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Photometric and Coravel observations of red giant candidates in three open clusters: membership, binarity, reddening and metallicity
Aims.We present new CORAVEL radial-velocity observations andphotoelectric photometry in the UBV and DDO systems for a sample ofpotential members of the red-giant branches of NGC 6192, NGC 6208 andNGC 6268, three open clusters projected close to the Galactic centerdirection. We also examine the properties of a sample of 42 inner diskopen clusters projected towards almost the same direction as the threeclusters. Methods: .Cluster members and red field giants werediscriminated by using the CORAVEL radial-velocity data and by applyingtwo photometric criteria. Interstellar reddening and metal content ofthe clusters were derived from combined BV and DDO data. Results:.Cluster membership for five red giants in NGC 6192, three in NGC 6208and three in NGC 6268 has been confirmed by the analysis of thephotometric and kinematic data. Photometric membership probabilitiesshow very good agreement with those obtained from CORAVEL radialvelocities. Three new spectroscopic binaries were discovered among thered giants of NGC 6192 and NGC 6208. Mean radial velocities and E(B-V)colour excesses were derived. Conclusions: .The overallmetallicities were found to be nearly solar for NGC 6208 and above solarfor NGC 6192 and NGC 6268. Most of the clusters located closer than 2kpc from the Sun in the considered direction are slightly more reddenedthan the absorption resulting from the Baade's window absorption law.

Proper motion determination of open clusters based on the UCAC2 catalogue
We present the kinematics of hundreds of open clusters, based on theUCAC2 Catalogue positions and proper motions. Membership probabilitieswere obtained for the stars in the cluster fields by applying astatistical method uses stellar proper motions. All open clusters withknown distance were investigated, and for 75 clusters this is the firstdetermination of the mean proper motion. The results, including the DSSimages of the cluster's fields with the kinematic members marked, areincorporated in the Open Clusters Catalogue supported on line by ourgroup.

New fundamental parameters for the inner disk open cluster Lyngå 11
We have obtained CCD BVIKC photometry down to V ˜ 21.5for the open cluster Lyngå 11 and its surrounding field. Thispreviously unstudied object appears to be rich and highly absorbed. Acluster angular radius of 4.5′ ± 0.5′, equivalent to(3.0 ± 0.3) pc, is estimated from star counts in 100-pixel a sideboxes distributed throughout the whole observed field. Our analysissuggests that Lyngå 11 is moderately young and probably of solarmetallicity. Adopting the theoretical metal content Z = 0.02, whichprovides the best global fit, we derive an age of (630 ± 70) Myr.Simultaneously, colour excesses E(B ‑ V) = 0.70 and E(V ‑ I)= 0.85 and an apparent distance modulus V ‑ MV = 14.0are obtained. These results place Lyngå 11 at a distance of (2.3± 0.5) kpc from the Sun and ˜6.5 kpc from the Galacticcentre. The properties of a sample of clusters aligned along theline-of-sight of Lyngå 11 are examined as well.

The Evolutionary Status of Be Stars: Results from a Photometric Study of Southern Open Clusters
Be stars are a class of rapidly rotating B stars with circumstellardisks that cause Balmer and other line emission. There are threepossible reasons for the rapid rotation of Be stars: they may have beenborn as rapid rotators, spun up by binary mass transfer, or spun upduring the main-sequence (MS) evolution of B stars. To test the variousformation scenarios, we have conducted a photometric survey of 55 openclusters in the southern sky. Of these, five clusters are probably notphysically associated groups and our results for two other clusters arenot reliable, but we identify 52 definite Be stars and an additional 129Be candidates in the remaining clusters. We use our results to examinethe age and evolutionary dependence of the Be phenomenon. We find anoverall increase in the fraction of Be stars with age until 100 Myr, andBe stars are most common among the brightest, most massive B-type starsabove the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS). We show that a spin-up phase atthe terminal-age main sequence (TAMS) cannot produce the observeddistribution of Be stars, but up to 73% of the Be stars detected mayhave been spun-up by binary mass transfer. Most of the remaining Bestars were likely rapid rotators at birth. Previous studies havesuggested that low metallicity and high cluster density may also favorBe star formation. Our results indicate a possible increase in thefraction of Be stars with increasing cluster distance from the Galacticcenter (in environments of decreasing metallicity). However, the trendis not significant and could be ruled out due to the intrinsic scatterin our data. We also find no relationship between the fraction of Bestars and cluster density.

Astrophysical parameters of Galactic open clusters
We present a catalogue of astrophysical data for 520 Galactic openclusters. These are the clusters for which at least three most probablemembers (18 on average) could be identified in the ASCC-2.5, a catalogueof stars based on the Tycho-2 observations from the Hipparcos mission.We applied homogeneous methods and algorithms to determine angular sizesof cluster cores and coronae, heliocentric distances, mean propermotions, mean radial velocities, and ages. For the first time we derivedistances for 200 clusters, radial velocities for 94 clusters, and agesof 196 clusters. This homogeneous new parameter set is compared withearlier determinations, where we find, in particular, that the angularsizes were systematically underestimated in the literature.

Proper Motions of Open Star Clusters and the Rotation Rate of the Galaxy
The mean proper motions of 167 Galactic open clusters withradial-velocity measurements are computed from the data of the Tycho-2catalog using kinematic and photometric cluster membership criteria. Theresulting catalog is compared to the results of other studies. The newproper motions are used to infer the Galactic rotation rate at the solarcircle, which is found to be ω0=+24.6±0.8 km s-1 kpc-1.Analysis of the dependence of the dispersion of ω0 estimates onheliocentric velocity showed that even the proper motions of clusterswith distances r>3 kpc contain enough useful information to be usedin kinematic studies demonstrating that the determination of propermotions is quite justified even for very distant clusters.

Two highly reddened young open clusters located beyond the Sagittarius arm
We present the results of CCD BVI Johnson-Cousins photometry down to V ~19 mag in the regions of the unstudied stellar groups Pismis 23 and BH222, both projected close to the direction towards the Galactic centre.We measured V magnitude and B-V and V-I colours for a total of 928 starsin fields of about 4arcmin x4arcmin . Pismis 23 is conclusively aphysical system, since a clear main sequence and other meaningfulfeatures can be seen in the colour-magnitude diagrams. The reality ofthis cluster is also supported by star counts carried out within andoutside the cluster field. For Pismis 23 we derive colour excessesE(B-V) = 2.0 +/- 0.1 and E(V-I) = 2.6 +/- 0.1, a distance from the Sunof 2.6 +/- 0.6 kpc (Z = -19 pc) and an age of 300 +/- 100 Myr (assumingsolar metal content). BH 222 appears to be a young open cluster formedby a vertical main sequence and by a conspicuous group of luminous,typically red supergiant stars. We derived for this cluster a colourexcess of E(V-I) = 2.4 +/- 0.2, a distance from the Sun of 6.0 +/- 2.7kpc (Z = -46 pc) and an age of 60 +/- 30 Myr. The resulting reddeningand distance estimates place these two young objects among the mostreddened and distant open clusters known in the direction towards theGalactic centre. They are located beyond the Sagittarius arm, close tothe direction where this arm probably bifurcates into two arms. Based onobservations made at the University of Toronto (David DunlapObservatory) 24-inch telescope, Las Campanas, Chile. Tables \ref{t2} and3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/388/179

Proper motions of open clusters within 1 kpc based on the TYCHO2 Catalogue
We present mean absolute proper motions of 112 open clusters, determinedusing the data from the Tycho2 Catalogue. For 28 clusters, this is thefirst determination of proper motion. The measurements made use of alarge number of stars (usually several tens) for each cluster. The totalnumber of stars studied in the fields of the 164 open clusters is 5016,of which 4006 were considered members. The mean proper motions of theclusters and membership probability of individual stars were obtainedfrom the proper motion data by applying the statistical method proposedby Sanders (\cite{Sanders71}). Based on observations of the ESAHipparcos satellite. Tables 1, 2 and 5 to 117 are only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/376/441

Absolute proper motions of open clusters. I. Observational data
Mean proper motions and parallaxes of 205 open clusters were determinedfrom their member stars found in the Hipparcos Catalogue. 360 clusterswere searched for possible members, excluding nearby clusters withdistances D < 200 pc. Members were selected using ground basedinformation (photometry, radial velocity, proper motion, distance fromthe cluster centre) and information provided by Hipparcos (propermotion, parallax). Altogether 630 certain and 100 possible members werefound. A comparison of the Hipparcos parallaxes with photometricdistances of open clusters shows good agreement. The Hipparcos dataconfirm or reject the membership of several Cepheids in the studiedclusters. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

ASCA Observations of Type 2 Seyfert Galaxies. I. Data Analysis Results
We present ASCA spatial, temporal, and spectral data for a sample of 26observations of 25 type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), composed of 17Seyfert 2 galaxies and eight narrow emission line galaxies (NELGs).Twenty-four of the 25 sources were detected. The ASCA images aregenerally consistent with emission from point sources at energies above~3 keV. We use archival ROSAT data to examine each field at high spatialresolution and to check for the presence of sources that wouldcontaminate the ASCA data. Of the five sources bright enough for 128 stemporal analysis, three are variable at >99% confidence, withcharacteristics consistent with those observed in Seyfert 1 galaxies.Analysis on a timescale of 5760 s reveals six sources variable at>99% confidence, and comparison with previous X-ray results showsmost of the sample to be variable in hard X-ray flux on timescales ofyears. Simple continuum models are fitted to the sample spectra tocharacterize the variety of spectral forms and hence to determine thefundamental nature of the X-ray spectrum of each source. No singlespectral model provides an adequate fit to all the sample sources.Thirty-six percent of the sample cannot be adequately fitted by any ofour test models (all rejected at >95% confidence). Approximately halfof the sample have an iron K alpha line with an equivalent widthconsistent with an origin in the line-of-sight absorber; the remaininglines must be produced in material out of the line of sight. Absorbingcolumns up to 1024 atoms cm-2 are detected, and even larger columns areinferred for some sources. The mean underlying hard X-ray power-lawindex is Gamma ~ 2. Many X-ray emission lines were detected at highlevels of confidence. The iron K-shell regime is dominated by emissionfrom "neutral" material. Many data sets also show evidence forcomplexity in the iron K alpha profile, which may be interpreted asevidence for broad-line profiles, including flux both redward andblueward of the line peak, and/or for the existence of hydrogen-like andhelium-like iron K lines. Hydrogen-like and helium-like lines aredetected from Fe, Ne, Si, S, and Ar in addition to Mg lines. Whilealmost half of the sample have an estimated starburst contribution of>30% in the 0.5-4.5 keV bandpass, the soft X-ray emission lines arenot solely associated with a strong starburst component.

Absolute proper motions of 181 young open clusters.
Not Available

Chemical Evolution of the Galactic Disk: Evidence for a Gradient Perpendicular to the Galactic Plane
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....110.2813P&db_key=AST

Catalogue of blue stragglers in open clusters.
An extensive survey of blue straggler candidates in galactic openclusters of both hemispheres is presented. The blue stragglers wereselected considering their positions in the cluster colour-magnitudediagrams.They were categorized according to the accuracy of thephotometric measurements and membership probabilities. An amount of 959blue straggler candidates in 390 open clusters of all ages wereidentified and classified. A set of basic data is given for everycluster and blue straggler. The information is arranged in the form of acatalogue. Blue stragglers are found in clusters of all ages. Thepercentage of clusters with blue stragglers generally grows with age andrichness of the clusters. The mean ratio of the number of bluestragglers to the number of cluster main sequence stars is approximatelyconstant up to a cluster age of about 10^8.6^ yr and rises for olderclusters. In general, the blue stragglers show a remarkable degree ofcentral concentration.

Photometric metal abundances of high-luminosity red stars in young and intermediate-age open clusters
UBV, DDO, and Washinton photometry has been obtained for G and K starslocated in or near 22 young and intermediate-age open clusters. Nearly65 percent of the observed stars are found to have a high probability ofbeing cluster members, while the remaining 35 percent are likely to bered field stars. Five clusters (NGC 2383, NGC 3033, Ruprecht 20, NGC5168, and NGC 6249) probably do not contain any red giants. Sixteenclusters are found to be nearly solar in composition; three are slightlymetal-poor or metal-rich; one (Ruprecht 20) is moderately metal-poor(Fe/H = -0.3); and another (NGC 5617) is moderately metal-rich (Fe/H =0.3). None of the clusters with derived Washington abundances appear tobe enriched in elements of the CNO group.

Young stellar-gas complexes in the Galaxy
It is found that about 90 percent of OB-associations and o-b2 clusterssituated within 3 kpc of the sun can be united into complexes withdiameters of 150-700 pc. Almost all of these clusters contain giantmolecular clouds with a mass greater than about 100,000 solar masses. Anumber of complexes are associated with giant H I clouds; a few of thesmall complexes are situated in the HI caverns. The concentration ofOB-associations and young clusters in star complexes attests to theircommon origin in the supergiant gaseous clouds.

Catalogue of UBV Photometry and MK Spectral Types in Open Clusters (Third Edition)
Not Available

Open clusters and galactic structure
A total of 610 references to 434 clusters are employed in thecompilation of a catalog of open clusters with color-magnitude diagramson the UBV or RGU systems. Estimates of reddening, distance modulus, ageand number of cluster members are included. Although the sample isconsidered representative of the discoverable clusters in the galaxy,the observed distribution is nonuniform because of interstellarobscuration. Cluster distribution in the galactic plane is found to bedominated by the locations of dust clouds rather than by spiralstructure. The distributions of clusters as a function of age andrichness class show that the lifetimes of poor clusters are much shorterthan rich ones, and that clusters in the outer disk survive longer thanthose in the inner disk. An outer disk age which is only about 50% theage of the globular clusters is indicated by cluster statistics. Thethickening of the galactic disk with increasing galactocentric distancemay be due to either a younger dynamical age or a lower gravitationalpotential in the outer regions.

Analysis of the results of MK classification of 176 stars in 37 southern open clusters
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1979A&AS...37..345F&db_key=AST

A catalogue of galactic clusters observed in three colours
This catalogue contains photometric data for 190 galactic clusters, allobserved in UBV or RGU. The distances of the young clusters (with spless than b3) have been calculated or recalculated according to method Aof Becker (1963). The galactic distribution of these clusters confirmstheir role of being good spiral tracers.

Southern open stars clusters. III. UBV-Hbeta photometry of 28 clusters between galactic longitudes 297d and 353d
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1973A&AS...10..135M&db_key=AST

The Age Distribution and Total Lifetimes of Galactic Clusters
The age distribution of galactic clusters is obtained from catalogues ofwell observed clusters compiled by Becker and Fenkart (1971) and Lindoff(1968). The observed age distribution of clusters within 1000 pc doesnot seem to be seriously affected by selection effects. Assuming aconstant rate of formation of clusters, we deduce from the observed agedistribution of clusters within 1000 pc statistical information aboutthe total lifetimes of galactic clusters: 50% of new clustersdisintegrate within 2 10^8 years, 10% have a total lifetime longer than5 10^8 years, and only 2% live longer than 10^9 years. Hence, thetypical lifetime is short, but there exists a wide spread in theindividual lifetimes. The lifetimes obtained in this paper may serve asa powerful observational test of theories of the dynamical evolution ofstar clusters. We find that only a small fraction of field stars areformer members of now dissolved galactic clusters. Moving groups shouldgenerally not be identified with disintegrated clusters. The relativedynamical age of a galactic cluster is rather weakly correlated with itsabsolute age. Therefore, and because of natural selection effects in thesurviving old clusters, it is very unlikely that more directobservational information about the dynamical evolution of clusters canbe obtained by studying objects of various ages.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:16h57m36.00s
Apparent magnitude:8.2

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NGC 2000.0NGC 6249

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