxies.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:18h33m37.70s
Aparent dimensions:0.692′ × 0.324′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 6670

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR