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The AMIGA sample of isolated galaxies. II. Morphological refinement
We present a refinement of the optical morphologies for galaxies in theCatalog of Isolated Galaxies that forms the basis of the AMIGA (Analysisof the interstellar Medium of Isolated GAlaxies) project. Uniformreclassification using the digitized POSS II data benefited from thehigh resolution and dynamic range of that sky survey. Comparison withindependent classifications made for an SDSS overlap sample of more than200 galaxies confirms the reliability of the early vs. late-typediscrimination and the accuracy of spiral subtypes within Δ T =1-2. CCD images taken at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada were alsoused to solve ambiguities in early versus late-type classifications. Aconsiderable number of galaxies in the catalog (n = 193) are flagged forthe presence of nearby companions or signs of distortion likely due tointeraction. This most isolated sample of galaxies in the local Universeis dominated by two populations: 1) 82% are spirals (Sa-Sd) with thebulk being luminous systems with small bulges (63% between types Sb-Sc)and 2) a significant population of early-type E-S0 galaxies (14%). Mostof the types later than Sd are low luminosity galaxies concentrated inthe local supercluster where isolation is difficult to evaluate. Thelate-type spiral majority of the sample spans a luminosity rangeMB-corr = -18 to -22 mag. Few of the E/S0 population are moreluminous than -21.0 marking the absence of the often-sought superL* merger (e.g. fossil elliptical) population. The rarity ofhigh luminosity systems results in a fainter derived M* forthis population compared to the spiral optical luminosity function(OLF). The E-S0 population is from 0.2 to 0.6 mag fainter depending onhow the sample is defined. This marks the AMIGA sample as unique amongsamples that compare early and late-type OLFs separately. In othersamples, which always involve galaxies in higher density environments,M^*_E/S0 is almost always 0.3-0.5 mag brighter than M^*_S, presumablyreflecting a stronger correlation between M* andenvironmental density for early-type galaxies.

Very Isolated Early-Type Galaxies
We use the Karachentseva Catalogue of Very Isolated Galaxies toinvestigate a candidate list of more than 100 very isolated early-typegalaxies. Broadband imaging and low-resolution spectroscopy areavailable for a large fraction of these candidates and result in asample of 102 very isolated early-type galaxies, including 65 elliptical(E) and 37 S0 galaxies. Many of these systems are quite luminous, andthe resulting optical luminosity functions of the E and early-type(E+S0) galaxies show no statistical differences when compared toluminosity functions dominated by group and cluster galaxies. However,whereas S0 galaxies outnumber E galaxies 4:1 in the CfA survey, isolatedE outnumber S0 galaxies by nearly 2:1. We conclude that very isolatedelliptical galaxies show no evidence of a different formation and/orevolution process compared to those formed in groups or clusters, butthat most S0 galaxies are formed by a mechanism (e.g., gas stripping)that occurs only in groups and rich clusters. Our luminosity functionresults for elliptical galaxies are consistent with very isolatedelliptical galaxies being formed by merger events, in which nocompanions remain. Chandra observations were proposed specifically totest the merger hypothesis for isolated elliptical galaxies. However,this program has resulted in the observation of only one isolatedearly-type galaxy, the S0 KIG 284, which was not detected at a limitwell below that expected for a remnant group of galaxies. Therefore, thehypothesis remains untested that very isolated elliptical galaxies arethe remains of a compact group of galaxies that have completely merged.

The ISOPHOT 170 μm Serendipity Survey II. The catalog of optically identified galaxies%
The ISOPHOT Serendipity Sky Survey strip-scanning measurements covering≈15% of the far-infrared (FIR) sky at 170 μm were searched forcompact sources associated with optically identified galaxies. CompactSerendipity Survey sources with a high signal-to-noise ratio in at leasttwo ISOPHOT C200 detector pixels were selected that have a positionalassociation with a galaxy identification in the NED and/or Simbaddatabases and a galaxy counterpart visible on the Digitized Sky Surveyplates. A catalog with 170 μm fluxes for more than 1900 galaxies hasbeen established, 200 of which were measured several times. The faintest170 μm fluxes reach values just below 0.5 Jy, while the brightest,already somewhat extended galaxies have fluxes up to ≈600 Jy. For thevast majority of listed galaxies, the 170 μm fluxes were measured forthe first time. While most of the galaxies are spirals, about 70 of thesources are classified as ellipticals or lenticulars. This is the onlycurrently available large-scale galaxy catalog containing a sufficientnumber of sources with 170 μm fluxes to allow further statisticalstudies of various FIR properties.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.Members of the Consortium on the ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey (CISS) areMPIA Heidelberg, ESA ISO SOC Villafranca, AIP Potsdam, IPAC Pasadena,Imperial College London.Full Table 4 and Table 6 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/422/39

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.

Revised positions for CIG galaxies
We present revised positions for the 1051 galaxies belonging to theKarachentseva Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG). New positions werecalculated by applying SExtractor to the Digitized Sky Survey CIG fieldswith a spatial resolution of 1 arcsper 2. We visually checked theresults and for 118 galaxies had to recompute the assigned positions dueto complex morphologies (e.g. distorted isophotes, undefined nuclei,knotty galaxies) or the presence of bright stars. We found differencesbetween older and newer positions of up to 38 arcsec with a mean valueof 2 arcsper 96 relative to SIMBAD and up to 38 arcsec and 2 arcsper 42respectively relative to UZC. Based on star positions from the APMcatalog we determined that the DSS astrometry of five CIG fields has amean offset in (alpha , delta ) of (-0 arcsper 90, 0 arcsper 93) with adispersion of 0 arcsper 4. These results have been confirmed using the2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources. The intrinsic errors of ourmethod combined with the astrometric ones are of the order of 0 arcsper5.Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/411/391

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Cool dense gas in early-type galaxies
CO observations have shown that many lenticular and elliptical galaxiescontain significant amounts of cool dense gas. This review summarizesthe observational results related to the neutral gas phase and presentsa systematic comparison with other interstellar and stellar data. Thediscovery of very dense molecular gas in the nuclear regions ofearly-type galaxies, the possible existence of a dust component neitherseen optically nor in CO, internal inconsistencies of cooling flowscenarios, the origin of the cool gas, the presence of massive stars,aspects of galaxy evolution, and possibilities for future research arediscussed in the light of the new data.

Molecular Gas in Elliptical Galaxies: CO Observations of an IRAS Flux-limited Sample
A search for CO(2-1) emission from 42 early-type galaxies with 100micron flux densities greater than 1 Jy detected (tentatively in somecases) 11 galaxies and tentatively found absorption against the activenucleus in two. Data from this survey and from the literature show thatthe overall detection rate of CO emission or absorption in ellipticalgalaxies is 45% and that the detection rate increases with increasing100 micron flux density. The data suggest that all elliptical galaxiescontain a small amount of cold interstellar matter. The CO andfar-infrared fluxes are well correlated, though the relationship shows alot of scatter, which does not appear to be caused by variations in thetemperature of the interstellar dust and probably indicates differencesin the physical state of the interstellar medium from galaxy to galaxy.The CO flux densities are completely uncorrelated with the galacticstarlight. The detection of CO emission shows that many ellipticalgalaxies have dense cold gas in their inner regions. The four galaxieswhich are known to have CO absorption, including the two from thepresent paper, have relatively narrow absorption components which are atthe galaxy's systemic velocity and/or redshifted with respect to thisvelocity, consistent with infall to the center of the galaxy.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

Neutral hydrogen observations of elliptical galaxies. II. The IRAS sample.
HI observations are reported for a total of 53 IRAS elliptical galaxies.Nearby confusing sources may be responsible for some of the 33detections. There are 24 isolated detected galaxies, which can be splitinto two groups, one having the same M_HI_/L_B_ ratio as the ellipticalgalaxies from the RSA (M_HI_/L_B_=0.030+/-0.026). A second group is morethan six times richer in HI (M_HI_/L_B_=0.206+/-0.105). The "HI-rich"galaxies have blue colors like spiral galaxies and have a tendencytowards higher average dust temperatures. The large number of ellipticalgalaxies in compact groups (in this sample) suggests that gravitationalinteractions and mergers may be an important source of interstellarmatter for elliptical galaxies.

Far-Infrared Mapping of Dusty Elliptical Galaxies
The initial results from a program to map the thermal far-infraredemission from dusty elliptical galaxies are presented. Using the Yerkes60-Channel Far-Infrared Camera on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory wehave imaged three elliptical galaxies at 160mu with a resolution of44('') (NGC 5666, NGC 6524, and the interacting system NGC 7463/4/5) andone at 100mu with a resolution of 25('') (NGC 6524). Observations of NGC1275 (Per A) are scheduled for December 1993 and may also be discussed.The E/S0 system NGC 6524 is dominated by a central point source at both100 and 160mu with a dust temperature of 29(deg) K, in agreement withIRAS data and recent submillimeter observations of the central regionsfrom the James Clark Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea. In addition, NGC6524 shows low-level extended dust emission at 160mu which is notdetected at 100mu . The temperature of this dust is apparently less than20(deg) K. Preliminary results from JCMT submillimeter observations ofother dusty ellipticals may also be presented. This research wassupported by NASA grant NGR 14-001-227 to the University of Chicago.

The extended 12 micron galaxy sample
We have selected an all-sky (absolute value of b greater than or equalto 25 deg) 12 micron flux-limited sample of 893 galaxies from the IRASFaint Source Catalog, Version 2 (FSC-2). We have obtained accurate totalfluxes in the IRAS wavebands by using the ADDSCAN procedure for allobjects with FSC-2 12 micron fluxes greater than 0.15 Jy and increasingflux densities from 12 to 60 microns, and defined the sample by imposinga survey limit of 0.22 Jy on the total 12 micron flux. Its completenessis verified, by means of the classical log N - log S andV/Vmax tests, down to 0.30 Jy, below which we have measuredthe incompleteness down to the survey limit, using the log N - log Splot, for our statistical analysis. We have obtained redshifts (mostlyfrom catalogs) for virtually all (98.4%) the galaxies in the sample.Using existing catalogs of active galaxies, we defined a subsample of118 objects consisting of 53 Seyfert 1s and quasars, 63 Seyfert 2s, andtwo blazars (approximately 13% of the full sample), which is the largestunbiased sample of Seyfert galaxies ever assembled. Since the 12 micronflux has been shown to be about one-fifth of the bolometric flux forSeyfert galaxies and quasars, the subsample of Seyferts (includingquasars and blazars) is complete not only to 0.30 Jy at 12 microns butalso with respect to a bolometric flux limit of approximately 2.0 x10-10 ergs/s/sq cm. The average value of V/Vmaxfor the full sample, corrected for incompleteness at low fluxes, is 0.51+/- 0.04, expected for a complete sample of uniformly distributedgalaxies, while the value for the Seyfert galaxy subsample is 0.46 +/-0.10. We have derived 12 microns and far-infrared luminosity functionsfor the AGNs, as well as for the entire sample. We extracted from oursample a complete subsample of 235 galaxies flux-limited (8.3 Jy) at 60microns. The 60 micron luminosity function computed for this subsampleis in satisfactory agreement with the ones derived from the brightgalaxy sample (BGS) and the deep high-galactic latitude sample, bothselected at 60 microns.

Millimeter and submillimeter continuum emission from early-type galaxies
Twenty-two early-type galaxies that were detected by IRAS have beensearched for continuum emission at millimeter and submillimeterwavelengths using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). IRAS wasrelatively insensitive to cold dust that emits primarily at these longerwavelengths. In this first survey we were able to detect or achieveuseful limits on the emission from 14 of the 22 galaxies observed. Fromthese data we estimate upper limits on the dust temperature and lowerlimits on the mass of dust within the JCMT beam. These results arecompared with H I and CO data and with the blue luminosities of thegalaxies. The results are consistent with a model where the dust-to-gasratio is similar to the Galactic one, and the amount of cold dust is anorder of magnitude greater than the amount of warm dust (as is also seenin our Galaxy). The total dust mass, normalized to the luminosity of theentire galaxy, is much lower than is found in spiral galaxies, asexpected.

Spectroscopy of Zwicky galaxies identified with B3 radiosources
Results are presented of long-slit CCD spectroscopy of 33 Zwickygalaxies identified in the B3 Survey as radiosources, includinginformation on morphological classification, photographic magnitude,line identification, measured wavelength, adopted rest wavelength,redshift computed for the line, and average redshift and rms. In thissample, 24 galaxies showed emission (and often absorption) lines, while9 galaxies showed only absorption lines. Nine of the 14 galaxiesclassified as E/SO showed the forbidden N II emission line at an EW(lim)= 1.5 A. The rest were classified as Spirals, and, out of 19 of thesegalaxies, 15 showed the forbidden N II emission line. No significantdifferences were found between the percentage of galaxies with emissionlines in this sample and the samples of optically selected galaxies ofsimilar equivalent width limit.

A 21 centimeter line survey of a complete sample of interacting and isolated galaxies
The paper presents 21 cm line observations of a complete sample ofinteracting and isolated galaxies made with the National Radio AstronomyObservatory 91 and 43 m telescopes and the Arecibo 3035 m telescope. The21 cm line data are combined with a homogeneous set of optical data onangular diameters, axial ratios, magnitudes, and colors, and integralproperties are calculated for the galaxies in both samples. In thispaper, the sample selection procedures, the method of observation, thedata reduction, and the observational errors are described. Thedetection percentages are presented for both samples.

A continuum radio survey of isolated galaxies
The results of a radio continuum survey of isolated galaxies from the KIcatalog at 5 GHz with a 300-ft telescope are discussed with reference tothe hypothesis that the isolated environment of these galaxies leads toa deficiency of radio sources. Of the 120 E/SO's and 400 spiralssurveyed, only one and ten detections, respectively, were made above 20mJy. By constructing fractional radio luminosity functions for this andtwo other similar samples, it is shown that the isolated galaxies areextremely deficient in radio sources relative to galaxies in denserregions of space. These results are briefly interpreted in terms of a'scenario' for radio source production in which the internal gas supplyis determined by the external environment.

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Right ascension:17h59m14.90s
Aparent dimensions:1.622′ × 1′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 6524

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