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Structural Parameters of Thin and Thick Disks in Edge-on Disk Galaxies
We analyze the global structure of 34 late-type, edge-on, undisturbed,disk galaxies spanning a wide range of mass. We measure structuralparameters for the galaxies using two-dimensional least-squares fittingto our R-band photometry. The fits require both a thick and a thin diskto adequately fit the data. The thick disks have larger scale heightsand longer scale lengths than the embedded thin disks by factors of ~2and ~1.25, respectively. The observed structural parameters agree wellwith the properties of thick and thin disks derived from star counts inthe Milky Way and from resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies.We find that massive galaxies' luminosities are dominated by the thindisk. However, in low-mass galaxies (Vc<~120 kms-1) thick disk stars contribute nearly half the luminosityand dominate the stellar mass. Thus, although low-mass dwarf galaxiesappear blue, the majority of their stars are probably quite old.Our data are most easily explained by a formation scenario in which thethick disk is assembled through direct accretion of stellar materialfrom merging satellites while the thin disk is formed from accreted gas.The baryonic fraction in the thin disk therefore constrains the gasrichness of the merging pregalactic fragments. If we include the mass inH I as part of the thin disk, the thick disk contains <~10% of thebaryons in high-mass galaxies and ~25%-30% of the baryons in low-massgalaxies. Our data, therefore, indicate that the fragments were quitegas rich at the time of merging (fgas=75%-90%). However,because low-mass galaxies have a smaller fraction of baryons in theirthin disks, the pregalactic fragments from which they assembled musthave been systematically more gas poor. We believe this trend resultsfrom increased outflow due to supernova-driven winds in the lower masspregalactic fragments. We estimate that ~60% of the total baryonic massin these systems was lost due to outflows. Pushing the episode ofsignificant winds to early times allows the mass-metallicityrelationship for disks to be established early, before the main disk isassembled, and obviates the difficulty in driving winds from diffusedisks with low star formation efficiencies. We discuss otherimplications of this scenario for solving the G dwarf problem, forpredicting abundance trends in thick disks, and for removingdiscrepancies between semianalytic galaxy formation models and theobserved colors of low-mass galaxies.

Circumnuclear Structure and Black Hole Fueling: Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Imaging of 250 Active and Normal Galaxies
Why are the nuclei of some galaxies more active than others? If mostgalaxies harbor a central massive black hole, the main difference isprobably in how well it is fueled by its surroundings. We investigatethe hypothesis that such a difference can be seen in the detailedcircumnuclear morphologies of galaxies using several quantitativelydefined features, including bars, isophotal twists, boxy and diskyisophotes, and strong nonaxisymmetric features in unsharp-masked images.These diagnostics are applied to 250 high-resolution images of galaxycenters obtained in the near-infrared with NICMOS on the Hubble SpaceTelescope. To guard against the influence of possible biases andselection effects, we have carefully matched samples of Seyfert 1,Seyfert 2, LINER, starburst, and normal galaxies in their basicproperties, taking particular care to ensure that each was observed witha similar average scale (10-15 pc pixel-1). Severalmorphological differences among our five different spectroscopicclassifications emerge from the analysis. The H II/starburst galaxiesshow the strongest deviations from smooth elliptical isophotes, whilethe normal galaxies and LINERs have the least disturbed morphology. TheSeyfert 2s have significantly more twisted isophotes than any othercategory, and the early-type Seyfert 2s are significantly more disturbedthan the early-type Seyfert 1s. The morphological differences betweenSeyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s suggest that more is at work than simply theviewing angle of the central engine. They may correspond to differentevolutionary stages.

Star Formation Thresholds and Galaxy Edges: Why and Where
We study global star formation thresholds in the outer parts of galaxiesby investigating the stability of disk galaxies embedded in dark halos.The disks are self-gravitating, contain metals and dust, and are exposedto UV radiation. We find that the critical surface density for theexistence of a cold interstellar phase depends only weakly on theparameters of the model and coincides with the empirically derivedsurface density threshold for star formation. Furthermore, it is shownthat the drop in the thermal velocity dispersion associated with thetransition from the warm to the cold gas phase triggers gravitationalinstability on a wide range of scales. The presence of strong turbulencedoes not undermine this conclusion if the disk is self-gravitating.Models based on the hypothesis that the onset of thermal instabilitydetermines the star formation threshold in the outer parts of galaxiescan reproduce many observations, including the threshold radii, thecolumn densities, and the sizes of stellar disks as a function of diskscale length and mass. Finally, prescriptions are given for implementingstar formation thresholds in (semi-)analytic models andthree-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation.

Thick disks of lenticular galaxies. 3D-photometric thin/thick disk decomposition of eight edge-on s0 galaxies
Thick disks are faint and extended stellar components found aroundseveral disk galaxies including our Milky Way. The Milky Way thick disk,the only one studied in detail, contains mostly old disk stars (≈10Gyr), so that thick disks are likely to trace the early stages of diskevolution. Previous detections of thick disk stellar light in externalgalaxies have been originally made for early-type, edge-on galaxies butdetailed 2D thick/thin disk decompositions have been reported for only ascant handful of mostly late-type disk galaxies. We present in thispaper for the first time explicit 3D thick/thin disk decompositionscharacterising the presence and properties (e.g. scalelength andscaleheight) for a sample of eight lenticular galaxies by fitting 3Ddisk models to the data. For six out of the eight galaxies we were ableto derive a consistent thin/thick disk model. The mean scaleheight ofthe thick disk is 3.6 times larger than that of the thin disk. Thescalelength of the thick disk is about twice, and its central luminositydensity between 3-10% of, the thin disk value. Both thin and thick diskare truncated at similar radii. This implies that thick disks extendover fewer scalelengths than thin disks, and turning a thin disk into athick one requires therefore vertical but little radial heating. Allthese structural parameters are similar to thick disk parameters forlater Hubble-type galaxies previously studied. We discuss our data inrespect to present models for the origin of thick disks, either as pre-or post-thin-disk structures, providing new observational constraints.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory,Chile.Full appendices are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

The Near-Infrared Ca II Triplet-σ Relation for Bulges of Spiral Galaxies
We present measurements of the near-infrared Ca II triplet (CaT, CaT*),Paschen (PaT), and magnesium (Mg I) indices for a well-studied sample of19 bulges of early to intermediate spiral galaxies. We find that boththe CaT* and CaT indices decrease with central velocity dispersionσ with small scatter. This dependence is similar to that recentlyfound by Cenarro for elliptical galaxies, implying a uniformCaT*-σ relation that applies to galaxies from ellipticals tointermediate-type spirals. The decrease of CaT and CaT* with σcontrasts with the well-known increase of another α-element index,Mg2, with σ. We discuss the role of Ca underabundance([Ca/Fe]<0) and initial mass function variations in the onset of theobserved relations.

Minor axis kinematics of 19 S0-Sbc bulges
We present minor axis kinematic profiles for a well-studied sample of 19early- to intermediate-type disk galaxies. We introduce, for the firsttime, the use of single-burst stellar population (SSP) models to obtainstellar velocities, velocity dispersions and higher order Gauss-Hermitemoments (h3, h4) from galaxy spectra in thenear-infrared Ca II triplet region. SSP models, which employs thesynthetic spectra of \citet{vazdekis03}, provide a means to address thetemplate-mismatch problem, and are shown to provide as good or betterfits as traditional stellar templates. We anticipate the technique to beof particular use for high-redshift galaxy kinematics. We give themeasurement of a recently defined CaT* index\citep{cenarro01}, and describe the global properties of the bulgekinematics as derived from the kinematic profiles. We detectsmall-amplitude minor-axis rotation, generally due to inner isophotaltwists as a result of slightly triaxial bulges or misaligned innerdisks; such inner features do not show peculiar colors or distinctCaT* index values. Velocity dispersion profiles, which extendwell into the disk region, show a wide range of slopes. Flattened bulgestend to have shallower velocity dispersion profiles. The inferredsimilarity of bulge and disk radial velocity dispersions supports theinterpretation of these bulges as thickened disks.Appendix B is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Bulges on the Fundamental Plane of early-type galaxies
In an ongoing effort to study the formation and evolution of galacticbulges, we have investigated the position of 19 bulges of type S0-Sbc onthe Fundamental Plane (FP). We find that bulges, in both B and K band,lie close to but slightly below the FP defined by ellipticals and S0s,i.e. are slightly brighter. There are hints that bulges of latermorphological type are situated below the other bulges in our sample.The FP results are consistent with the picture, obtained from our recentanalysis of HST colours, that bulges are old, except for the Sbcgalaxies. The fact that bulges lie so close to the FP of ellipticals andS0s implies that their formation epoch must have been similar to, atmost about 2.5 Gyr earlier than, cluster Es and S0s, and that thesurrounding disc does not significantly affect their structure.

A Structural and Dynamical Study of Late-Type, Edge-on Galaxies. II. Vertical Color Gradients and the Detection of Ubiquitous Thick Disks
We present an analysis of optical (B-R) and optical-infrared(R-Ks) color maps for 47 extremely late-type edge-onunwarped, bulgeless disk galaxies spanning a wide range of mass. Thecolor maps show that the thin disks of these galaxies are embedded in alow surface brightness red envelope. This component is substantiallythicker than the thin disk (a:b~4:1 vs. >8:1), extends to at least 5vertical disk scale heights above the galaxy midplane, and has a radialscale length that appears to be uncorrelated with that of the embeddedthin disk. The color of the red envelope is similar from galaxy togalaxy, even when the thin disk is extremely blue, and is consistentwith a relatively old (>6 Gyr) stellar population that is notparticularly metal-poor. The color difference between the embedded thindisk and the red stellar envelope varies systematically with rotationspeed, reflecting an increasing age difference between the thin andthick components in lower mass galaxies, driven primarily by changes inthe age of the thin disk. The red stellar envelopes are similar to thethick disk of the Milky Way, having common surface brightnesses, spatialdistributions, mean ages, and metallicities. We argue that the ubiquityof the red stellar envelopes implies that the formation of the thickdisk is a nearly universal feature of disk formation and is notnecessarily connected to the formation of a bulge. Our data suggest thatthe thick disk forms early (>6 Gyr ago), even within galaxies where thebulk of the stars formed very recently (<2 Gyr). We argue thatseveral aspects of our data and the observed properties of the Milky Waythick disk argue in favor of a merger origin for the thick diskpopulation. If so, then the age of the thick disk marks the end of theepoch of major merging, and the age difference between the younger thindisk and the older thick disk can become a strong constraint oncosmological constants and models of galaxy and/or structure formation.

Detection of a thick disk in the edge-on low surface brightness galaxy ESO 342-G017. I. VLT Photometry in V and R bands
We report the detection of a thick disk in the edge-on, low surfacebrightness (LSB), late-type spiral ESO 342-G017, based on ultra-deepimages in the V and R bands obtained with the VLT Test Camera duringScience Verification on UT1. All steps in the reduction procedure arefully described, which, together with an extensive analysis ofsystematic and statistic uncertainties, has resulted in surfacebrightness photometry that is reliable for the detection of faintextended structure to a level of V = 27.5 and R = 28.5 mag/sq arcsec.The faint light apparent in these deep images is well-modeled by a thickexponential disk with an intrinsic scale height about 2.5 times that ofthe thin disk, and a comparable or somewhat larger scale length.Deprojection including the effects of inclination and convolution withthe PSF allow us to estimate that the thick disk contributes 20-40% ofthe total (old) stellar disk luminosity of ESO 342-G017. To ourknowledge, this is the first detection of a thick disk in an LSB galaxy,which are generally thought to be rather unevolved compared to highersurface brightness galaxies. Based on observations collected at theEuropean Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (VLT-UT1 ScienceVerification Program).

Near infrared observations of the truncation of stellar disks
We present a first study of truncation of the stellar disks of spiralgalaxies in the near infrared. Observations of NGC 4013, NGC 4217, NGC6504 and NGC 5981 were made with the CAIN NIR camera on the CST inTenerife. This wavelength range provides the best description of thephenomenon, not only because extinction effects are minimized, but alsobecause the distribution of the old stellar population is directlyobtained. The four galaxies are edge-on and an inversion method wasdeveloped to obtain the deprojected profiles. We did not assume anymodel of the different galactic components. The ``truncation curve'',i.e. T(R) = mu (R)- mu D(R), where mu is the actual surfacebrightness in mag/arcsec2 and mu D the exponentialdisk surface brightness, has been obtained with unprecedented precision.It is suggested that T(R) is proportional to(Rt-R)-1, where Rt is the truncationradius, i.e. the radius beyond which no star is observed.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Correlations among Global Photometric Properties of Disk Galaxies
Using a two-dimensional galaxy image decomposition technique, we extractglobal bulge and disk parameters for a complete sample of early-typedisk galaxies in the near-infrared K band. We find significantcorrelation of the bulge parameter n with the central bulge surfacebrightness μb(0) and with effective radiusre. Using bivariate analysis techniques, we findthat logn, logre, and μb(0) are distributed ina plane with small scatter. We do not find a strong correlation of nwith bulge-to-disk luminosity ratio, contrary to earlier reports. Forthese early-type disk galaxies, re and the diskscale length rd are well correlated, but withlarge scatter. We examine the implications of our results for variousbulge formation scenarios in disk galaxies.

A Subarcsecond Resolution Near-Infrared Study of Seyfert and ``Normal'' Galaxies. II. Morphology
We present a detailed study of the bar fraction in the CfA sample ofSeyfert galaxies and in a carefully selected control sample of nonactivegalaxies to investigate the relation between the presence of bars and ofnuclear activity. To avoid the problems related to bar classification inthe Third Reference Catalogue (RC3), e.g., subjectivity, low resolution,and contamination by dust, we have developed an objective barclassification method, which we conservatively apply to our newsubarcsecond resolution near-infrared (NIR) imaging data set discussedin the first paper in this series. We are able to use stringent criteriabased on radial profiles of ellipticity and major axis position angle todetermine the presence of a bar and its axial ratio. Concentrating onnoninteracting galaxies in our sample for which morphologicalinformation can be obtained, we find that Seyfert hosts are barred moreoften (79%+/-7.5%) than the nonactive galaxies in our control sample(59%+/-9%), a result which is at the ~2.5 σ significance level.The fraction of nonaxisymmetric hosts becomes even larger wheninteracting galaxies are taken into account. We discuss the implicationsof this result for the fueling of central activity by large-scale bars.This paper improves on previous work by means of imaging at higherspatial resolution and by the use of a set of stringent criteria for barpresence and confirms that the use of NIR is superior to optical imagingfor detection of bars in disk galaxies.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Galactic bulges from Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS observations: ages and dust
We present optical and near-infrared colour maps of the central regionsof bulges of S0 and spiral galaxies obtained with WFPC2 and NICMOS onthe Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By combined use of HST andground-based data, the colour information spans a region from a few tensof pc to a few kpc. In almost all galaxies, the colour profiles in thecentral 100-200pc become more rapidly redder. We attribute the highcentral colour indices to a central concentration of dust. We infer anaverage extinction at the centre of AV=0.6-1.0mag. Severalobjects show central dust rings or discs at subkpc scales similar tothose found by others in giant ellipticals. For galactic bulges of typesS0 to Sb, the tightness of the B-I versus I-H relation suggests that theage spread among bulges of early-type galaxies is small, at most 2Gyr.Colours at 1Reff, where we expect extinction to benegligible, are similar to those of elliptical galaxies in the Comacluster, suggesting that these bulges formed at the same time as thebright galaxies in Coma. Furthermore, the galaxy ages are found to beindependent of their environment. As it is likely that Coma was formedat redshift z>3, our bulges, which are in groups and in the field,must also have been formed at this epoch. Bulges of early-type spiralscannot be formed by secular evolution of bars at recent epochs, becausesuch bulges would be much younger. There are three galaxies of type Sbcand later; their bulges are younger and could perhaps arise from secularevolution of transient bars. Our results are in good agreement withsemi-analytic predictions, which also predict that bulges, in clustersand in the field, are as old as giant ellipticals in clusters.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

A Subarcsecond-Resolution Near-Infrared Study of Seyfert and ``Normal'' Galaxies. I. Imaging Data
We present new high-resolution near-infrared observations in the J, H,and K bands, obtained to study the properties of Seyfert host galaxies.The data set consists of images in the three bands of practically theentire CfA sample of Seyfert galaxies, and K-band images of a controlsample of nonactive, ``normal,'' galaxies, matched to the Seyfert samplein the distribution of type and inclination. The spatial resolution andsampling of the new images is a factor of 2 better than previouslypublished K-band data. In this paper, we present the data in the form ofprofiles of surface brightness and color, ellipticity and major axisposition angle, as well as gray-scale maps of surface brightness in H orK and both J-H and H-K colors. We compare our surface brightness andcolor profiles with the literature and find good agreement. Our data arediscussed in detail in three subsequent publications, where we analyzethe morphologies of Seyfert and normal hosts, quantify the strength ofnonaxisymmetric features in disks and their relationship to nuclearactivity, address the question of bar fraction in Seyferts and normalgalaxies, and analyze the color information in the framework of emissionmechanisms in Seyfert 1's and 2's and in nonactive galaxies.

Near-infrared surface photometry of bulges and disks of spiral galaxies. The data
We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness and colourprofiles, in bands ranging from U to K, for the disk and bulgecomponents of a complete sample of 30 nearby S0 to Sbc galaxies withinclinations larger than 50 deg. We describe in detail the observationsand the determination of colour parameters. Calibrated monochromatic andreal-colour images are presented, as well as colour index maps. Thisdata set, tailored for the study of the population characteristics ofgalaxy bulges, provides useful information on the colours of inner disksas well. In related papers, we have used them to quantify colourgradients in bulges, and age differentials between bulge and inner disk.

Large-Scale Structure at Low Galactic Latitude
We have extended the CfA Redshift Survey to low galactic latitudes toinvestigate the relation between the Great Wall in the North GalacticCap and the Perseus-Pisces chain in the South Galactic Cap. We presentredshifts for 2020 galaxies in the Catalogue of Galaxies and of Clustersof Galaxies (Zwicky et al. 1961-68, CGCG) in the following regions: 4^h^<= α <= 8^h^, 17^h^ <= α <= 20^h^, 0^deg^ <=δ <= 45^deg^. In these regions, the redshift catalogue includes1664 galaxies with B(0) <= 15.5 (of which 820 are newly measured) andis 97% complete. We also include redshifts for an additional 356galaxies in these regions with B(O) > 15.5; of these, 148 werepreviously unmeasured. The CGCG samples the galaxy distribution down tob_II_ = 10^deg^. In this paper, we discuss the acquisition and reductionof the spectra, and we examine the qualitative features of the redshiftdistribution. The Great Wall and the Perseus-Pisces chain are not simplyconnected across the Zone of Avoidance. These structures, which at firstappear to be coherent on scales of ~100 h^-1^ Mpc or more, actually formthe boundaries of neighboring voids of considerably smaller scale,approximately 50h^-1^ Mpc. The structures delineated by ouroptically-selected sample are qualitatively similar to those detected bythe far-infrared-selected IRAS 1.2 Jansky Survey (Fisher et al. 1995).Although the IRAS survey probes more deeply into the Zone of Avoidance,our optically-selected survey provides better sampling of structures atb_II_ >= 10^deg^.

Ages of Galaxies Bulges and Disks From Optical and Near-Infrared Colors
We compare optical and near-infrared colors of disks and bulges in adiameter-limited sample of inclined, bright, nearby, early-type spirals.Color profiles along wedge apertures at 15^deg^ from the major axis andon the minor axis on the side of the galaxy opposite to the dust laneare used to assign nominal colors for the inner disks (at 2 scalelength) and for the bulges (~0.5r_eff_), respectively. We estimate thatthe effects of dust reddening and the cross-talk between the colors ofthe two components is negligible. We find that color differences(bulge-disk) are very small: {DELTA}(U-R) = 0.126+/-0.165,{DELTA}(R-K)=0078+/-0.165. Disks tend to be bluer by an amount threetimes smaller than that reported by Bothun & Gregg [ApJ,350,73(1990)] for S0s. Color variations from galaxy to galaxy are muchlarger than color differences between disk and bulge in each galaxy.Probably, the underlying old population of disks and bulges is much moresimilar than the population paradigm would lead us to believe. Impliedage differences, assuming identical metallicities, are less than 30%.

Optical and 21 CM Observations of the Warped, Edge-On Galaxy UGC 7170
Aperture synthesis observations in the 21 cm line of H I are presentedfor UGC 7170, an edge-on disk galaxy with an optical warp. For a deriveddistance of 31.8 Mpc, we find an HI mass of 4.5 x 10^9^ M_sun_. The HIgas does not extend much beyond the stellar light, reaching only toabout three exponential scale lengths of the stellar disk. The ratio ofthe H I mass to the dynamical mass is normal for a late-type spiral, butthe mass-to-light ratio is high, M_dyn_/L_B_ = 43 in solar units,indicating that most of the mass is in a dark halo. Since we observe therotation curve to flatten at about 1.3 scale lengths of the opticaldisk, the core radius of the dark halo must be comparable to the diskscale length. UGC 7170 has an asymmetric warp that bends more stronglyon the southern side than on the northern side of the galaxy. This warpis evident at both optical and 21 cm wavelengths, and the similaritiesof the stellar and gaseous warps are consistent with a gravitationalorigin for the warp. The relatively small size of the halo core makes itpossible to explain the warp as a gravitational bending mode of thegalactic disk, if the dark halo is assumed to be slightly flattened.

Astrophysics in 1994
1994 was the year in which we saw the first images from the repairedHubble Space Telescope; the probable detection of a diffuseintergalactic medium, a black hole in M87, and an enormous primordialdeuterium abundance; the discovery of the first (and second)superluminal objects within our own galaxy; not to mention the demise ofthe Jovian dinosaurs. But, as always, most astronomers continued to workaway on the projects that have interested them for years or decades, andwe attempt also to report some progress in broader areas, includingcooling flows, extragalactic globular cluster populations, diskinstabilities, phases of the interstellar medium, and brown dwarf amongmicrolenses and other populations. Several sections of short items rangefrom the obvious to the remarkable to the unbelievable. As in previousyears, the ordering of the topics attempts to preserve the near-to-farcustom of elementary astronomy textbooks.

The Shape of the Luminosity Profiles of Bulges of Spiral Galaxies
Using a 2D generalization of Kent's model-independent decompositionmethod, we extract the K-band light profiles of the bulges of a sampleof field galaxies with morphological types ranging from S0 to Sbc. Wethen examine the shape of the bulge profiles, by means of fitting aseeing-convolved power law of the form μ(r) is proportional tor^1/n^, where the exponent n is allowed to vary. The best-fittingexponent n is found to vary systematically from values around 1(exponential) to 6 from late- to early- type bulges; the profiles tendto fall off more steeply in the outer parts for the later types. Thesame trend is seen as a function of bulge to disc ratio. Application ofthe method to artificial data proves that this result is not caused bydisc-light contamination. There are also indications that n becomeslarger with increasing total luminosity and radius of the bulge. Asimilar relation has recently been found for elliptical galaxies. Thesmooth trend of n with morphological type shows that the formation of orinteraction with the disc has affected the density distribution of thebulge.

Colors and color gradients in bulges of galaxies
We have obtained surface photometry in U, B, R, and I for a completeoptically selected sample of 45 early-type spiral galaxies, toinvestigate the colors and color gradients of spiral bulges. Colorprofiles in U-R, B-R, U-B, and R-I have been determined in wedgesopening on the semiminor axes. Based on several criteria, like thesmoothness of the color profiles, the absence of dust lanes, and thecentral colors, we have defined a subsample of 18 objects whose colorsare largely unaffected by dust. We believe such colors are suitable forinferring properties of the stellar populations of bulges. We find thatthe colors of bulges are predominantly bluer than those of ellipticals.This result holds even when bulges are compared to ellipticals of thesame luminosity, and indicates that bulges are younger and/or more metalpoor than old elliptical galaxies. Most bulges do not reach solarmetallicities. Bulges show predominantly negative color gradients (blueroutward). For bright bulges (MBulgeR is less than-20.0), the magnitude of the gradient increases with bulge luminosity.For fainter bulges, gradients scatter around large negative values. Thebehavior of color gradients as a function of bulge luminosity suggestsdifferent formation mechanisms for faint and bright spheroids. Forbright bulges, the scaling of gradients with luminosity suggests aformation process involving dissipation. The similarity with ellipticalssuggests that the formation of the disk did not affect the stellarpopulations of the bulge in a major way. For small bulges (MRis greater than -20), the existence of pronounced color gradientssuggests a different formation mechanism. For these objects, thepresence of the disk may have severely affected the radial populationdistribution in the bulge.

The vertical stellar distribution in NGC 6504: Detection of a thick disk
The vertical stellar distribution of the edge-on spiral NGC 6504 isexamined in seven bands (U, B, R, I, J, H, K) by fitting modeldistributions to the light profile at seven positions along the majoraxis. In the inner parts of the disk the profile is well approximated byan exponential distribution. At large galactocentric distances, theprofile is much less steep near the equatorial plane, being fittedbetter by e.g. a sech distribution. We find an excess of light at largez values, in all optical bands and at all radii. We confirm theconstancy of the scaleheight as a function of radius. Our bestexplanation for the deviations from the sech distribution at small z isdust extinction in combination with a young disk component. This youngdisk component has a very small scaleheight (it is unresolved) and asmaller scale-length than that of the (thin) disk. The excess at large zcan be modeled by a component that looks very much like the thick diskin the Galaxy: scaleheight approximately 4 times the scaleheight of thethin disk, and central surface brightness approximately 1% of thebrightness of the thin disk.

Observational Data for the Kinematics of the Local Universe - Part Two - Second Set of Radial Velocity Measurements
This paper is the second one in a series dedicated to the study of thekinematics of the local universe. It gives 361 new optical and radioredshifts measured at ESO, OHP and Nancay Observatories.

The optical warp of NGC 5907
The optical warps of NGC 5907 is studied by means of CCD photometry, forthe U and I filters, as well as for a narrow band filter centered atH-alpha. The present observations were extended out to about 380 arcsecin the NW side and out to about 348 arcsec in the SE side. The H I warpsbegin at these galactocentric radii, so that the optical ones are notclearly distinguished. The U warp is larger than the I one in the NW,but this difference is not appreciated in the SE. The disk shows slightcorrugations.

Photometric observations of the warped disks of NGC 4013, NGC 4565 and NGC 6504
Three spiral galaxies with warped disks have been observed; NGC 4013,NGC 4565, and NGC 6504. There is a clear wavelength dependence in thewarp's curve, the bluest colors presenting greater distortion. Thesedifferences cannot be due to extinction. A larger warp in the youngpopulation of stars can be clearly and directly appreciated in the NGC4013 outskirts, where the dust lane crosses the disk defined by thegalactic star background with a very different position angle. Thewarping curve is studied, and it is shown that it can at times becomplex: in some cases, it seems to begin in the opposite hemispherebefore it slowly departs from the galactic plane.

Frequency of Warped Spiral Galaxies at Visible Wavelengths
A list of optical warped spiral galaxies with basic position andgeometrical parameters is presented. From this list an attempt todetermine the frequency of warped discs has been made. All northern NGChigh inclined spirals were examined in the Palomar Observatory SkySurvey. Warps were observed in about half of these galaxies, whichindicate that nearly all spiral galaxies are warped.

Box-shaped galaxies - A complete list
A survey of box-shaped galaxies complete to B(tau) = 13.2 in the wholesky is presented, consisting of 74 objects, 60 of which are newidentifications. The observed frequency of lenticulars exhibiting thisphenomenon is shown to be consistent with the hypothesis of their beingedge-on barred galaxies. A sequence noted in the morphology of thebox-shaped bulges is thought to be related to the global dynamicalstructure of these galaxies.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:17h56m05.70s
Aparent dimensions:1.995′ × 0.427′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 6504

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