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The Epochs of Early-Type Galaxy Formation as a Function of Environment
The aim of this paper is to set constraints on the epochs of early-typegalaxy formation through the ``archaeology'' of the stellar populationsin local galaxies. Using our models of absorption-line indices thataccount for variable abundance ratios, we derive ages, totalmetallicities, and element ratios of 124 early-type galaxies in high-and low-density environments. The data are analyzed by comparison withmock galaxy samples created through Monte Carlo simulations taking thetypical average observational errors into account, in order to eliminateartifacts caused by correlated errors. We find that all threeparameters, age, metallicity, and α/Fe ratio, are correlated withvelocity dispersion. We show that these results are robust againstrecent revisions of the local abundance pattern at high metallicities.To recover the observed scatter we need to assume an intrinsic scatterof about 20% in age, 0.08 dex in [Z/H], and 0.05 dex in [α/Fe].All low-mass objects withM*<~1010Msolar (σ<~130kms-1) show evidence for the presence of intermediate-agestellar populations with low α/Fe ratios. About 20% of theintermediate-mass objects with1010<~M*/Msolar<~1011[110<~σ/(kms-1)<~230 both elliptical andlenticular galaxies] must have either a young subpopulation or a bluehorizontal branch. On the basis of the above relationships, valid forthe bulk of the sample, we show that the Mg-σ relation is mainlydriven by metallicity, with similar contributions from the α/Feratio (23%) and age (17%). We further find evidence for an influence ofthe environment on the stellar population properties. Massive early-typegalaxies in low-density environments seem on average ~2 Gyr younger andslightly (~0.05-0.1 dex) more metal-rich than their counterparts inhigh-density environments. No offsets in the α/Fe ratios areinstead detected. With the aid of a simple chemical evolution model, wetranslate the derived ages and α/Fe ratios into star formationhistories. We show that most star formation activity in early-typegalaxies is expected to have happened between redshifts ~3 and 5 inhigh-density environments and between redshifts 1 and 2 in low-densityenvironments. We conclude that at least 50% of the total stellar massdensity must have already formed at z~1, in good agreement withobservational estimates of the total stellar mass density as a functionof redshift. Our results suggest that significant mass growth in theearly-type galaxy population below z~1 must be restricted to lessmassive objects, and a significant increase of the stellar mass densitybetween redshifts 1 and 2 should be present, caused mainly by the fieldgalaxy population. The results of this paper further imply the presenceof vigorous star formation episodes in massive objects at z~2-5 andevolved elliptical galaxies around z~1, both observationally identifiedas SCUBA galaxies and extremely red objects, respectively.

Formalism and quality of a proper motion link with extragalactic objects for astrometric satellite missions
The accuracy of the link of the proper motion system of astrometricsatellite missions like AMEX and GAIA is discussed. Monte-Carlo methodswere used to simulate catalogues of positions and proper motions ofquasars and galaxies to test the link. The main conclusion is, thatfuture satellite missions like GAIA may be ``self-calibrated'' by theirmeasurements of QSOs, while additional measurements from radio stars orHST-data are needed to calibrate the less deep reaching astrometricsatellite missions of AMEX type.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Line-strength indices and velocity dispersions for 148 early-type galaxies in different environments
We have derived high quality line-strength indices and velocitydispersions for a sample of 148 early-type galaxies in differentenvironments. The wavelength region covered by the observations (lambda=~ 4600 to 6600 Å) includes the Lick/IDS indices Hβ,Mg1, Mg2, Mgb, Fe5015, Fe5270, Fe5335, Fe5406,Fe5709, Fe5782, NaD, TiO1 and TiO2. The data areintended to address possible differences of the stellar populations ofearly-type galaxies in low- and high-density environments. This paperdescribes the sample properties, explains the data reduction andpresents the complete list of all the measurements. Most galaxies of thesample (85%) had no previous measurements of any Lick/IDS indices andfor 30% of the galaxies we present first-time determinations of theirvelocity dispersions. Special care is taken to identify galaxies withemission lines. We found that 62 per cent of the galaxies in the samplehave emission lines, as measured by the equivalent width of the [OIII]5007Å line, EW[OIII] > 0.3 Å. Tables 5 and 6 are onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/ A+A/395/431. They are also available via ftp atftp.mpe.mpg.de in the directory people/dthomas/Beuing02 or via WWW atftp://ftp.mpe.mpg.de/people/dthomas/Beuing02.

A catalogue and analysis of X-ray luminosities of early-type galaxies
We present a catalogue of X-ray luminosities for 401 early-typegalaxies, of which 136 are based on newly analysed ROSAT PSPC pointedobservations. The remaining luminosities are taken from the literatureand converted to a common energy band, spectral model and distancescale. Using this sample we fit the LX:LB relationfor early-type galaxies and find a best-fit slope for the catalogue of~2.2. We demonstrate the influence of group-dominant galaxies on the fitand present evidence that the relation is not well modelled by a singlepower-law fit. We also derive estimates of the contribution to galaxyX-ray luminosities from discrete-sources and conclude that they provideLdscr/LB~=29.5ergs-1LBsolar-1. Wecompare this result with luminosities from our catalogue. Lastly, weexamine the influence of environment on galaxy X-ray luminosity and onthe form of the LX:LB relation. We conclude thatalthough environment undoubtedly affects the X-ray properties ofindividual galaxies, particularly those in the centres of groups andclusters, it does not change the nature of whole populations.

A synthesis of data from fundamental plane and surface brightness fluctuation surveys
We perform a series of comparisons between distance-independentphotometric and spectroscopic properties used in the surface brightnessfluctuation (SBF) and fundamental plane (FP) methods of early-typegalaxy distance estimation. The data are taken from two recent surveys:the SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances and the Streaming Motions of AbellClusters (SMAC) FP survey. We derive a relation between(V-I)0 colour and Mg2 index using nearly 200galaxies and discuss implications for Galactic extinction estimates andearly-type galaxy stellar populations. We find that the reddenings fromSchlegel et al. for galaxies with E(B-V)>~0.2mag appear to beoverestimated by 5-10 per cent, but we do not find significant evidencefor large-scale dipole errors in the extinction map. In comparison withstellar population models having solar elemental abundance ratios, thegalaxies in our sample are generally too blue at a given Mg2;we ascribe this to the well-known enhancement of the α-elements inluminous early-type galaxies. We confirm a tight relation betweenstellar velocity dispersion σ and the SBF `fluctuation count'parameter N, which is a luminosity-weighted measure of the total numberof stars in a galaxy. The correlation between N and σ is eventighter than that between Mg2 and σ. Finally, we deriveFP photometric parameters for 280 galaxies from the SBF survey data set.Comparisons with external sources allow us to estimate the errors onthese parameters and derive the correction necessary to bring them on tothe SMAC system. The data are used in a forthcoming paper, whichcompares the distances derived from the FP and SBF methods.

The Surface Brightness Fluctuation Survey of Galaxy Distances. II. Local and Large-Scale Flows
We present results from the Surface Brightness Fluctuation (SBF) Surveyfor the distances to 300 early-type galaxies, of which approximatelyhalf are ellipticals. A modest change in the zero point of the SBFrelation, derived by using Cepheid distances to spirals with SBFmeasurements, yields a Hubble constant H0=77+/-4+/-7 kms-1 Mpc-1, somewhat larger than the HST KeyProject result. We discuss how this difference arises from a differentchoice of zero point, a larger sample of galaxies, and a different modelfor large-scale flows. Our result is 4% larger than found in a recentcomparison of the SBF Survey peculiar velocities with predictionsderived from the galaxy density field measured by redshift surveys(Blakeslee et al. 1999b). The zero point of the SBF relation is thelargest source of uncertainty, and our value for H0 issubject to all the systematic uncertainties of the Key Project zeropoint, including a 5% decrease if a metallicity correction for theCepheids is adopted. To analyze local and large-scale flows-departuresfrom smooth Hubble flow-we use a parametric model for the distributionfunction of mean velocity and velocity dispersion at each point inspace. These models include a uniform thermal velocity dispersion andspherical attractors whose position, amplitude, and radial shape arefree to vary. Our modeling procedure performs a maximum likelihood fitof the model to the observations. Our models rule out a uniform Hubbleflow as an acceptable fit to the data. Inclusion of two attractors, oneof which having a best-fit location coincident with the Virgo clusterand the other having a fit location slightly beyond the Centaurusclusters (which we refer to by convention as the Great Attractor),reduces χ2/N from 2.1 to 1.1. The fits to theseattractors both have radial profiles such that v~r-1 (i.e.,isothermal) over a range of overdensity between about 10 and 1, but falloff more steeply at larger radius. The best-fit value for thesmall-scale, cosmic thermal velocity is 180+/-14 km s-1. Thequality of the fit can be further improved by the addition of aquadrupole correction to the Hubble flow. The dipole velocity offsetfrom the CMB frame for the volume we survey (amplitude ~150 kms-1) and the quadrupole may be genuine (though weak)manifestations of more distant density fluctuations, but we findevidence that they are more likely due to the inadequacy of sphericalmodels to describe the density profile of the attractors. The residualdipole we find is comparable to the systematic error in these simple,parametrized models; in other words, our survey volume of R<3000 kms-1 is, in a mass averaged sense, essentially at rest withrespect to the CMB. This contradicts claims of large amplitude flows inmuch larger volumes that include our sample. Our best-fitting model,which uses attenuated power-law mass distributions for the twoattractors, has enclosed mass overdensities at the Local Group of7x1014 Msolar for the Virgo Attractor and9x1015 Msolar for the Great Attractor. Withoutrecourse to information about the overdensities of these attractors withrespect to the cosmic mean we cannot provide a good constraint onΩM, but our data do give us accurate measurements interms of δ, the overdensities of the enclosed masses with respectto the background: δ Ω2/3M=0.33 forthe Virgo Attractor and δ Ω2/3M=0.27for the Great Attractor. Observations in part from theMichigan-Dartmouth-MIT (MDM) Observatory.

X-ray luminosities for a magnitude-limited sample of early-type galaxies from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey
For a magnitude-limited optical sample (B_T <= 13.5 mag) ofearly-type galaxies, we have derived X-ray luminosities from the ROSATAll-Sky Survey. The results are 101 detections and 192 useful upperlimits in the range from 10^36 to 10^44 erg s^-1. For most of thegalaxies no X-ray data have been available until now. On the basis ofthis sample with its full sky coverage, we find no galaxy with anunusually low flux from discrete emitters. Below log (L_B) ~ 9.2L_⊗ the X-ray emission is compatible with being entirely due todiscrete sources. Above log (L_B) ~ 11.2 L_osolar no galaxy with onlydiscrete emission is found. We further confirm earlier findings that L_xis strongly correlated with L_B. Over the entire data range the slope isfound to be 2.23 (+/- 0.12). We also find a luminosity dependence ofthis correlation. Below log L_x = 40.5 erg s^-1 it is consistent with aslope of 1, as expected from discrete emission. Above this value theslope is close to 2, as expected from gaseous emission. Comparing thedistribution of X-ray luminosities with the models of Ciotti et al.leads to the conclusion that the vast majority of early-type galaxiesare in the wind or outflow phase. Some of the galaxies may have alreadyexperienced the transition to the inflow phase. They show X-rayluminosities in excess of the value predicted by cooling flow modelswith the largest plausible standard supernova rates. A possibleexplanation for these super X-ray-luminous galaxies is suggested by thesmooth transition in the L_x--L_B plane from galaxies to clusters ofgalaxies. Gas connected to the group environment might cause the X-rayoverluminosity.

A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Unveiling a connection between large-scale structures behind the southern Milky Way
A redshift survey of galaxies located in the direction of the southernMilky Way has been carried out using the FLAIR multi-objects system onthe 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope (UKST) at the Anglo-AustralianObservatory in Australia. The galaxy sample was extracted from the LEDAand COSMOS data bases, but essentially by scanning by eye four plates ofthe UKST/SERC Survey in the region between the Centaurus complex and thePavo-Indus (PI) wall. The galaxies selected have high central surfacebrightnesses and are distributed evenly over the whole search area. Themajority of the galaxies have apparent magnitudes in the range11.5

Comparative study of fine structure in samples of isolated and paired early-type galaxies
Fine structure in early-type galaxies is considered to be among the morerobust indicators of a past merging or acquisition event, althoughgrowing evidence from numerical simulations suggests that fine structuremay be also interpreted in a `weak interaction' framework. We present amorphological study of a sample composed of 61 `isolated' early-typegalaxies addressed to the detection of fine structure. This sample hasbeen selected in order to be statistically comparable to a set of 54early-type galaxies, members of pairs analysed by Reduzzi & Rampazzowith a similar technique. The rate of occurrence of fine structuredetected in the `isolated' galaxy sample is significantly higher thanthat found for the pairs. In particular, the fraction of isolatedearly-type galaxies exhibiting shells is 16.4 per cent, a percentagesimilar to that found by Malin & Carter for RC2 isolated objects inthe southern sky, while the fraction of early-type galaxies in pairs is~=4 per cent. We discuss the comparison between the two samples in thecontext of the merger versus the weak interaction origin of finestructures. Concerning the formation of shells, although the mergerorigin cannot be ruled out, the observed difference is more naturallyexplained within the weak interaction framework.

A survey of the ISM in early-type galaxies. I. The ionized gas.
We present results of a CCD optical imaging survey of the ionized gas in73 luminous elliptical and lenticular galaxies, selected from the RC3catalog to represent a broad variety of X-ray, radio, infrared andkinematical properties. For each galaxy we have used broad-band R imagesand narrow-band images centered at the Hα and [NII] emission linesto derive the luminosity and distribution of the ionized gas. We foundthat a large fraction of E (72%) and S0 (85%) galaxies in our samplecontain ionized gas. The gas morphology appears to be rather smooth formost galaxies; however ~12% of the sample galaxies show a very extendedfilamentary structure. According to the morphology and size of the gasdistribution, the galaxies have been classified into three broad groups,named small disk (SD), regular extended (RE) and filamentary structure(F). The mean diameter of the emitting region ranges between 1 and10kpc; the derived mass of the ionized gas ranges between 10^3^ and10^5^ solar masses. A significant correlation between Hα+[NII] andX-ray luminosities is found for those galaxies (27% of the sample) forwhich we have detected ionized gas and are also listed as X-ray sources.However, there are relatively strong X-ray emitting galaxies for whichwe have not detected Hα+[NII] emission and objects which showemission-lines but are not listed either in the EINSTEIN or in the ROSATdatabases. The distribution of datapoint and upper limits in thisdiagram suggests that galaxies with warm gas are also X-ray emitters,while there are X-ray emitters without measurable Hα+[NII]emission. Similar characteristics are present in the correlation betweenthe infrared luminosity in the 12 μm band and L_Hα+[NII]_;correlations with other infrared wavelengths are weaker. A strongcorrelation was also found between the Hα+[NII] luminosity and theluminosity in the B band inside the region occupied by the line-emittinggas. We use these correlations to discuss the possible mechanismsresponsible for the gas ionization and excitation, analyzing inparticular the role of the post-AGB stars and the thermal conductionfrom the X-ray halo in providing the necessary source of ionization.

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.

The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies
The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies (CSRG) is a comprehensivecompilation of diameters, axis ratios, relative bar position angles, andmorphologies of inner and outer rings, pseudorings, and lenses in 3692galaxies south of declination -17 deg. The purpose of the catalog is toevaluate the idea that these ring phenomena are related to orbitalresonances with a bar or oval in galaxy potentials. The catalog is basedon visual inspection of most of the 606 fields of the Science ResearchCouncil (SRC) IIIa-J southern sky survey, with the ESO-B, ESO-R, andPalomar Sky surveys used as auxiliaries when needed for overexposed coreregions. The catalog is most complete for SRC fields 1-303 (mostly southof declination -42 deg). In addition to ringed galaxies, a list of 859mostly nonringed galaxies intended for comparison with other catalogs isprovided. Other findings from the CSRG that are not based on statisticsare the identification of intrinsic bar/ring misalignment; bars whichunderfill inner rings; dimpling of R'1pseudorings; pointy, rectangular, or hexagonal inner or outer ringshapes; a peculiar polar-ring-related system; and other extreme examplesof spiral structure and ring morphology.

UBVRI photoelectric photometry of bright southern early-type galaxies
UBVRI multi-aperture photometry of 207 bright southern galaxies and of72 objects of an additional list is presented. These observations weremade for obtaining the magnitude scale zero-point as an accuratedetermination of the sky background for a two-dimensional photometryprogram concerning these galaxies. We have also inferred the asymptoticmagnitudes, color indices and effective apertures of these objects. Ourresults are in good agreement with those of others authors.

Low-luminosity early-type galaxies. I - Photometry and morphology
New multiaperture photoelectric photometry in U, B, V, R, and I for 50southern low-luminosity early-type galaxies (LLEs) is presented.Asymptotic magnitude and mean surface brightness within the effectiveaperture are derived from fits to r exp 1/4 growth curves, and colorsare reduced at an effective radius for 154 galaxies. Morphological andstructural analysis of the LLE sample, based on the ESO-LV image database, shows that the average flattening of these galaxies is high. Thesample can be divided into four main categories. There is no correlationbetween the morphological type for t of not greater than -3 and any ofthe structural and geometrical properties investigated. Only a fewgalaxies show a boxy isophote shape, while a greater fraction showsdisky isophotes.

The supergalactic plane redshift survey
Redshift measurements, about 1000 of which are new, are presented for1314 galaxies in a survey toward the apex of the large-scale streamingflow for ellipticals. The velocity histogram shows that the excess ingalaxy number counts in this area is due to a substantial concentrationof galaxies with discrete peaks at V about 3000 km/s and V about 4500km/s. After correction for the sampling function, the centroid of thedensity distribution is found to be near V about 4500 km/s.Normalization to the more extensive SSRS survey, which was selected bythe same criteria, shows that the region studied contains a considerableoverdensity of galaxies from 2000 to 6000 km/s. This result is in goodagreement with the 'great attractor' model suggested by Lynden-Bell etal. (1988) which attributes the peculiar motions of elliptical galaxiesover a large region of space to an extensive mass overdensity whichincludes the Hydra-Centaurus and Pavo-Indus superclusters. The centroidof the density enhancement is also consistent with new data by Dresslerand Faber (1990) of peculiar motions of elliptical and spiral galaxies,both of which show a zero crossing of the Hubble line at approximately4500-5000 km/s.

New velocity dispersions and photometry for E and S0 galaxies in the great attractor
New spectroscopy and photometry have been obtained for 136 ellipticaland S0 galaxies in the direction of the large-scale streaming flowattributed to the great attractor. Measurements of central velocitydispersion (sigma), total B magnitudes B(T), the photometric parameterDn, and the absorption-line index Mg2 are presented. Both internal andexternal comparisons indicate that measurements of log sigma areaccurate to 0.05 dex, B(T) to 0.15 mag, Dn to 0.015 dex, and Mg2 to0.017 mag. These data have been used by Dressler and Faber (1990) toestimate distances for these galaxies via the Dn-sigma relation. It isshown in this paper that the Dn-Mg2 relation also predicts the sametrends of peculiar velocity with distance, but with less accuracy. Therelative accuracy of other distance indicators for elliptical galaxiesis also discussed.

Low-luminosity radio sources in early-type galaxies
A sensitive radio continuum survey of 114 nearby E and S0 galaxies hasbeen made to search for weak sources. The radio detection rate is 42percent, with a flux limit of 0.8 mJy at 5 GHz. By deriving the radioluminosity function for a complete sample, it is shown that most brightearly-type galaxies have low-luminosity nonthermal radio sources.Galaxies of similar optical luminosity vary widely in radio luminosity,but a characteristic radio power rises roughly as the optical luminositysquared. S0 galaxies have weaker radio sources on average thanelliptical galaxies, but this can be explained by the low luminosity ofmost S0 bulges relative to ellipticals. No correlation is found betweenradio power and axial ratio for galaxies with radio luminosities below10 to the 23rd W/Hz.

On the relationship between radio emission and optical properties in early-type galaxies
To study the origin of radio activity in early-type galaxies, thepossible dependence of their radio emission on basic optical parameters,such as the absolute magnitude, the central velocity dispersion sigma,and the mean surface brightness mu is explored. A sample of 743 E and SOgalaxies is used which is based on three independent radio surveys ofoptically selected galaxies with virtually complete information onmagnitudes, morphological types, redshift distances, diameters, andradio fluxes. For both E and SO galaxies, only the absolute magnitudeappears to be directly related to the radio activity, while sigma and mudo not. Also, a significant dependence of the apparent flattening onradio power is confirmed for E galaxies. Some relevant implications ofthese results are discussed.

Ionized gas in elliptical and S0 galaxies. I - A survey for H-alpha and forbidden N II emission
A spectroscopic survey of a large sample of southern E and S0 galaxiesin order to detect ionized gas in the nuclei is reported. The strongestline in the 6000-7000 A range was nearly always forbidden N II 6584 A,followed by H-alpha and forbidden S II 6716, 6731 A. Identical detectionrates of about 50 percent were obtained for the forbidden N II line inboth E and S0 galaxies. The mass of ionized gas in early-type galaxieswas very small, with values typically in the range 1000-10,000 solarmasses. The relative emission-line strengths in virtually every casewere indistinguishable from those of LINER nuclei. The observed valuesof the forbidden N II 6584 A/H-alpha ratios fell mostly between one andthree and seem correlated with galaxy absolute magnitude. The existenceof such a correlation may be indicative of metallicity differences.

Southern Galaxy Catalogue.
Not Available

Radio and optical observations of a complete sample of E and SO galaxies. III. A radio continuum survey at 2.7 and 5.0 GHz.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984AJ.....89...53S&db_key=AST

Radio and optical observations of a complete sample of E and SO galaxies. II. UBV aperture photometry.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984AJ.....89...34S&db_key=AST

Radio and optical observations of a complete sample of E and S0 galaxies. I - Radial velocities. II - UBV aperture photometry. III - A radio continuum survey at 2.7 and 5.0 GHz
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984AJ.....89...23S&db_key=AST

UBV photometry of 262 southern galaxies
Multiaperture photometry of 262 bright southern galaxies in the JohnsonUBV system is given. Most of these are south of -30 deg declination,although some northward to -10 deg are included. A total of 169 objectshave published radial-velocity determinations. These provide distancesand enable construction of color-magnitude diagrams for this subset ofobjects through a physical diameter of 2.0 kpc (with H = 100). Thetwo-color diagrams for the inner regions of the galaxies differ fromthose of integrated galaxies due to the color changes towards theircenters. Comparison with theoretical models of Larson and Tinsley (1978)suggest that the colors of the inner portions of most ellipticals andlenticulars are consistent with their having all stars formed at nearlyone epoch with little subsequent star formation, while for spiralslarger amounts of star formation, either in bursts or continuously, aresuggested. This simple picture is complicated by the presence of certainobjects having peculiar colors indicative of large amounts of recentstar formation.

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Right ascension:17h18m00.90s
Aparent dimensions:1.778′ × 1.122′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 6305

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