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Integrated-Light Two Micron All Sky Survey Infrared Photometry of Galactic Globular Clusters
We have mosaicked Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) images to derivesurface brightness profiles in J, H, and Ks for 104 Galacticglobular clusters. We fit these with King profiles and show that thecore radii are identical to within the errors for each of these IRcolors and are identical to the core radii at V in essentially allcases. We derive integrated-light colors V-J, V-H, V-Ks, J-H,and J-Ks for these globular clusters. Each color shows areasonably tight relation between the dereddened colors and metallicity.Fits to these are given for each color. The IR - IR colors have verysmall errors, due largely to the all-sky photometric calibration of the2MASS survey, while the V-IR colors have substantially largeruncertainties. We find fairly good agreement with measurements ofintegrated-light colors for a smaller sample of Galactic globularclusters by M. Aaronson, M. Malkan, and D. Kleinmann from 1977. Ourresults provide a calibration for the integrated light of distantsingle-burst old stellar populations from very low to solarmetallicities. A comparison of our dereddened measured colors withpredictions from several models of the integrated light of single-burstold populations shows good agreement in the low-metallicity domain forV-Ks colors but also shows an offset at a fixed [Fe/H] of~0.1 mag in J-Ks, which we ascribe to photometric systemtransformation issues. Some of the models fail to reproduce the behaviorof the integrated-light colors of the Galactic globular clusters nearsolar metallicity.

VI Photometry of Globular Clusters NGC 6293 and NGC 6541: The Formation of the Metal-poor Inner Halo Globular Clusters
We present VI photometry of the metal-poor inner halo globular clustersNGC 6293 and NGC 6541 using the WFPC2 on board the Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST). Our color-magnitude diagrams of the clusters showwell-defined blue horizontal-branch populations, consistent with theirlow metallicities and old ages. NGC 6293 appears to have blue stragglerstars in the cluster's central region. We discuss the interstellarreddening and the distance modulus of NGC 6293 and NGC 6541 and obtainE(B-V)=0.40 and (m-M)0=14.61 for NGC 6293 and E(B-V)=0.14 and(m-M)0=14.19 for NGC 6541. Our results confirm that NGC 6293and NGC 6541 are clearly located in the Galaxy's central regions(RGC<=3 kpc). We also discuss the differential reddeningacross NGC 6293. The interstellar reddening value of NGC 6293 appears tovary by ΔE(B-V)~0.02-0.04 mag within our small field of view. Themost notable result of our study is that the inner halo clusters NGC6293 and NGC 6541 essentially have the same ages as M92, confirming theprevious result from the HST NIC3 observations of NGC 6287.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., underNASA contract NAS5-26555.

Deep near-IR photometry of eight metal-poor globular clusters in the Galactic bulge and halo
High quality J, H and K' images are used to investigate themorphological properties of the near-infrared color-magnitude diagramsfor five metal-poor bulge globular clusters and three halo clusters.Photometric parameters to describe the RGB shape, i.e., the colors atfixed magnitudes of M_K=M_H=(-5.5, -5, -4 and -3), the magnitudes atfixed colors of (J-K)o = (J-H)o = 0.70, and theRGB slope, have been measured from the fiducial normal points of theCMDs. We also measured the near-infrared magnitudes of the RGB bump andtip on the luminosity function of the RGB stars for each cluster. TheRGB parameters of the observed metal-poor bulge and halo clusters areconsistent with the previous empirical relationships between the RGBparameters and the cluster metallicity for metal-rich bulge clusters andhalo clusters. The near-infrared magnitudes of the RGB bump and tip arein good agreement with the theoretical prediction of the Yonsei-Yaleisochrone.

Dynamical Formation of Close Binaries in Globular Clusters: Cataclysmic Variables
We answer the long-standing question of which production mechanism isresponsible for the cataclysmic variables (CVs) in globular clusters.Arguments have been given that range from mostly primordial presence toa significant contribution of later dynamical formation in close stellarencounters. We conclude, based on a thorough analysis of a homogeneousChandra data set, that the majority of CVs in dense globular clustershave a dynamical origin.

Surface Brightness Profiles of Galactic Globular Clusters from Hubble Space Telescope Images
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) allows us to study the central surfacebrightness profiles of globular clusters at unprecedented detail. Wehave mined the HST archives to obtain 38 WFPC2 images of Galacticglobular clusters with adequate exposure times and filters, which we useto measure their central structure. We outline a reliable method toobtain surface brightness profiles from integrated light that we test onan extensive set of simulated images. Most clusters have central surfacebrightness about 0.5 mag brighter than previous measurements made fromground-based data, with the largest differences around 2 mag. Includingthe uncertainties in the slope estimates, the surface brightness slopedistribution is consistent with half of the sample having flat cores andthe remaining half showing a gradual decline from 0 to -0.8[dlogΣ/dlogr)]. We deproject the surface brightness profiles in anonparametric way to obtain luminosity density profiles. Thedistribution of luminosity density logarithmic slopes shows similarfeatures, with half of the sample between -0.4 and -1.8. These resultsare in contrast to our theoretical bias that the central regions ofglobular clusters are either isothermal (i.e., flat central profiles) orvery steep (i.e., luminosity density slope approximately -1.6) forcore-collapse clusters. With only 50% of our sample having centralprofiles consistent with isothermal cores, King models appear torepresent most globular clusters in their cores poorly.

Manganese Abundances in Cluster and Field Stars
We have derived Mn abundances for more than 200 stars in 19 globularclusters. In addition, Mn abundance determinations have been made for acomparable number of halo field and disk stars possessing an overlappingrange of metallicities and stellar parameters. Our primary data set wascomprised of high-resolution spectra previously acquired at theMcDonald, Lick, and Keck Observatories. To enlarge our data pool, weacquired globular and open cluster spectra from several otherinvestigators. Data were analyzed using synthetic spectra of the 6000Å Mn I triplet. Hyperfine structure parameters were included inthe synthetic spectra computations. Our analysis shows that for themetallicity range -0.7>[Fe/H]>-2.7, stars of 19 globular clustershave a mean relative abundance of <[Mn/Fe]>=-0.37+/-0.01(σ=0.10), a value in agreement with that of the field stars,<[Mn/Fe]>=-0.36+/-0.01 (σ=0.08). Despite the 2 orders ofmagnitude span in metallicity, the <[Mn/Fe]> ratio remainsconstant in both stellar populations. Our Mn abundance data indicatethat there is no appreciable variation in the relative nucleosyntheticcontribution from massive stars that undergo core-collapse supernovaeand thus no significant change of the associated initial mass functionin the specified metallicity range.

Chemical Compositions of Red Giant Stars in Old Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Clusters
We have observed 10 red giant stars in four old Large Magellanic Cloudglobular clusters with the high-resolution spectrograph MIKE on theMagellan Landon Clay 6.5 m telescope. The stars in our sample have up to20 elemental abundance determinations for the α-, iron peak, andneutron-capture element groups. We have also derived abundances for thelight odd-Z elements Na and Al. We find NGC 2005 and NGC 2019 to be moremetal-rich than previous estimates from the Ca II triplet, and we derive[Fe/H] values closer to those obtained from the slope of the red giantbranch. However, we confirm previous determinations for Hodge 11 and NGC1898 to within 0.2 dex. The LMC cluster [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] ratios arecomparable to the values observed in old Galactic globular clusterstars, as are the abundances [Y/Fe], [Ba/Fe], and [Eu/Fe]. The LMCclusters do not share the low-Y behavior observed in some dwarfspheroidal galaxies. [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and [V/Fe] in the LMC, however,are significantly lower than what is seen in the Galactic globularcluster system. Neither does the behavior of [Cu/Fe] as a function of[Fe/H] in our LMC clusters match the trend seen in the Galaxy, stayinginstead at a constant value of roughly -0.8. Because not all[α/Fe] ratios are suppressed, these abundance ratios cannot beattributed solely to the injection of Type Ia supernova material andinstead reflect the differences in star formation history of the LMCversus the Milky Way. An extensive numerical experimental study wasperformed, varying both input parameters and stellar atmosphere models,to verify that the unusual abundance ratios derived in this study arenot the result of the adopted atomic parameters, stellar atmospheres, orstellar parameters. We conclude that many of the abundances in the LMCglobular clusters we observed are distinct from those observed in theMilky Way, and these differences are intrinsic to the stars in thosesystems.

Globular cluster system and Milky Way properties revisited
Aims.Updated data of the 153 Galactic globular clusters are used toreaddress fundamental parameters of the Milky Way, such as the distanceof the Sun to the Galactic centre, the bulge and halo structuralparameters, and cluster destruction rates. Methods: .We build areduced sample that has been decontaminated of all the clusters youngerthan 10 Gyr and of those with retrograde orbits and/or evidence ofrelation to dwarf galaxies. The reduced sample contains 116 globularclusters that are tested for whether they were formed in the primordialcollapse. Results: .The 33 metal-rich globular clusters([Fe/H]≥-0.75) of the reduced sample basically extend to the Solarcircle and are distributed over a region with the projected axial-ratiostypical of an oblate spheroidal, Δ x:Δ y:Δz≈1.0:0.9:0.4. Those outside this region appear to be related toaccretion. The 81 metal-poor globular clusters span a nearly sphericalregion of axial-ratios ≈1.0:1.0:0.8 extending from the central partsto the outer halo, although several clusters in the external regionstill require detailed studies to unravel their origin as accretion orcollapse. A new estimate of the Sun's distance to the Galactic centre,based on the symmetries of the spatial distribution of 116 globularclusters, is provided with a considerably smaller uncertainty than inprevious determinations using globular clusters, R_O=7.2±0.3 kpc.The metal-rich and metal-poor radial-density distributions flatten forR_GC≤2 kpc and are represented well over the full Galactocentricdistance range both by a power-law with a core-like term andSérsic's law; at large distances they fall off as ˜R-3.9. Conclusions: .Both metallicity components appearto have a common origin that is different from that of the dark matterhalo. Structural similarities between the metal-rich and metal-poorradial distributions and the stellar halo are consistent with a scenariowhere part of the reduced sample was formed in the primordial collapseand part was accreted in an early period of merging. This applies to thebulge as well, suggesting an early merger affecting the central parts ofthe Galaxy. The present decontamination procedure is not sensitive toall accretions (especially prograde) during the first Gyr, since theobserved radial density profiles still preserve traces of the earliestmerger(s). We estimate that the present globular cluster populationcorresponds to ≤23±6% of the original one. The fact that thevolume-density radial distributions of the metal-rich and metal-poorglobular clusters of the reduced sample follow both a core-likepower-law, and Sérsic's law indicates that we are dealing withspheroidal subsystems at all scales.

RR Lyrae-based calibration of the Globular Cluster Luminosity Function
We test whether the peak absolute magnitude MV(TO) of theGlobular Cluster Luminosity Function (GCLF) can be used for reliableextragalactic distance determination. Starting with the luminosityfunction of the Galactic Globular Clusters listed in Harris catalogue,we determine MV(TO) either using current calibrations of theabsolute magnitude MV(RR) of RR Lyrae stars as a function ofthe cluster metal content [Fe/H] and adopting selected cluster samples.We show that the peak magnitude is slightly affected by the adoptedMV(RR)-[Fe/H] relation, with the exception of that based onthe revised Baade-Wesselink method, while it depends on the criteria toselect the cluster sample. Moreover, grouping the Galactic GlobularClusters by metallicity, we find that the metal-poor (MP) ([Fe/H]<-1.0, <[Fe/H]>~-1.6) sample shows peak magnitudes systematicallybrighter by about 0.36mag than those of the metal-rich (MR) ([Fe/H]>-1.0, (<[Fe/H]>~-0.6) one, in substantial agreement with thetheoretical metallicity effect suggested by synthetic Globular Clusterpopulations with constant age and mass function. Moving outside theMilky Way, we show that the peak magnitude of the MP clusters in M31appears to be consistent with that of Galactic clusters with similarmetallicity, once the same MV(RR)-[Fe/H] relation is used fordistance determination. As for the GCLFs in other external galaxies,using Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBF) measurements we giveevidence that the luminosity functions of the blue (MP) GlobularClusters peak at the same luminosity within ~0.2mag, whereas for the red(MR) samples the agreement is within ~0.5mag even accounting for thetheoretical metallicity correction expected for clusters with similarages and mass distributions. Then, using the SBF absolute magnitudesprovided by a Cepheid distance scale calibrated on a fiducial distanceto Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we show that the MV(TO)value of the MP clusters in external galaxies is in excellent agreementwith the value of both Galactic and M31 ones, as inferred by an RR Lyraedistance scale referenced to the same LMC fiducial distance. Eventually,adopting μ0(LMC) = 18.50mag, we derive that the luminosityfunction of MP clusters in the Milky Way, M31, and external galaxiespeak at MV(TO) =-7.66 +/- 0.11, - 7.65 +/- 0.19 and -7.67 +/-0.23mag, respectively. This would suggest a value of -7.66 +/- 0.09mag(weighted mean), with any modification of the LMC distance modulusproducing a similar variation of the GCLF peak luminosity.

Hot Populations in M87 Globular Clusters
To explore the production of UV-bright stars in old, metal-richpopulations like those in elliptical galaxies, we have obtained HubbleSpace Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph far- andnear-UV photometry of globular clusters (GCs) in four fields in thegiant elliptical (gE) galaxy M87. To a limit of mFUV~25 wedetect a total of 66 GCs in common with the deep HST optical-band studyof Kundu et al. Despite strong overlap in V- and I-band properties, theM87 GCs have UV-optical properties that are distinct from clusters inthe Milky Way and in M31. M87 clusters, especially metal-poor ones,produce larger hot horizontal-branch populations than do Milky Wayanalogs. In color plots including the near-UV band, the M87 clustersappear to represent an extension of the Milky Way sequence. Cluster massis probably not a factor in these distinctions. The most metal-rich M87GCs in our sample are near solar metallicity and overlap the local Egalaxy sample in estimated Mg2 line indices. Nonetheless, theclusters produce much more UV light at a given Mg2, being upto 1 mag bluer than any gE galaxy in (FUV-V) color. The M87 GCs do notappear to represent a transition between Milky Way-type clusters and Egalaxies. The differences are in the correct sense if the clusters aresignificantly older than the E galaxies.Comparisons with Galactic open clusters indicate that the hot stars lieon the extreme horizontal branch, rather than being blue stragglers, andthat the extreme horizontal branch becomes well populated for ages>~5 Gyr. Existing model grids for clusters do not match theobservations well, due to poorly understood giant branch mass loss orperhaps high helium abundances. We find that 41 of our UV detectionshave no optical-band counterparts. Most appear to be UV-brightbackground galaxies seen through M87. Eleven near-UV variable sourcesdetected at only one epoch in the central field are probably classicalnovae. Two recurrent variable sources have no obvious explanation butcould be related to activity in the relativistic jet.

Resolved Massive Star Clusters in the Milky Way and Its Satellites: Brightness Profiles and a Catalog of Fundamental Parameters
We present a database of structural and dynamical properties for 153spatially resolved star clusters in the Milky Way, the Large and SmallMagellanic Clouds, and the Fornax dwarf spheroidal. This databasecomplements and extends others in the literature, such as those ofHarris and Mackey & Gilmore. Our cluster sample comprises 50 ``youngmassive clusters'' in the LMC and SMC, and 103 old globular clustersbetween the four galaxies. The parameters we list include central andhalf-light-averaged surface brightnesses and mass densities; core andeffective radii; central potentials, concentration parameters, and tidalradii; predicted central velocity dispersions and escape velocities;total luminosities, masses, and binding energies; central phase-spacedensities; half-mass relaxation times; and ``κ-space'' parameters.We use publicly available population-synthesis models to computestellar-population properties (intrinsic B-V colors, reddenings, andV-band mass-to-light ratios) for the same 153 clusters plus another 63globulars in the Milky Way. We also take velocity-dispersionmeasurements from the literature for a subset of 57 (mostly old)clusters to derive dynamical mass-to-light ratios for them, showing thatthese compare very well to the population-synthesis predictions. Thecombined data set is intended to serve as the basis for futureinvestigations of structural correlations and the fundamental plane ofmassive star clusters, including especially comparisons between thesystemic properties of young and old clusters.The structural and dynamical parameters are derived from fitting threedifferent models-the modified isothermal sphere of King; an alternatemodified isothermal sphere based on the ad hoc stellar distributionfunction of Wilson; and asymptotic power-law models withconstant-density cores-to the surface-brightness profile of eachcluster. Surface-brightness data for the LMC, SMC, and Fornax clustersare based in large part on the work of Mackey & Gilmore, but includesignificant supplementary data culled from the literature and importantcorrections to Mackey & Gilmore's V-band magnitude scale. Theprofiles of Galactic globular clusters are taken from Trager et al. Weaddress the question of which model fits each cluster best, finding inthe majority of cases that the Wilson models-which are spatially moreextended than King models but still include a finite, ``tidal'' cutoffin density-fit clusters of any age, in any galaxy, as well as or betterthan King models. Untruncated, asymptotic power laws often fit about aswell as Wilson models but can be significantly worse. We argue that theextended halos known to characterize many Magellanic Cloud clusters maybe examples of the generic envelope structure of self-gravitating starclusters, not just transient features associated strictly with youngage.

A Comparison of Elemental Abundance Ratios in Globular Clusters, Field Stars, and Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies
We have compiled a sample of globular clusters with high-quality stellarabundances from the literature to compare to the chemistries of stars inthe Galaxy and in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Of the 45 globular clustersexamined, 29 also have kinematic information. Most of the globularclusters belong to the Galactic halo; however, a significant number havedisk kinematics or belong to the bulge. Focusing on the [α/Fe] andlight r-process element ratios, we find that most globular cluster starsmimic field stars of similar metallicities, and neither clearlyresembles the currently available stellar abundances in dwarf galaxies(including globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud). Theexceptions to these general elemental ratio comparisons are alreadyknown in the literature, e.g., ω Centauri, Palomar 12, and Terzan7 associated with the Sagittarius remnant and Ruprecht 106, which has ahigh radial velocity and low [α/Fe] ratio. A few other globularclusters show more marginal peculiarities. The most notable one is thehalo cluster M68, which has a high galactocentric rotational velocity, aslightly younger age, and a unique [Si/Ti] ratio. The [Si/Ti] ratiosdecrease with increasing [Fe/H] at intermediate metallicities, which isconsistent with very massive stars playing a larger role in the earlychemical evolution of the Galaxy. The chemical similarities betweenglobular clusters and field stars with [Fe/H]<=-1.0 suggests a sharedchemical history in a well-mixed early Galaxy. The differences in thepublished chemistries of stars in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies suggestthat neither the globular clusters, halo stars, nor thick disk stars hadtheir origins in small isolated systems like the present-day Milky Waydwarf satellites.

On the origin of the radial mass density profile of the Galactic halo globular cluster system
We investigate what may be the origin of the presently observed spatialdistribution of the mass of the Galactic Old Halo globular clustersystem. We propose its radial mass density profile to be a relic of thedistribution of the cold baryonic material in the protogalaxy. Assumingthat this one arises from the profile of the whole protogalaxy minus thecontribution of the dark matter (and a small contribution of the hot gasby which the protoglobular clouds were bound), we show that the massdistributions around the Galactic centre of this cold gas and of the OldHalo agree satisfactorily. In order to demonstrate our hypothesis evenmore conclusively, we simulate the evolution with time, up to an age of15Gyr, of a putative globular cluster system whose initial massdistribution in the Galactic halo follows the profile of the coldprotogalactic gas. We show that beyond a galactocentric distance oforder 2-3kpc, the initial shape of such a mass density profile ispreserved despite the complete destruction of some globular clusters andthe partial evaporation of some others. This result is almostindependent of the choice of the initial mass function for the globularclusters, which is still ill determined. The shape of these evolvedcluster system mass density profiles also agrees with the presentlyobserved profile of the Old Halo globular cluster system, thusstrengthening our hypothesis. Our result might suggest that theflattening shown by the Old Halo mass density profile at short distancesfrom the Galactic centre is, at least partly, of primordial origin.

Which Globular Clusters Contain Intermediate-Mass Black Holes?
It has been assumed that intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) inglobular clusters can only reside in the most centrally concentratedclusters, with a so-called core-collapsed density profile. While thiswould be a natural guess, it is in fact wrong. We have followed theevolution of star clusters containing IMBHs with masses between125<=MBH<=1000 Msolar through detailedN-body simulations, and we find that a cluster with an IMBH, inprojection, appears to have a relatively large ``core'' with surfacebrightness only slightly rising toward the center. This makes it highlyunlikely that any of the ``core-collapsed'' clusters will harbor anIMBH. On the contrary, the places to look for an IMBH are those clustersthat can be fitted well by medium-concentration King models. Thevelocity dispersion of the visible stars in a globular cluster with anIMBH is nearly constant well inside the apparent core radius. For acluster of mass MC containing an IMBH of mass MBH,the influence of the IMBH becomes significant only at a fraction2.5MBH/MC of the half-mass radius, deep within thecore, where it will affect only a small number of stars. In conclusion,observational detection of an IMBH may be possible, but will bechallenging.

Chemical Abundances for Seven Giant Stars in M68 (NGC 4590): A Globular Cluster with Abnormal Silicon and Titanium Abundances
We present a detailed chemical abundance study of seven giant stars inM68, including six red giants and one post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB)star. We find significant differences in the gravities determined usingphotometry and those obtained from ionization balance, which suggeststhat non-LTE (NLTE) affects are important for these low-gravity,metal-poor stars. We adopt an iron abundance using photometric gravitiesand Fe II lines to minimize those effects, finding [Fe/H]=-2.16+/-0.02(σ=0.04). For element-to-iron ratios, we rely on neutral linesversus Fe I and ionized lines versus Fe II (except for [O/Fe]) to alsominimize NLTE effects. We find variations in the abundances of sodiumamong the program stars. However, there is no correlation (oranticorrelation) with the oxygen abundances. Furthermore, the post-AGBstar has a normal (low) abundance of sodium. Both of these facts addfurther support to the idea that the variations seen among some lightelements within individual globular clusters arise from primordialvariations and not from deep mixing. M68, like M15, shows elevatedabundances of silicon compared with other globular clusters andcomparable-metallicity field stars. But M68 deviates even more inshowing a relative underabundance of titanium. We speculate that in M68titanium is behaving like an iron-peak element rather than its morecommonly observed adherence to enhancements seen in the so-calledα-elements such as magnesium, silicon, and calcium. We interpretthis result as implying that the chemical enrichment seen in M68 mayhave arisen from contributions from supernovae with somewhat moremassive progenitors than those that contribute to abundances normallyseen in other globular clusters. The neutron capture elements barium andeuropium vary among the stars in M15, according to earlier work bySneden et al., but [Ba/Eu] is relatively constant, suggesting that bothelements arise in the same nucleosynthesis events. M68 shares the same[Ba/Eu] ratio as the stars in M15, but the average abundance ratio ofthese elements, as well as lanthanum, are lower in M68 relative to ironthan in M15, implying a slightly weaker contribution of r-processnucleosynthesis in M68.

Ages and metallicities of star clusters: New calibrations and diagnostic diagrams from visible integrated spectra
We present homogeneous scales of ages and metallicities for starclusters from very young objects, through intermediate-age ones up tothe oldest known clusters. All the selected clusters have integratedspectra in the visible range, as well as reliable determinations oftheir ages and metallicities. From these spectra equivalent widths (EWs)of K Ca II, G band (CH) and Mg I metallic, and Hδ, Hγ andHβ Balmer lines have been measured homogeneously. The analysis ofthese EWs shows that the EW sums of the metallic and Balmer H lines,separately, are good indicators of cluster age for objects younger than10 Gyr, and that the former is also sensitive to cluster metallicity forages greater than 10 Gyr. We propose an iterative procedure forestimating cluster ages by employing two new diagnostic diagrams and agecalibrations based on the above EW sums. For clusters older than 10 Gyr,we also provide a calibration to derive their overall metal contents.

Heavy elements and chemical enrichment in globular clusters
High resolution (R  40 000) and high S/N spectra have been acquiredwith UVES on the VLT-Kueyen (Paranal Observatory, ESO Chile) for severalmain sequence turnoff stars (V ˜ 17 mag) and subgiants at the baseof the Red Giant Branch (V ˜ 16 mag) in three globular clusters (NGC6397, NGC 6752 and 47 Tuc/NGC 104) at different metallicities(respectively [Fe/H] ≃ -2.0; -1.5; -0.7). Spectra for a sample of25 field halo subdwarves have also been taken with equal resolution, buthigher S/N. These data have been used to determine the abundances ofseveral neutron-capture elements in these three clusters: strontium,yttrium, barium and europium. This is the first abundance determinationof these heavy elements for such unevolved stars in these three globularclusters. These values, together with the [Ba/Eu] and [Sr/Ba] abundanceratios, have been used to test the self-enrichment scenario. Acomparison is done with field halo stars and other well known Galacticglobular clusters in which heavy elements have already been measured inthe past, at least in bright giants (V  11-12 mag). Our resultsshow clearly that globular clusters have been uniformly enriched by r-and s-process syntheses, and that most of them seem to follow exactlythe same abundance patterns as field halo stars, which discards the``classical'' self-enrichment scenario for the origin of metallicitiesand heavy elements in globular clusters.Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory with theVLT-UT2, Paranal, Chile (ESO-LP 165.L-0263).

Infrared Echelle Spectroscopy of Palomar 6 and M71
We present high-resolution infrared echelle spectroscopy for theglobular clusters Palomar 6 and M71. Our mean heliocentric radialvelocity of Pal 6 is +180.6+/-3.2 km s-1 and is 20 kms-1 lower than that found by Minniti in 1995. Contrary to theprevious metallicity estimates using low-resolution spectroscopy, ourresults show that Pal 6 has an intermediate metallicity, with[Fe/H]=-1.0+/-0.1, and is slightly more metal poor than M71. Reasonablechanges in the surface temperature or the microturbulent velocity of themodel atmospheres do not affect [Fe/H] at more than +/-0.2 dex. In spiteof its high metallicity, on the basis of the spectrum of a singlecluster member the [Si/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] ratios of Pal 6 appear to beenhanced by 0.4 and 0.5 dex, respectively, suggesting that the Galacticinner halo may have experienced a very rapid chemical enrichmenthistory.Based on observations made with the Infrared Telescope Facility, whichis operated by the University of Hawaii under contract to the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration.

Abundance Variations Within Globular Clusters
Abundance variations within globular clusters (GCs), and of GC starswith respect to field stars, are important diagnostics of a variety ofphysical phenomena, related to the evolution of individual stars, masstransfer in binary systems, and chemical evolution in high densityenvironments. The broad astrophysical implications of GCs as buildingblocks of our knowledge of the Universe make a full understanding oftheir history and evolution basic in a variety of astrophysical fields.We review the current status of the research in this field, comparingthe abundances in GCs with those obtained for field stars, discussing indepth the evidence for H-burning at high temperatures in GC stars,describing the process of self-enrichment in GCs with particularreference to the case of the most massive Galactic GC ( Cen), anddiscussing various classes of cluster stars with abundance anomalies.Whereas the overall pattern might appear very complex at first sight,exciting new scenarios are opening where the interplay between GCdynamical and chemical properties are closely linked with each other.

Chemical composition and evolutionary status of nine UV-bright stars in five globular clusters from VLT/UVES spectra
We have derived the chemical composition of nine UV-bright starsbelonging to five Galactic globular clusters of various metallicities([Fe/H] from -1.0 to -2.4 dex). The analyses are based on highresolution spectra obtained with the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph(UVES) at VLT-UT2. The evolutionary status of the stars is assessed fromthe chemical analysis and location in the H-R diagram. The star ID7 inNGC 5986 is confirmed as a bona fide post-asymptotic giant branch star(post-AGB) whereas the high-luminosity star ID6 has probably left theAGB before the third dredge-up. ZNG 1 in NGC 6712 shows an overabundanceof sodium, oxygen, and silicon similar to overabundances we find in theUV-bright star ID6 in NGC 5986; both stars could be in a post-early-AGB(PEAGB) phase of evolution. The UV-bright star ZNG 7 in NGC 6218 seemsto be an AGB star. The stars V-4 and ZNG 5 in NGC 6656 are in apost-horizontal-branch phase of evolution, with V-4 being significantlyoverabundant in heavy elements. The origin of these overabundances isdiscussed in the context of the evolutionary versus primordial scenario.The three UV-bright stars K 260, K 996 and K 1082 observed in the verymetal-deficient globular cluster NGC 7078 are post-horizontal-branchstars, one of them being slightly enriched in s-elements but with aluminosity too low for third dredge-up to have occured. The abundancepatterns of K 1082 in NGC 7078 seem to indicate the presence of milddiffusion and a radiative levitation process, already reported in theblue HB stars of M 13 (Behr et al. \cite{Behr1999}, ApJ, 517, L135) andNGC 6752 (Moehler et al. \cite{Moehler1999}, A&A, 339, 537).Based on data collected at Paranal Observatory (ESO, Chile), programidentifier ID 69.D-0081.Full Table \ref{abund} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/423/353Appendix is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

The Metallicity of Pregalactic Globular Clusters: The Observational Consequences of the First Stars
We explore a scenario in which metal-poor globular clusters (GCs) areenriched by the first supernovae in the universe. If the first stars ina 107 Msolar dark halo were very massive (>180Msolar), then a pair-instability supernova from a singlemassive star could produce sufficient iron to enrich 106Msolar of pristine, primordial gas to [Fe/H]~-2. In such ascenario, in which a single massive star acts as a seed for halo GCs, anaccurate abundance analysis of GC stars would allow us to directlymeasure the Population III initial mass. Using the latest theoreticalyields for zero-metallicity stars in the mass range of 140-260Msolar, we find that the metals expelled from an ~230Msolar star are consistent with [Si/Fe] and [Ca/Fe] observedin GC stars. However, no single star in this mass range cansimultaneously explain all halo GC heavy-element abundance ratios, suchas [V/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and [Ni/Fe]. These require a combination of massesfor the Population III stellar progenitors. The various observationalconsequences of this scenario are discussed.

Globular Clusters as Candidates for Gravitational Lenses to Explain Quasar-Galaxy Associations
We argue that globular clusters (GCs) are good candidates forgravitational lenses in explaining quasar-galaxy associations. Thecatalog of associations (Bukhmastova 2001) compiled from the LEDAcatalog of galaxies (Paturel 1997) and from the catalog of quasars(Veron-Cetty and Veron 1998) is used. Based on the new catalog, we showthat one might expect an increased number of GCs around irregulargalaxies of types 9 and 10 from the hypothesis that distant compactsources are gravitationally lensed by GCs in the halos of foregroundgalaxies. The King model is used to determine the central surfacedensities of 135 GCs in the Milky Way. The distribution of GCs incentral surface density was found to be lognormal.

A Globular Cluster Metallicity Scale Based on the Abundance of Fe II
Assuming that in the atmospheres of low-mass, metal-poor red giantstars, one-dimensional models based on local thermodynamic equilibriumaccurately predict the abundance of iron from Fe II, we derive aglobular cluster metallicity scale based on the equivalent widths of FeII lines measured from high-resolution spectra of giants in 16 keyclusters lying in the abundance range-2.4<[Fe/H]II<-0.7. We base the scale largely on theanalysis of spectra of 149 giant stars in 11 clusters by the Lick-Texasgroup supplemented by high-resolution studies of giants in five otherclusters. We also derive ab initio the true distance moduli for certainkey clusters (M5, M3, M13, M92, and M15) as a means of setting stellarsurface gravities. Allowances are made for changes in the abundancescale if one employs (1) Kurucz models with and without convectiveovershooting to represent giant star atmospheres in place of MARCSmodels and (2) the Houdashelt et al. color-temperature scale in place ofthe Alonso et al. scale.We find that [Fe/H]II is correlated linearly withW', the reduced strength of the near-infrared Ca II tripletdefined by Rutledge et al., although the actual correlation coefficientsdepend on the atmospheric model employed. The correlations, limited tothe range -2.4<[Fe/H]II<-0.7, are as follows:1.[Fe/H]II=0.531W'-3.279(MARCS),2.[Fe/H]II=0.537W'-3.225 (Kurucz withconvective overshooting),3.[Fe/H]II=0.562W'-3.329 (Kurucz withoutconvective overshooting).We also discuss how to estimate [X/Fe] ratios. We suggest that C, N, andO, as well as elements appearing in the spectrum in the singly ionizedstate, e.g., Ti, Sc, Ba, La, and Eu, should be normalized to theabundance of Fe II. Other elements, which appear mostly in the neutralstate, but for which the dominant species is nevertheless the ionizedstate, are probably best normalized to Fe I, but uncertainties remain.

Chemical Abundances of Three Metal-poor Globular Clusters (NGC 6287, NGC 6293, and NGC 6541) in the Inner Halo
We present a chemical abundance study of three inner old halo clusters,NGC 6287, 6293, and 6541, finding [Fe/H]=-2.01+/-0.05, -1.99+/-0.02, and-1.76+/-0.02 (internal), respectively, and our metallicity measurementsare in good agreement with previous estimates. We also present theradial velocity measurements of the clusters. Our radial velocitymeasurements for NGC 6293 and NGC 6541 are in good agreement withprevious measurements; however, our radial velocity measurement for NGC6287 is almost 80 km s-1 larger than the previousmeasurement. The mean α-element abundances of our program clustersare in good agreement with other globular clusters, confirming previousresults. However, the individual α-elements appear to followdifferent trends. The silicon abundances of the inner halo clustersappear to be enhanced, and the titanium abundances appear to be depletedcompared to the intermediate halo clusters. Our results also appear tooppose to those of metal-rich bulge giants studied by McWilliam &Rich, who found that bulge giants are titanium-enhanced andsilicon-deficient. In particular, [Si/Ti] ratios appear to be related toGalactocentric distances, in the sense that [Si/Ti] ratios decrease withGalactocentric distance. We propose that contributions from differentmasses of the Type II supernovae progenitors that enrichedproto-globular cluster clouds' elemental abundances and the differentinitial physical environments surrounding the proto-globular clustersclouds are responsible for this gradient in [Si/Ti] ratios versusGalactocentric distances of the ``old halo'' globular clusters. On theother hand, our program clusters' enhanced s-process elementalabundances suggest that the formation timescale of our program clustersmight be as short as a few times 108 yr after the starformation is initiated in the Galaxy's central regions, if the s-processsite is intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch stars.

Does the mixing length parameter depend on metallicity?. Further tests of evolutionary sequences using homogeneous databases
This paper is a further step in the investigation of the morphology ofthe color-magnitude diagram of Galactic globular clusters, and thefine-tuning of theoretical models, made possible by the recentobservational efforts to build homogeneous photometric databases. Inparticular, we examine here the calibration of the morphologicalparameter WHB vs. metallicity, originally proposed by Brocatoet al. (\cite{brocatoEtal98}; B98), which essentially measures the colorposition of the red-giant branch. We show that the parameter can be usedto have a first-order estimate of the cluster metallicity, since thedispersion around the mean trend with [Fe/H] is compatible with themeasurement errors. The tight WHB-[Fe/H] relation is thenused to show that variations in helium content or age do not affect theparameter, whereas it is strongly influenced by the mixing-lengthparameter alpha (as expected). This fact allows us, for the first time,to state that there is no trend of alpha with the metal content of acluster. A thorough examination of the interrelated questions of thealpha -elements enhancement and the color-Tefftransformations, highlights that there is an urgent need for anindependent assessment of which of the two presently acceptedmetallicity scales is the true indicator of a cluster's iron content.Whatever scenario is adopted, it also appears that a deep revision ofthe V-I-temperature relations is needed.

A study of the behaviour of the NaI/KI column density ratio in the interstellar medium using the Na ultraviolet doublet
Here we make a new study of the behaviour of the NaI/KI column densityratio in the interstellar medium, using a sample of new observations of28 stars obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) in 1996 and1997, and previously published observations (obtained by some of theauthors) of 21 stars. The sightlines cover a range of distances anddirections, including into the Galactic halo. We make use of newobservations of the NaI ultraviolet (UV) doublet for some 18 stars. Thisdoublet is much weaker than the NaI D doublet and so is less susceptibleto saturation effects, and it is well known that it can be used toobtain more accurate NaI column densities with a smaller error range. Wefind an average N(NaI)/N(KI) ratio from the NaI UV data of about 90,which is rather higher than that found previously by Hobbs and Lequeux.The Na UV-KI ratio shows a small increase in value with increasingcolumn density, while we also find a sample of low N(NaI)/N(KI) ratioclouds generally seen towards distant objects on high-latitudesightlines that reach into the halo, so that the ratio decreases moresharply at lower column densities. As the values of the ratio for thesehalo clouds (10-20) bracket the cosmic Na/K abundance ratio, we suggestthat these ratios result from a harder radiation field in the lowerhalo, such that the ionized fractions of NaI and KI become similar.Clearly caution needs to be applied in using any kind of `standardvalue' for the NaI/KI column density ratio.

Optical Identification of Multiple Faint X-Ray Sources in the Globular Cluster NGC 6752: Evidence for Numerous Cataclysmic Variables
We report on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory ACIS-S3 imaging observationof the globular cluster NGC 6752. We detect six X-ray sources within the10.5" core radius and 13 more within the 115" half-mass radius down to alimiting luminosity of LX~1030 ergs s-1for cluster sources. We reanalyze archival data from the Hubble SpaceTelescope and the Australia Telescope Compact Array and make 12 opticalidentifications and one radio identification. Based on X-ray and opticalproperties of the identifications, we find 10 likely cataclysmicvariables (CVs), one to three likely RS CVn or BY Dra systems, and oneor two possible background objects. Of the seven sources for which nooptical identifications were made, we expect that approximately two tofour are background objects and that the rest are either CVs or some orall of the five millisecond pulsars whose radio positions are not yetaccurately known. These and other Chandra results on globular clustersindicate that the dozens of CVs per cluster expected by theoreticalarguments are being found. The findings to date also suggest that theratio of CVs to other types of X-ray sources is remarkably similar inclusters of very different structural parameters. Based on observationswith the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the SpaceTelescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

Near-Infrared Photometry of Globular Clusters NGC 6287 and NGC 6341 (M92): The Formation of the Galactic Halo
We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Near Infrared Camera andMulti-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) camera 3 photometry of the inner haloglobular cluster NGC 6287 and the intermediate halo globular cluster NGC6341 (M92). Our photometric measurements range from the lower red giantbranch to ~3 mag below the main-sequence turnoff, allowing us to defineaccurate mean loci of the two clusters. Our relative age estimatebetween NGC 6287 and M92 using the color difference between themain-sequence turnoff and the base of the red giant branch shows thatthey essentially have the same ages within +/-2 Gyr. The slightlydifferent chemical compositions between the two clusters do notsignificantly influence our result. Our simulations using syntheticspectra show that the temperature dependence of the interstellarreddening law for the HST NICMOS photometric system could be a moreserious problem in the relative age estimate using the color differencebetween the main-sequence turnoff and the base of the red giant branch.However, this effect adds no more than +/-0.5-1 Gyr to the uncertaintyin our relative age estimate. Our color-magnitude diagram of NGC 6287shows a well-defined blue horizontal branch population. This isconsistent with its age and metallicity. We also present the relativeinterstellar reddening toward NGC 6287 and distance modulus with respectto those of M92. We find E(B-V)=0.62 and (m-M)0=14.35 for NGC6287, which are generally in good agreement with previous estimates. Ourphotometry suggests that there exists a differential reddening acrossNGC 6287 with an amount of ΔE(B-V)=0.07-0.09 mag, consistent withthe previous study of Stetson & West. The Galactocentric distance ofNGC 6287 becomes RGC=1.6 kpc if R0=8.0 kpc. Basedon our new radial velocity measurement for NGC 6287, the cluster's(minimum) apogalacticon distance is Ra~5.5 kpc, suggestingthat NGC 6287 is an inner halo cluster. Within this framework, ourresults are consistent with the idea that the globular cluster formationmust have been triggered everywhere at the same time in our Galaxy. Inthe appendices, we discuss that the interstellar extinction law of theHST NICMOS photometric system, particularly in the F110W passband,depends on the temperature of the stars in the sense that hotter starssuffer more interstellar absorption than cooler stars. Based onobservations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained atthe Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

Variable Stars in Galactic Globular Clusters
Based on a search of the literature up to 2001 May, the number of knownvariable stars in Galactic globular clusters is approximately 3000. Ofthese, more than 2200 have known periods and the majority (approximately1800) are of the RR Lyrae type. In addition to the RR Lyrae population,there are approximately 100 eclipsing binaries, 120 SX Phoenicisvariables, 60 Cepheids (including Population II Cepheids, anomalousCepheids and RV Tauri), and 120 SR/red variables. The mean period of thefundamental mode RR Lyrae variables is 0.585 days, for the overtonevariables it is 0.342 days (0.349 days for the first-overtone pulsatorsand 0.296 days for the second-overtone pulsators) and approximately 30%are overtone pulsators. These numbers indicate that about 65% of RRLyrae variables in Galactic globular clusters belong to Oosterhoff typeI systems. The mean period of the RR Lyrae variables in the Oosterhofftype I clusters seems to be correlated with metal abundance in the sensethat the periods are longer in the more metal poor clusters. Such acorrelation does not exist for the Oosterhoff type II clusters. Most ofthe Cepheids are in clusters with blue horizontal branches.

A census with ROSAT of low-luminosity X-ray sources in globular clusters
I analyze 101 observations from the ROSAT archive to search for X-raysources in or near 55 globular clusters. New sources are found in thecores of NGC 362 (a double source), NGC 6121 (marginally significant),NGC 6139, and NGC 6266; and outside the cores of NGC 6205, NGC 6352 andNGC 6388. More accurate positions are determined for the X-ray sourcesin some ten clusters. The improved position for the source in NGC 6341excludes the suggested ultraviolet counterpart. It is shown that one ofthe two sources reported near the core of NGC 6626 is spurious, as isthe detection of a pulsar period in the PSPC data of this cluster; thecentral source is resolved in three sources. One source reportedpreviously in NGC 6304 is demoted to an upper limit. For 20 clustercores better upper limits to the X-ray luminosity are obtained. From astatistical analysis I argue that several sources outside the clustercores may well belong to the clusters. All spectral energy distributionsobserved so far are relatively soft, with bremsstrahlung temperatures =~0.9 keV; there is evidence however that bremsstrahlung spectra do notcorrectly describe the spectra. The X-ray luminosity per unit mass forthe cluster as a whole does not depend on the concentration; theluminosity per unit mass for the core may increase with the clusterconcentration.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Corona Australis
Right ascension:18h08m02.20s
Apparent magnitude:6.6

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NGC 2000.0NGC 6541

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