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Molecular gas in compact galaxies
New observations of eleven compact galaxies in the 12CO J =2{-}1 and J = 3{-}2 transitions are presented. From these observationsand literature data accurate line ratios in matched beams have beenconstructed, allowing the modelling of physical parameters. Matching asingle gas component to observed line ratios tends to produce physicallyunrealistic results, and is often not possible at all. Much betterresults are obtained by modelling two distinct gas components. In mostobserved galaxies, the molecular gas is warm (Tk = 50{-}150K) and at least partially dense (n(H2) ≥ 3000cm-3). Most of the gas-phase carbon in these galaxies is inatomic form; only a small fraction ( 5%) is in carbon monoxide.Beam-averaged CO column densities are low (of the order of1016 cm-2). However, molecular hydrogen columndensities are high (of the order of 1022 cm-2)confirming large CO-to- H2 conversion factors (typically X =1021{-}1022 cm-2/ {K kms-1}) found for low-metallicity environments by othermethods. From CO spectroscopy, three different types of molecularenvironment may be distinguished in compact galaxies. Type I (highrotational and isotopic ratios) corresponds to hot and dense molecularclouds dominated by star-forming regions. Type II has lower ratios,similar to the mean found for infrared-luminous galaxies in general, andcorresponds to environments engaged in, but not dominated by,star-forming activity. Type III, characterized by low 12CO(2-1)/(1-0) ratios, corresponds to mostly inactive environments ofrelatively low density.

Cold dust and molecular gas towards the centers of Magellanic type galaxies and irregulars. I. The data
We present 1300 μm continuum emission measurements and observationsof the 12CO (1-0) and (2-1) transition towards the centers of64 Magellanic type galaxies (Sdm/Sm) and irregulars (Im/I0/Irr). Thesources are selected to have IRAS flux densities S100 μm≥1000 mJy and optical diameters mainly below 180 arcsec. We wereable to detect 12CO towards 41 and the continuum emissiontowards 28 galaxies. In addition, we obtained the corresponding data fora set of 6 complementary galaxies of different morphological type.Based on observations collected at ESO, La Silla, Chile and IRAM, PicoVeleta, Spain.The full version of Figs. \ref{spec1.fig} and \ref{spec2.fig} is onlyavailable in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Automated Galaxy Morphology: A Fourier Approach
We use automated surface photometry and pattern classificationtechniques to morphologically classify galaxies. The two-dimensionallight distribution of a galaxy is reconstructed using Fourier seriesfits to azimuthal profiles computed in concentric elliptical annulicentered on the galaxy. Both the phase and amplitude of each Fouriercomponent have been studied as a function of radial bin number for alarge collection of galaxy images using principal-component analysis. Wefind that up to 90% of the variance in many of these Fourier profilesmay be characterized in as few as three principal components and thattheir use substantially reduces the dimensionality of the classificationproblem. We use supervised learning methods in the form of artificialneural networks to train galaxy classifiers that detect morphologicalbars at the 85%-90% confidence level and can identify the Hubble typewith a 1 σ scatter of 1.5 steps on the 16 step stage axis of therevised Hubble system. Finally, we systematically characterize theadverse effects of decreasing resolution and signal-to-noise ratio onthe quality of morphological information predicted by these classifiers.

A Visual Search for Galaxies in a Milky Way Region around the North Supergalactic Pole
We performed a visual systematic search for galaxies on POSS II(B)plates in a Milky Way region between l~=32deg-68° andb~=-4deg to 19°. This region partly contains the LocalVoid, and the north supergalactic pole exists at the central part. Thesurveyed area was about 560 deg2, and a total of 11,310galaxies and galaxy candidates with sizes of 0.1′ or greater wereidentified. Among the detected objects, 152 have been given in galaxycatalogs and 159, including 49 known galaxies, are associated with IRASpoint sources. We made a catalog of the detected objects, in which theposition in (α, δ) and (l, b), the size, and the features ofthe image and multiplicity are given for each object. The surface numberdensities of the detected objects almost depend on the Galacticlatitude. In the surveyed region, there is no nearby cluster and thereis an outstanding concentration of galaxies at l=7deg-12°and 4000-5000 km s-1.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Molecular Gas in Strongly Interacting Galaxies. I. CO (1-0) Observations
We present observations of the CO (1-0) line in 80 interacting galaxiesas part of a program to study the role of interactions and mergers intriggering starbursts. The sample, which only includes obviouslyinteracting pairs of galaxies, is the largest such sample observed inCO. The observations were carried out at the NRAO 12 m and IRAM 30 mtelescopes. CO emission was detected in 56 galaxies (of which 32 are newdetections), corresponding to a detection rate of 70%. Because mostgalaxies are slightly larger than the telescope beam, correction factorswere applied to include CO emission outside the beam. The correctionfactors were derived by fitting a Gaussian function or an exponential CObrightness distribution to galaxies with multiple pointings and byassuming an exponential model for galaxies with single pointing. Wecompared the global CO fluxes of 10 galaxies observed by us at bothtelescopes. We also compared the measured fluxes for another 10 galaxiesobserved by us with those by other authors using the NRAO 12 m and FCRAO14 m telescopes. These comparisons provide an estimate of the accuracyof our derived global fluxes, which is ~40%. Mapping observations of twoclose pairs of galaxies, UGC 594 (NGC 317) and UGC 11175 (NGC 6621), arealso presented. In subsequent papers we will report the statisticalanalyses of the molecular properties in our sample galaxies and makecomparisons between isolated spirals and interacting galaxies.

Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.
A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Large-Scale Structure at Low Galactic Latitude
We have extended the CfA Redshift Survey to low galactic latitudes toinvestigate the relation between the Great Wall in the North GalacticCap and the Perseus-Pisces chain in the South Galactic Cap. We presentredshifts for 2020 galaxies in the Catalogue of Galaxies and of Clustersof Galaxies (Zwicky et al. 1961-68, CGCG) in the following regions: 4^h^<= α <= 8^h^, 17^h^ <= α <= 20^h^, 0^deg^ <=δ <= 45^deg^. In these regions, the redshift catalogue includes1664 galaxies with B(0) <= 15.5 (of which 820 are newly measured) andis 97% complete. We also include redshifts for an additional 356galaxies in these regions with B(O) > 15.5; of these, 148 werepreviously unmeasured. The CGCG samples the galaxy distribution down tob_II_ = 10^deg^. In this paper, we discuss the acquisition and reductionof the spectra, and we examine the qualitative features of the redshiftdistribution. The Great Wall and the Perseus-Pisces chain are not simplyconnected across the Zone of Avoidance. These structures, which at firstappear to be coherent on scales of ~100 h^-1^ Mpc or more, actually formthe boundaries of neighboring voids of considerably smaller scale,approximately 50h^-1^ Mpc. The structures delineated by ouroptically-selected sample are qualitatively similar to those detected bythe far-infrared-selected IRAS 1.2 Jansky Survey (Fisher et al. 1995).Although the IRAS survey probes more deeply into the Zone of Avoidance,our optically-selected survey provides better sampling of structures atb_II_ >= 10^deg^.

Photoelectric UBV Photometry of 179 Bright Galaxies
This paper presents photoelectric UBV multiaperture photometry of 179bright galaxies that was used to compute total magnitudes and colorindices published in the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies(RC3). The observations were made at the McDonald Observatory from 1983December to 1986 September with an Amperex 56-DVP photometer attached tothe 0.76 and 0.91 m telescopes. The observations can also be used tocalibrate CCD images.

Recalibration of the H-0.5 magnitudes of spiral galaxies
The H-magnitude aperture data published by the Aaronson et al.collaboration over a 10 year period is collected into a homogeneous dataset of 1731 observations of 665 galaxies. Ninety-six percent of thesegalaxies have isophotal diameters and axial ratios determined by theThird Reference Cataloque of Bright Galaxies (RC3; de Vaucouleurs et al.1991), the most self-consistent set of optical data currently available.The precepts governing the optical data in the RC3 are systematicallydifferent from those of the Second Reference Catalogue (de Vaucouleurs,de Vaucouleurs, & Corwin 1976), which were used by Aaronson et al.for their original analyses of galaxy peculiar motions. This in turnleads to systematic differences in growth curves and fiducialH-magnitudes, prompting the present recalibration of the near-infraredTully-Fisher relationship. New optically normalized H-magnitude growthcurves are defined for galaxies of types SO to Im, from which new valuesof fiducial H-magnitudes, Hg-0.5, are measured forthe 665 galaxies. A series of internal tests show that these fourstandard growth curves are defined to an accuracy of 0.05 mag over theinterval -1.5 less than or equal to log (A/Dg) less than orequal to -0.2. Comparisons with the Aaronson et al. values of diameters,axial ratios, and fiducial H-magnitudes show the expected differences,given the different definitions of these parameters. The values ofHg-0.5 are assigned quality indices: a qualityvalue of 1 indicates an accuracy of less than 0.2 mag, quality 2indicates an accuracy of 0.2-0.35 mag, and quality 3 indicates anaccuracy of more than 0.35 mag. Revised values of corrected H I velocitywidths are also given, based on the new set of axial ratios defiend bythe RC3.

Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.

Neutral hydrogen observations of galaxies in the Hercules supercluster. III. CGCG fields at the edge of the void.
The third installment of a HI redshift survey in the region of theHercules supercluster is presented. This part of the survey presents HIspectra of 84 galaxies selected from the UGC and CGCG which extends thepreviously begun survey of late-type spiral galaxies in that region.Measured HI parameters from the spectra are given. For about 20% of thesample, these parameters are compared to those measured previously byother workers.

Galaxy structures in the Hercules region
216 redshifts have been obtained in a region of 981 sq deg south of theHercules supercluster. 172 of these redshifts are of galaxies withmpg less than or equal to 15.1, 110 of which had no previousvelocity measurement. 44 new redshifts are of galaxies fainter thanmpg = 15.1. With these new data we have been able to define asample in a vast region (approximately 1700 sq deg) around Herculeslimited to mpg less than or equal to 15.1 with a velocitycompleteness of 81.5%. 189 galaxies have been morphologically classifiedso that all galaxies in the sample with known velocity now also haveknown morphology. The magnitude limited sample, including 556 galaxies,is then used to identify and describe galaxy structures in the region.We find that the overdense volume is small, that its overall appearanceis that of a coral branch floating in a sea of nothing and that earlyand late type galaxies defined different structures.

Global properties of dwarf galaxies. I. Galaxy sample and IRAS infrared flux-densities
We have selected a sample of 278 dwarf galaxies for which at least Bmagnitudes and preferably also optical colour information are available.For those galaxies that have no previously published IRAS fluxes, wehave used the IRAS database to extract fluxes or upper limits tosensitivity levels significantly better than those of the IRAS PointSource Catalog. New IRAS data include 79 galaxies detected in at leastone band, and 66 galaxies with good upper limits. In total, about 60% ofall dwarf galaxies in the sample now have been detected at 60/100μm.

Global properties of dwarf galaxies II. Colours and luminosities
We have used a previously determined sample of 278 dwarf galaxies formost of which B magnitudes, optical colours, HI fluxes and IRASflux-densities are known, in order to derive luminosities, colours andsurface brightnesses. Dwarf galaxy properties are compared to those of acontrol sample of 228 larger spiral galaxies. The dwarf galaxies have onaverage higher 60/100μm flux ratios and lower 12/25μm flux ratiosthan the spiral galaxies, indicating that the contribution of `cirrus'to the infrared emission from dwarf galaxies is relativelyinsignificant. In the dwarf galaxies, the 60/100μm flux ratioincreases with increasing optical blueness; spiral galaxies show theopposite. Dwarf galaxies with a low optical surface brightness have low100μm/HI ratios, but the converse is not true. Galaxies with high100μm/HI ratios (indicative of high dust-to-gas ratios) also havehigh FIR/B ratios as well as high 60/100μm flux-density ratios.Although this is true for both spiral and dwarf galaxies, at given100μm/HI ratios the dwarf galaxies have both a lower FIR/B ratio anda higher 60/100μm flux-density ratio. This result is of importance inthe interpretation of FIR/B - 60/100μm diagrams in terms of starformation activity.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

Nearby galaxy flows modeled by the light distribution - Distances, model, and the local velocity anomaly
Tables giving measured galaxy distances used to construct a map ofobserved peculiar velocities, and giving a grid of the distribution oflight used to construct a map of expected peculiar velocities arepresented. A preferred model was developed which yielded a best fitbetween these maps, and this model was used to generate output kinematicdistances which are recorded for groups and individual galaxies withV0 of less than 3000 km/s. In terms of the ratio ofpeculiar-to-systemic velocities, the local velocity anomaly is the mostimportant perturbation involving substantial numbers of galaxies forthis case. The ratio of these quantities in this case is larger than forthe more famous cases of the Virgocentric or Great Attractorperturbations. Maps which illustrate the fit of the present mass modelto the velocity data in the local region are provided. A graphicaldemonstration of the relative importance of large-scale streaming tolocal motions within the context of this model is presented.

Velocity differences in binary galaxies. I - Suggestions for a nonmonotonic, two-component distribution
A compilation of published high-precision velocities for 107 isolatedgalaxies is presented and used to obtain the distribution function oftheir velocity differences. The distribution shows a peak at the zerodifference as expected, but it also exhibits a preference for valuesnear 72 km/2. The distribution function declines smoothly beyond about72 km/s, with no significant peaks at multiples of 72 km/s, as claimedby Tifft (1977, 1980, 1982). It is argued that criteria for selectionprocedures on binary galaxy samples which are defined on the basis oftoo narrow a projected separation in the sky can produce a nonmonotonicdistribution if the orbits are eccentric. Such orbits can produce astrong secondary peak only if the level of incompleteness inbinary-galaxy samples is quite high, suggesting that the presentstatistical estimates of the masses of binary galaxies should bereevaluated.

A search for gas-rich dwarf galaxies just outside the Local Supercluster
Results are presented of the sampling of the nearest void in thedistribution of galaxies, in a direction perpendicular to thefundamental plane of the Local Supercluster, in the neutral hydrogenspectral line for low-mass gas clouds or H I-rich dwarf galaxies. Nonewere found, to a smaller H I mass limit than has been previouslyreported for a low-density region in the large-scale distribution ofgalaxies. An upper limit of about 5 percent of closure density in theform of gas clouds with MH of greater than about 5,000,000solar masses is given. It is suggested that the ratio of gas-rich dwarfsto spirals is no higher in voids than in superclusters, and that dwarfirregular galaxies with MH below 10 exp 8 solar masses areless common than galaxies of greater mass. Two new members of apreviously detected group of galaxies at a redshift of about 2500 km/s,representing an 'island' in the void, were detected, along with fourgalaxies in the background.

A survey of small-scale extremes in extinction at low Galactic latitudes using IRAS galaxies
Optical CCD and 21 cm H I data are combined here via the Tully-Fisherrelation to study the Galactic extinction in the V an I bands over anangular scale of a few arcmin at absolute Galactic latitudes between 2and 16 deg. Extinctions in V and I bands are found to be linearlycorrelated with A(I) about 0.58 A(V), with no noticeable environmentaldependence and consistent with existing results of Galactic reddening.There is a large scatter in the simple linear relation with csc /b/,confirming the existence of 'holes' and patches at low Galacticlatitudes. The mean correlation between Galactic extinction and H Icolumn density over a comparable angular scale is also found to beconsistent with those at high latitudes over large angular scales.Correlation is also found between optical extinction and the IRAS 100micron sky brightness, and this sky brightness is only slightly worsethan H I column density as an indicator for optical extinction.

Properties of the redshift. I - Data and calibrations
Data at 21 cm are presented for 100 galaxies intended to be used forsystem comparisons between the NRAO 140 and 300 foot telescope and the100 m Effelsberg telescope. Data from the 300 foot telescope are alsogiven for galaxies selected for overlap comparisons with older studies.Flux calibrations and measurement uncertainties in flux, redshifts,profile width, and profile shape are discussed.

Identifying galaxies in the zone of avoidance
A set of IR color criteria was applied to sources in the IRAS PointSource Catalog at low Galactic latitudes in order to select candidategalaxies. A total of 371 of the selected sources within a Galacticlatitude range (b) = 2-16 deg were searched for H I with the Arecibo 305m radio telescope. Twenty-six percent (97) were detected, including 36galaxies previously known only as IRAS sources. The H I spectra of thedetected galaxies are presented together with their observed redshiftsand velocity widths.

Quantization of redshift differences in isolated galaxy pairs
Improved 21 cm data on isolated galaxy pairs are presented whicheliminate questions of inhomogeneity in the data on such pairs andreduce observational error to below 5 km/s. Quantization is sharpened,and the 'zero' peak is shown to be displaced from zero to a locationnear 24 km/s. An exclusion principle is suggested whereby identicalredshifts are forbidden in limited volumes. The radio data and data fromSchweizer (1987) are combined with the best optical data on closeKarachentsev pairs to provide a cumulative sample of 84 of the bestdifferentials now available. New 21 cm observations are used to test forthe presence of small differentials in very wide pairs, and thedeficiency near zero is found to continue to very wide spacings. A lossof wide pairs by selection bias cannot produce the observed zerodeficiency. A new test using pairs selected from the Fisher-Tullycatalog is used to demonstrate quantization properties of thirdcomponents associated with possible pairs.

An Arecibo survey for extragalactic hydroxyl absorption. I - Presentation of results
Hydroxyl absorption has been detected in a total of 24 galaxies;megamaser emission in six additional galaxies brings the total number ofdetections of extragalactic OH to 30. About 50 percent of theextragalactic absorption lines are asymmetrically skewed toward the red,indicating that the molecular disks could have an unusual velocity orexcitation structure. The hyperfine ratio for the 1667 and 1665 MHztransitions in most galaxies lies within the limits specified by LTEconditions.

The nuclear activity of interacting galaxies
A search for active galactic nuclei among interacting galaxies isreported. A sample of 167 systems of interacting and asymmetric galaxieswas observed spectrophotometrically in the spectral range 4700-7100 A.The results are compared with a sample of isolated galaxies. It is foundthat (1) there are no Seyfert nuclei in elliptical or dwarf irregulargalaxies of the sample; (2) there is an excess of Seyfert nuclei amonginteracting spirals, but it is only at the 90 percent confidence level;(3) this excess becomes statistically significant (98 percent) when onlystrongly interacting spirals are included (four new Seyfert nuclei arepresented); (4) in the subgroup of galaxies with extreme tidaldistortions, no Seyfert nuclei were found.

Photoelectric Observations of Interacting and Compact Galaxies
Not Available

H I line studies of galaxies. III - Distance moduli of 822 disk galaxies
The distance scale established on the basis of a distance moduli catalog(for 822 galaxies) that was derived from 21-cm line widths via theB-band Tully-Fisher relation is compared with several independent scaleshaving a common zero point, that are based on the indicators forluminosity index, redshift, ring diameters, brightest superassociations,and effective diameters. These are in excellent systematic agreement,and confirm the linearity of the H I scale in the 24-35 modulusinterval, but indicate a small systematic zero point difference of about0.2 mag, which must be added to the H I moduli to place them on the same'short' distance scale defined by the others.

A 21 centimeter line survey of a complete sample of interacting and isolated galaxies
The paper presents 21 cm line observations of a complete sample ofinteracting and isolated galaxies made with the National Radio AstronomyObservatory 91 and 43 m telescopes and the Arecibo 3035 m telescope. The21 cm line data are combined with a homogeneous set of optical data onangular diameters, axial ratios, magnitudes, and colors, and integralproperties are calculated for the galaxies in both samples. In thispaper, the sample selection procedures, the method of observation, thedata reduction, and the observational errors are described. Thedetection percentages are presented for both samples.

A catalog of infrared magnitudes and H I velocity widths for nearby galaxies
Integrated infrared (1.6 micron) magnitudes and 21 cm velocity widthsare presented for 308 nearby spiral galaxies. Positions, types,inclinations, diameters, H I velocities and flux density integrals, anddistances are also listed. These data form the basis for a recentanalysis of the velocity field in the Local supercluster.

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Right ascension:18h11m07.40s
Aparent dimensions:1.778′ × 0.977′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 6570

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