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The Chemical Composition of Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Regard to Inhomogeneity in the Gas Density in Their Envelopes
The results of a study of the chemical compositions of Galacticplanetary nebulae taking into account two types of inhomogeneity in thenebular gas density in their envelopes are reported. New analyticalexpressions for the ionization correction factors have been derived andare used to determine the chemical compositions of the nebular gas inGalactic planetary nebulae. The abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S, and Arhave been found for 193 objects. The Y Z diagrams for various Heabundances are analyzed for type II planetary nebulae separately andjointly with HII regions. The primordial helium abundance Y p andenrichment ratio dY/dZ are determined, and the resulting values arecompared with the data of other authors. Radial abundance gradients inthe Galactic disk are studied using type II planetary nebulae.

Planetary nebula distances re-examined: an improved statistical scale
The distances of planetary nebulae (PNe) are still quite uncertain.Although observational estimates are available for a small proportion ofPNe, based on statistical parallax and the like, such distances are verypoorly determined for the majority of galactic PNe. In particular,estimates of so-called `statistical' distance appear to differ byfactors of ~2.7.We point out that there is a well-defined correlation between the 5-GHzluminosity of the sources, L5, and their brightnesstemperatures, TB. This represents a different trend to thoseinvestigated in previous statistical analyses, and permits us todetermine independent distances to a further 449 outflows. Thesedistances are shown to be closely comparable to those determined using aTB-R correlation, providing that the latter trend is taken tobe non-linear.This non-linearity in the TB-R plane has not been noted inprevious analyses, and is likely responsible for the broad (andconflicting) ranges of distance that have previously been published.Finally, we point out that there is a close accord between observedtrends within the L5-TB and TB-Rplanes, and the variation predicted through nebular evolutionarymodelling. This is used to suggest that observational biases areprobably modest, and that our revised distance scale is reasonablytrustworthy.

A reanalysis of chemical abundances in galactic PNe and comparison with theoretical predictions
New determinations of chemical abundances for He, N, O, Ne, Ar and Sare derived for all galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) so far observedwith a relatively high accuracy, in an effort to overcome differences inthese quantities obtained over the years by different authors usingdifferent procedures. These include: ways to correct for interstellarextinction, the atomic data used to interpret the observed line fluxes,the model nebula adopted to represent real objects and the ionizationcorrections for unseen ions. A unique `good quality' classical-typeprocedure, i.e. making use of collisionally excited forbidden lines toderive ionic abundances of heavy ions, has been applied to allindividual sets of observed line fluxes in each specific position withineach PN. Only observational data obtained with linear detectors, andsatisfying some `quality' criteria, have been considered. Suchobservations go from the mid-1970s up to the end of 2001. Theobservational errors associated with individual line fluxes have beenpropagated through the whole procedure to obtain an estimate of theaccuracy of final abundances independent of an author's `prejudices'.Comparison of the final abundances with those obtained in relevantmulti-object studies on the one hand allowed us to assess the accuracyof the new abundances, and on the other hand proved the usefulness ofthe present work, the basic purpose of which was to take full advantageof the vast amount of observations done so far of galactic PNe, handlingthem in a proper homogeneous way. The number of resulting PNe that havedata of an adequate quality to pass the present selection amounts to131. We believe that the new derived abundances constitute a highlyhomogeneous chemical data set on galactic PNe, with realisticuncertainties, and form a good observational basis for comparison withthe growing number of predictions from stellar evolution theory. Owingto the known discrepancies between the ionic abundances of heavyelements derived from the strong collisonally excited forbidden linesand those derived from the weak, temperature-insensitive recombinationlines, it is recognized that only abundance ratios between heavyelements can be considered as satisfactorily accurate. A comparison withtheoretical predictions allowed us to assess the state of the art inthis topic in any case, providing some findings and suggestions forfurther theoretical and observational work to advance our understandingof the evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars.

The relation between Zanstra temperature and morphology in planetary nebulae
We have created a master list of Zanstra temperatures for 373 galacticplanetary nebulae based upon a compilation of 1575 values taken from thepublished literature. These are used to evaluate mean trends intemperature for differing nebular morphologies. Among the most prominentresults of this analysis is the tendency forη=TZ(HeII)/TZ(HeI) to increase with nebularradius, a trend which is taken to arise from the evolution of shelloptical depths. We find that as many as 87 per cent of nebulae may beoptically thin to H ionizing radiation where radii exceed ~0.16 pc. Wealso note that the distributions of values η and TZ(HeII)are quite different for circular, elliptical and bipolar nebulae. Acomparison of observed temperatures with theoretical H-burning trackssuggests that elliptical and circular sources arise from progenitorswith mean mass ≅ 1 Msolar(although the elliptical progenitors are probably more massive).Higher-temperature elliptical sources are likely to derive fromprogenitors with mass ≅2 Msolar, however, implying thatthese nebulae (at least) are associated with a broad swathe ofprogenitor masses. Such a conclusion is also supported by trends in meangalactic latitude. It is found that higher-temperature ellipticalsources have much lower mean latitudes than those with smallerTZ(HeII), a trend which is explicable where there is anincrease in with increasing TZ(HeII).This latitude-temperature variation also applies for most other sources.Bipolar nebulae appear to have mean progenitor masses ≅2.5Msolar, whilst jets, Brets and other highly collimatedoutflows are associated with progenitors at the other end of the massrange (~ 1 Msolar). Indeed it ispossible, given their large mean latitudes and low peak temperatures,that the latter nebulae are associated with the lowest-mass progenitorsof all.The present results appear fully consistent with earlier analyses basedupon nebular scale heights, shell abundances and the relativeproportions of differing morphologies, and offer further evidence for alink between progenitor mass and morphology.

Galactic Planetary Nebulae and their central stars. I. An accurate and homogeneous set of coordinates
We have used the 2nd generation of the Guide Star Catalogue (GSC-II) asa reference astrometric catalogue to compile the positions of 1086Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe) listed in the Strasbourg ESO Catalogue(SEC), its supplement and the version 2000 of the Catalogue of PlanetaryNebulae. This constitutes about 75% of all known PNe. For these PNe, theones with a known central star (CS) or with a small diameter, we havederived coordinates with an absolute accuracy of ~0\farcs35 in eachcoordinate, which is the intrinsic astrometric precision of the GSC-II.For another 226, mostly extended, objects without a GSC-II counterpartwe give coordinates based on the second epoch Digital Sky Survey(DSS-II). While these coordinates may have systematic offsets relativeto the GSC-II of up to 5 arcsecs, our new coordinates usually representa significant improvement over the previous catalogue values for theselarge objects. This is the first truly homogeneous compilation of PNepositions over the whole sky and the most accurate one available so far.The complete Table \ref{tab2} is only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/1029}

Angular dimensions of planetary nebulae
We have measured angular dimensions of 312 planetary nebulae from theirimages obtained in Hα (or Hα + [NII]). We have appliedthree methods of measurements: direct measurements at the 10% level ofthe peak surface brightness, Gaussian deconvolution and second-momentdeconvolution. The results from the three methods are compared andanalysed. We propose a simple deconvolution of the 10% levelmeasurements which significantly improves the reliability of thesemeasurements for compact and partially resolved nebulae. Gaussiandeconvolution gives consistent but somewhat underestimated diameterscompared to the 10% measurements. Second-moment deconvolution givesresults in poor agreement with those from the other two methods,especially for poorly resolved nebulae. From the results of measurementsand using the conclusions of our analysis we derive the final nebulardiameters which should be free from systematic differences between small(partially resolved) and extended (well resolved) objects in our sample.Table 1 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

The 3-D ionization structure of NGC 6818: A Planetary Nebula threatened by recombination
Long-slit NTT+EMMI echellograms of NGC 6818 (the Little Gem) at nineequally spaced position angles, reduced according to the 3-D methodologyintroduced by Sabbadin et al. (\cite{Sabbadin00}a,b), allowed us toderive: the expansion law, the diagnostics and ionic radial profiles,the distance and the central star parameters, the nebularphoto-ionization model, the 3-D reconstruction in He II, [O III] and [NII], the multicolor projection and a series of movies. The Little Gemresults to be a young (3500 years), optically thin (quasi-thin in somedirections) double shell (Mion =~ 0.13 Msun) ata distance of 1.7 kpc, seen almost equatorial on: a tenuous and patchyspherical envelope (r =~ 0.090 pc) encircles a dense and inhomogeneoustri-axial ellipsoid (a/2 =~ 0.077 pc, a/b =~ 1.25, b/c =~ 1.15)characterized by a hole along the major axis and a pair of equatorial,thick moustaches. NGC 6818 is at the start of the recombination phasefollowing the luminosity decline of the 0.625 Msun centralstar, which has recently exhausted the hydrogen shell nuclear burningand is rapidly moving toward the white dwarf domain (log T*=~ 5.22 K; log L*/Lsun =~ 3.1). The nebula isdestined to become thicker and thicker, with an increasing fraction ofneutral, dusty gas in the outermost layers. Only over some hundreds ofyears the plasma rarefaction due to the expansion will prevail againstthe slower and slower stellar decline, leading to a gradual re-growingof the ionization front. The exciting star of NGC 6818 (mV =~17.06) is a visual binary: a faint, red companion (mV =~17.73) appears at 0.09 arcsec in PA =190degr , corresponding to aseparation ge 150 AU and to an orbital period ge 1500 years.Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La SillaObservatories, under programme ID 65.I-0524, and on observations madewith the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archiveat the Space Telescope Institute (observing programs GO 7501 and GO8773; P.I. Arsen Hajian). STScI is operated by the association ofUniversities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under the NASA contract NAS5-26555. We have applied the photo-ionization code CLOUDY, developed atthe Institute of Astronomy of the Cambridge University.

Departure from Axisymmetry in Planetary Nebulae
Many planetary nebulae (PNs) exhibit symmetries that range fromunremarkable spherical and elliptical shapes to quite exotic bipolar andpoint-symmetric shapes. However, there are many that exhibit distinctlynonaxisymmetric structure in either (1) the shape of the nebula, or (2)the off-centered position of the illuminating star. By examining a largenumber of well-resolved images of PNs, we estimate that ~30%-50% of allPNs exhibit distinctly nonaxisymmetric structure. In this paper, wediscuss how such departures from axisymmetry can arise from the binarynature of the progenitors of the PNs. The scenarios include (1)relatively close binaries with eccentric orbits, and (2) longer orbitalperiod systems with either circular or eccentric orbits. In the firstmechanism, the departure from axisymmetry is caused by the variation ofmass loss and/or mass transfer with the changing distance between thecompanions in their eccentric orbit. In the second mechanism, thedeparture from axisymmetry is the result of the time-varying vectordirection of the mass-losing star, or that of a possible pair of jetsfrom the companion, as the stars move around their orbit. In order toassess the fraction of PNs whose nonaxisymmetric morphologies areexpected to arise in binary systems, we have carried out a detailedpopulation synthesis study. In this study, a large number of primordialbinaries are evolved through the lifetimes of both stars, including windmass loss. We then assess whether the primary or the secondary (or both)produces a PN. The expected deviations from axisymmetry are thenclassified for each binary and the results tabulated. We find that ~25%of elliptical and ~30%-50% of bipolar PNs are expected to acquirenonaxisymmetric structure from binary interactions.

The low-excitation structures of planetary nebulae
The low excitation properties of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 6720 areknown to be unusual, and to imply large ring/core emission ratios. Wepoint out that such characteristics are by no means confined to thissource alone, and that high ratios may occur in a large fraction ofelliptical and circular PNe. Such trends may arise because of thepresence of thin low-excitation emission sheets `wrapped' within andaround the primary outflows. The widths of such shells are required tobe exceedingly small, and may (for certain cases) be of order<<10-2pc. Such a mechanism appears capable ofexplaining most of the observed emission properties, and may arisethrough shock interaction between differing envelopes. Alternativeexplanations in terms of bipolar or cylindrical outflows are shown to beimplausible.

Low-Ionization Structures in Planetary Nebulae: Confronting Models with Observations
Around 50 planetary nebulae (PNs) are presently known to possess``small-scale'' low-ionization structures (LISs) located inside oroutside their main nebular bodies. We consider here the different kindsof LISs (jets, jetlike systems, symmetrical and nonsymmetrical knots)and present a detailed comparison of the existing model predictions withthe observational morphological and kinematical properties. We find thatnebulae with LISs appear indistinctly spread among all morphologicalclasses of PNs, indicating that the processes leading to the formationof LISs are not necessarily related to those responsible for theasphericity of the large-scale morphological components of PNs. We showthat both the observed velocities and locations of most nonsymmetricalsystems of LISs can be reasonably well reproduced assuming either fossilcondensations originated in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) wind or insitu instabilities. The jet models proposed to date (hydrodynamical andmagnetohydrodynamical interacting winds or accretion disk collimatedwinds) appear unable to account simultaneously for several keycharacteristics of the observed high-velocity jets, such as theirkinematical ages and the angle between the jet and the symmetry axes ofthe nebulae. The linear increase in velocity observed in several jetsfavors magnetohydrodynamical confinement compared to pure hydrodynamicalinteracting wind models. On the other hand, we find that the formationof jetlike systems characterized by relatively low expansion velocities(similar to those of the main shells of PNs) cannot be explained by anyof the existing models. Finally, the knots that appear in symmetricaland opposite pairs of low velocity could be understood as the survivalof fossil (symmetrical) condensations formed during the AGB phase or asstructures that have experienced substantial slowing down by the ambientmedium.

Gas Dynamics in Planetary Nebulae: From Macro-structures to FLIERs
Purpose of this paper is to clarify how Planetary Nebulae (PNe) are veryinteresting laboratories to study cosmic gas dynamics. I first recallthe history of PNe which are generated from low and intermediate massstars through successive mass loss processes starting in the Reg Giantphase of evolution and continuing also after the termination of thepulsed AGB phase, where most of the nebular mass is believed to beejected. The correponding stellar winds are the ingredients of thenebula. Their initial properties and subsequent mutual interactions,under the action of the evolving stellar radiation field, areresponsible for the properties of the nebula. The observed structures ofPNe are considered in detail. Larger scale macroscopic structures (MACS)are examined separately from quite smaller scale microscopic structures(MICS). The formation of MACS, at least in cases of round to moderatelyelliptical PNe, is shown to be reasonably well understood in terms ofexisting hydrodynamical models. Considering the kinematical behaviour,MICS can be separated into FLIERs (Fast Low Ionization Emitting Regions)and SLOWERs (slowly moving). Attention is focussed on FLIERs and on theproposed mechanisms to interpret them. Recent observations with theHubble Space Telescope have provided us with a wealth of detailed(subarcsec) information on the nebular structures. The inner structureof FLIERs is here illustrated to consist of substructures of variousshapes with an high degree of individually from object to object, alsowithin the same PN. These new data call for deeper thoretical efforts tosolve the problems of cosmic gas dynamics, posed by their observedproperties. An ample account is given of the most relevant originalworks, in an effort to allow the non specialist reader to quickly becomeacquainted with the status of art in the various aspects of the subject.

The dust content of planetary nebulae: a reappraisal
We have performed a statistical analysis using broad band IRAS data onabout 500 planetary nebulae with the aim of characterizing their dustcontent. Our approach is different from previous studies in that it usesan extensive grid of photoionization models to test the methods forderiving the dust temperature, the dust-to-gas mass ratio and theaverage grain size. In addition, we use only distance independentdiagrams. With our models, we show the effect of contamination by atomiclines in the broad band IRAS fluxes during planetary nebula evolution.We find that planetary nebulae with very different dust-to-gas massratios exist, so that the dust content is a primordial parameter for theinterpretation of far infrared data of planetary nebulae. In contrastwith previous studies, we find no evidence for a decrease in thedust-to-gas mass ratio as the planetary nebulae evolve. We also showthat the decrease in grain size advocated by Natta & Panagia(\cite{NattaPanagia}) and Lenzuni et al. (\cite{Lenzuni}) is an artefactof their method of analysis. Our results suggest that the timescale fordestruction of dust grains in planetary nebulae is larger than theirlifetime. Table~1 is only accessible in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

A Survey of Planetary Nebulae in the Southern Galactic Bulge
We present the results of a deep and uniform narrowband Hα imagingsurvey for planetary nebulae (PNs) in the southern Galactic bulge. Inour survey, we have found 56 new PNs and have rediscovered 45 known PNs.We have measured the radial velocities of this uniformly selected sampleand have also remeasured radial velocities for a subset of 317 PNs fromthe Acker catalog. Using the COBE/DIRBE 1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 μm images,we show that there is a similar longitude distribution of the PNs andthe COBE light in the zone of our deep survey. Also, we find that theextinction in our surveyed fields is not severe and that itsdistribution is fairly uniform. Finally, we present Hα fluxes for47 of our 56 newly discovered PNs and estimate the survey detectionlimit.

The kinematics of 867 galactic planetary nebulae
We present a compilation of radial velocities of 867 galactic planetarynebulae. Almost 900 new measurements are included. Previously publishedkinematical data are compared with the new high-resolution data toassess their accuracies. One of the largest samples in the literatureshows evidence for a systematic velocity offset. We calculate weightedaverages between all available data. Of the final values in thecatalogue, 90% have accuracies better than 20 km s(-1) . We use thiscompilation to derive kinematical parameters of the galacticdifferential rotation obtained from least-square fitting and toestablish the Disk rotation curve; we find no significal trend for thepresence of an increasing external rotation curve. We examine also therotation of the bulge; the derived curve is consistent with a linearlyincreasing rotation velocity with l: we find V_b,r=(9.9+/-1.3)l -(6.7+/-8.5) km s(-1) . A possible steeper gradient in the innermostregion is indicated. Table 2 is available in electronic form only, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

A Morphological Study of Planetary Nebulae
We have produced simulated images of 110 planetary nebulae using theellipsoidal shell model. This process has allowed us to remove theprojection effects from the morphological classification of planetarynebulae and has provided quantitative measures of the intrinsicasymmetries of the nebulae. It is shown that the morphology of mostplanetary nebulae can be reproduced with pole-to-equator density ratiosof 0.1-1. Many planetary nebulae also show a modest departure from axialsymmetry. Contrary to previous findings by Khromov & Kohoutek, thesky orientation of planetary nebulae in this sample is consistent with apurely random distribution. Extremely bipolar nebulae (e.g., those ofbutterfly shape) point to a steep density profile in the AGB envelopeand are more likely to be type I (high helium and/or nitrogen abundance)nebulae. We found evidence that these nebulae are likely to have moremassive progenitors and are at a more advanced stage of dynamicalevolution.

A self-consistent determination of distances, physical parameters, and chemical composition for a large sample of galactic planetary nebulae: chemical composition
The relative abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Ar arepresented for, respectively, 185, 65, 212, 221, 180, 13, 41, 197, and205 Galactic planetary nebulae. The observed stages of ionization weretaken into account using the relations between the relative abundancesof different ions derived from a grid of photoionization models for thenebular emission. The chemical compositions of all the planetary nebulaewere determined using the same method and the same atomic data, so thatthe results have a high degree of uniformity; this is the first timethis has been done for such a large sample of Galactic planetary nebulae(221 objects).

A self-consistent determination of the distances, physical parameters, and chemical composition for a large sample of galactic planetary nebulae: The distances and parameters of central stars and the optical depths of envelopes
The distances and parameters of the central stars and the optical depthsof the envelopes in the Lyman limits of neutral hydrogen and neutralhelium were determined in a self-consistent way for 170 Galacticplanetary nebulae (PNe). The distance to each PN was so chosen that thetheoretically calculated evolutionary age of its nucleus was equal tothe dynamical age of its expanding envelope. The effective temperatureof the central star and its related parameters were determined either bythe generalized energy-balance method or, where appropriate, byZanstra's method. The derived distance estimates lend support to a`long' distance scale for PNe and are generally in agreement withcurrent individual and statistical estimates of the distances to PNeavailable in the literature. The mean distance to the bulge PNe is 7.9+/- 0.3 kpc, in agreement with the distance to the Galactic center. Themasses of the central stars of PNe corresponding to the deriveddistances are closely correlated with the nebular nitrogen-to-oxygenabundance ratio.

Properties That Cannot Be Explained by the Progenitors of Planetary Nebulae
I classify a large number of planetary nebulae (458) according to theprocess that caused their progenitors to blow axisymmetrical winds. Theclassification is based primarily on the morphologies of the differentplanetary nebulae, assuming that binary companions, stellar orsubstellar, are necessary in order to have axisymmetrical mass loss onthe asymptotic giant branch. I propose four evolutionary classes,according to the binary-model hypothesis: (1) Progenitors of planetarynebula that did not interact with any companion. These amount to ~10% ofall planetary nebulae. (2) Progenitors that interact with stellarcompanions that avoided a common envelope, 11^{+2}_{-3}% of all nebulae.(3) Progenitors that interact with stellar companions via a commonenvelope phase, 23^{+11}_{-5}% of all nebulae. (4) Progenitors thatinteract with substellar (i.e., planets and brown dwarfs) companions viaa common envelope phase, 56^{+5}_{-8}% of all nebulae. In order todefine and build the different classes, I start with clarifying somerelevant terms and processes related to binary evolution. I then discusskinematical and morphological properties of planetary nebulae thatappear to require the interaction of the planetary nebula progenitorsand/or their winds with companions, stellar or substellar.

Planetary nebulae morphologies, central star masses and nebular properties.
We have constituted a sample of about 80 PN with defined morphologiesand well observed basic parameters (fluxes, angular radii, expansionvelocities and magnitudes of the central stars). For these PN, we havederived the central star masses by comparing the observed set ofparameters with those predicted by a simple evolutionary model of a PN,expanding at the same velocity as the observed one. We have thenexamined the relations between the PN morphological types and otherproperties, linked to the central star mass. Bipolar PN are shown tohave a wider distribution of central star masses than the rest of PN,and shifted towards higher values. They lie closer to the Galactic planeand tend to have larger N/O ratios. Point symmetric PN, which have notbeen much studied so far, are found to constitute an outstanding class.They show an almost perfect M_*_-v_exp_ correlation. They correspond toa rather short evolutionary stage of PN. They lie, on average, furtherfrom the Galactic plane than bipolar PN and tend to have lower N/O.Globally, PN with higher central star masses are found closer to theGalactic plane, and the observed relation between N/O and M_*_ isroughly consistent with the predictions from evolutionary models for AGBstars.

Jets and Brets in Planetary Nebulae (Invited Review)
Not Available

Unveiling low-ionization microstructures in planetary nebulae.
(Hα+[NII])/[OIII] ratio images have been used to search forlow-ionization small-scale structures in a sample of 258 planetarynebulae. Radially symmetrical knots or jet-like structures, which areenhanced in the ratio images compared to the neighbouring regions of thenebulae, have been identified in 23 objects. Some of these features arebarely detected or invisible in the Hα+[NII] and [OIII] images.Empirical evidence, as well as some simple modelling, demonstrate thatthe selected features are characterized by having a lower ionizationthan the surrounding gas. For the above properties, most of themresemble the low-ionization microstructures discussed recently by Balicket al. (1993, 1994), and named FLIERs (Fast Low-Ionization EmissionRegions). The present work shows that the image-division technique is avery useful tool to look for ionization structures in planetary nebulaeand other HII regions. Its main advantage is that the division removesthe morphological components which are pure density enhancements, sothat the output image remains mostly sensitive to excitation andabundance variations through the nebulae.

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

A statistical distance scale for Galactic planetary nebulae
A statistical distance scale is proposed. It is based on the correlationbetween the ionized mass and the radius and the correlation between theradio continuum surface brightness temperature and the nebular radius.The proposed statistical distance scale is an average of the twodistances obtained while using the correlation. These correlations,calibrated based on the 1`32 planetary nebulae with well-determinedindividual distances by Zhang, can reproduce not only the averagedistance of a sample of Galactic Bulge planetary nebulae exactly at thedistance to the Galactic center, but also the expected Gaussiandistribution of their distances around the Galactic center. This newdistance scale is applied to 647 Galactic planetary nebulae. It isestimated that this distance scale can be accurate on average to35%-50%. Our statistical distance scale is in good agreement with theone recently proposed by Van de Steene and Zijlstra. The correlationsfound in this study can be attributed to the fact that the core mass ofthe central stars has a very sharp distribution, strongly peaked atapprox. 0.6 solar mass. We stress that the scatter seen in thestatistical distance scale is likely to be real. The scatter is causedby the fact that the core mass distribution, although narrow andstrongly peaked, has a finite width.

On an alternative statistical distance scale for planetary nebulae. Catalog with statistical distances to planetary nebulae.
We have proposed a statistical method to determine distances toplanetary nebulae. The method is based on an empirical correlationbetween the radio-continuum brightness temperature and radius. Here wepresent a catalog of distance determinations calculated using thismethod.

Spectrophotometry of southern planetary nebulae.
Twenty-seven southern planetary nebulae of moderate to low surfacebrightness have been observed in one or various positions across thenebula with the 152cm and the 3.6m ESO telescopes equipped with the IDS(image dissector scanner) attached to Boller & Chivens spectrographsat spectral resolution between 8 and 13A. The purpose was to search forobjects chemically enriched in helium and nitrogen, according to theprediction of the stellar evolution theory of intermediate mass stars.The chemical abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S and Ar have been determinedin the individual positions, and averaged into values representative ofthe whole nebulae. No cases of objects displaying chemical gradientsacross the nebula have been detected. Eleven nebulae enriched in heliumand/or in nitrogen have been found, six of which detected as such forthe first time. They are: A 37, A 70, Fg 1, MZ 1, MZ 2 and NGC 6578.They increase the number of the objects, which can be classified of typeI of Peimbert.

A catalogue HeII 4686 line intensities in Galactic planetary nebulae.
We have compiled the intensities of the HeII 4686 lines measured inGalactic planetary nebulae. We present a few observational diagramsrelated to this parameter, and discuss them with the help of theoreticaldiagrams obtained from simple model planetary nebulae surroundingevolving central stars of various masses. We determine the hydrogen andhelium Zanstra temperature for all the objects with accurate enoughdata. We argue that, for Galactic planetary nebulae as a whole, the maincause for the Zanstra discrepancy is leakage of stellar ionizing photonsfrom the nebulae.

Confrontation of theoretical tracks for post-AGB stars with observations of planetary nebulae
We have constructed a distance-independent diagram to test publishedtheoretical tracks for the evolution of post-AGB stars by comparing themwith the Galactic planetary nebulae data base. We have found noinconsistency between observations and the set of tracks computed bySchoenberner (1981, 1983) and Bloecker & Schoenberner (1990). On theother hand, observations do not seem support the large transition timesbetween the end of the AGB superwind and the beginning of the planetarynebula ionization phase adopted in the models of Vassiliadis & Wood(1994).

The correlations between planetary nebula morphology and central star evolution
The morphology of 111 Galactic planetary nebulae has been studied inrelation to the evolutionary stage of their central stars. In order tolocate these stars on the log Teff - Log L/solar luminosityplane, we have calculated the Zanstra temperatures with the most up todate fluxes and magnitudes available in the literature. Distances to thenebulae were estimated with statistical methods. The different natureand evolutionary stages of central stars have been related to themorphologies of the surrounding nebulae in a statistical sense. We foundthat multiple shell nebulae contain stars that are at a differentevolutionary stage than those of single shell nebulae; we also foundthat bipolar and elliptical planetary nebulae very likely containcentral stars with a different mass distribution; furthermore, we buildan optical thickness sequence of morphological types.

Trace of planetary nebula evolution by distance-independent parameters
Using existing infrared and radio data on a sample of 432 planetarynebulae, we derived a number of distance-independent parameters forcomparison with evolutionary models of planetary nebulae. We find thatmany of the observed properties of planetary nebulae can be explained bycurrent central star evolutionary models, even if the time scales aresubject to significant change by a factor of up to an order ofmagnitude. Specifically, we find that the evolutionary tracks are wellseparated in the radio surface brightness-central star temperatureplane, therefore allowing us to determine the core mass of individualplanetary nebulae. We also obtain the luminosity and gravity of thecentral stars of individual nebulae, from their temperature and coremass, without relying on the distance assumptions. We find that ourresults of the core mass are in good agreement with those of Mendez etal. (1992) and Tylenda et al. (1991). A systematic, large discrepancy isfound between the luminosity found in this work and that found byGathier and Pottasch (1986).

The Correlations Between Planetary Nebula Morphology and Central Star Evolution
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993A&A...276..463S

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Right ascension:17h20m46.30s
Apparent magnitude:12

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NGC 2000.0NGC 6326

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