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|The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog|
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.
|The peculiar motions of early-type galaxies in two distant regions - II. The spectroscopic data|
We present the spectroscopic data for the galaxies studied in the EFARproject, which is designed to measure the properties and peculiarmotions of early-type galaxies in two distant regions. We have obtained1319 spectra of 714 early-type galaxies over 33 observing runs on 10different telescopes. We describe the observations and data reductionsused to measure redshifts, velocity dispersions and the Mgb and Mg_2Lick linestrength indices. Detailed simulations and intercomparison ofthe large number of repeat observations lead to reliable error estimatesfor all quantities. The measurements from different observing runs arecalibrated to a common zero-point or scale before being combined,yielding a total of 706 redshifts, 676 velocity dispersions, 676 Mgblinestrengths and 582 Mg_2 linestrengths. The median estimated errors inthe combined measurements are Delta cz=20 km s^-1, Delta sigma sigma=9.1 per cent, Delta Mgb Mgb=7.2 per cent and Delta Mg_2=0.015 mag.Comparison of our measurements with published data sets shows nosystematic errors in the redshifts or velocity dispersions, and onlysmall zero-point corrections to bring our linestrengths on to thestandard Lick system. We have assigned galaxies to physical clusters byexamining the line-of-sight velocity distributions based on EFAR andZCAT redshifts, together with the projected distributions on the sky. Wederive mean redshifts and velocity dispersions for these clusters, whichwill be used in estimating distances and peculiar velocities and to testfor trends in the galaxy population with cluster mass. The spectroscopicparameters presented here for 706 galaxies combine high-quality data,uniform reduction and measurement procedures, and detailed erroranalysis. They form the largest single set of velocity dispersions andlinestrengths for early-type galaxies published to date.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: Optical Imaging Data|
Properties derived from the analysis of photometric I-band imagingobservations are presented for 1727 inclined spiral galaxies, mostly oftypes Sbc and Sc. The reduction, parameter extraction, and errorestimation procedures are discussed in detail. The asymptotic behaviorof the magnitude curve of growth and the radial variation in ellipticityand position angle are used in combination with the linearity of thesurface brightness falloff to fit the disk portion of the profile. TotalI-band magnitudes are calculated by extrapolating the detected surfacebrightness profile to a radius of eight disk scale lengths. Errors inthe magnitudes, typically ~0.04 mag, are dominated by uncertainties inthe sky subtraction and disk-fitting procedures. Comparison is made withthe similar imaging database of Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, both aspresented originally by those authors and after reanalyzing theirdigital reduction files using identical disk-fitting procedures. Directcomparison is made of profile details for 292 galaxies observed incommon. Although some differences occur, good agreement is found,proving that the two data sets can be used in combination with onlyminor accommodation of those differences. The compilation of opticalproperties presented here is optimized for use in applications of theTully-Fisher relation as a secondary distance indicator in studies ofthe local peculiar velocity field.
|Kinematics of the Hercules supercluster|
The Hercules supercluster consists of the Abell clusters A2147, A2151,and A2152. Previous studies of the kinematics have been confounded bythe difficulty of correctly assigning galaxies to the individualclusters, which are not well separated. Our study has a total of 468available velocities for galaxies in the region, 175 of them new. Thereare 414 galaxies in the supercluster, about three times the number usedin the previous supercluster study. We verify the existence of the threeindividual clusters and compute their individual dynamical parameters.We investigate several techniques for assigning galaxy membership toclusters in this crowded field. We use the KMM mixture-modelingalgorithm to separate the galaxies into clusters; we find that A2152 hasa higher mean velocity than previous studies have reported. A2147 andA2152 also have lower velocity dispersions: 821 and 715 km/s,respectively. The assignment of galaxies to either A2152 or A2147requires velocity and position information. We study the kinematics ofthe supercluster using the two-body formalism of Beers et al. (1982) andconclude that A2147 and A2151 are probably bound to each other and thatthe supercluster as a whole may also be bound. The mass of thesupercluster, if bound, is (7.6 +/- 2.0) 10 exp 15/h M(solar); with thesupercluster luminosity, (1.4 +/- 0.2) 10 exp 13/sq h L(solar), thisyields 0.34 +/- 0.1.
|Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.|
A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp 188.8.131.52 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|The peculiar motions of early-type galaxies in two distant regions. III - The photometric data|
We present R-band CCD photometry for 776 galaxies observed in the EFARproject. The photometry is compared with photoelectric data, showingthat a common zero-point good to better than 1 per cent and a precisionof 0.03 mag per zero-point have been achieved. We give the circularlyaveraged surface brightness profiles and the photometric parameters ofthe 762 program galaxies, D(n) diameters, half-luminosity radii, totalmagnitudes, and average effective surface brightnesses. More than 80percent of the profiles have a global S/N ratio larger than 300. Theextrapolation needed to derive total magnitudes is less than 10 percentfor 80 percent of the fits. More than 80 percent of the galaxies havemean effective surface brightness larger than the observed skybrightness. In 90 percent of the profiles the estimate of thecontamination of the sky by the galaxy light is less than 1 percent. Wederive total magnitudes and half-luminosity radii to better than 0.15mag and 25 percent, respectively, for 90 percent of our sample. Incontrast, external comparisons show that data in the literature can bestrongly affected by systematic errors due to large extrapolations,small radial range, sky subtraction errors, seeing effects, and the useof a simple R exp 1/4 fit. The resulting errors can easily amount tomore than 0.5 mag in the total magnitudes and 50 percent in thehalf-luminosity radii.
|The Peculiar Motions of Early-Type Galaxies in Two Distant Regions. I. Cluster and Galaxy Selection|
The EFAR project is a study of 736 candidate elliptical galaxies in 84clusters lying in two regions, toward Hercules-Corona Borealis andPerseus-Pisces-Cetus, at distances cz ~ 6000-15,000 km s^-1^. In thispaper (the first of a series), we present an introduction to the EFARproject and describe in detail the selection of the clusters andgalaxies in our sample. Fundamental data for the galaxies and clustersare given, including accurate new positions for each galaxy andredshifts for each cluster. The galaxy selection functions aredetermined by using diameters measured from Schmidt sky survey imagesfor 2185 galaxies in the cluster fields. Future papers in this serieswill present the spectroscopic and photometric observations of thissample, investigate the properties of the fundamental plane forelliptical galaxies, and determine the large- scale peculiar velocityfields in these two regions of the universe.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system|
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.
|The complex structure of Abell 2151 (Hercules)|
We analyzed the space distribution of 117 galaxies in an area of 0.9 degradius centered on NGC 6045 in the Hercules cluster in the velocityrange 9000 to 14,000 km/s. By taking advantage of 74 morphologies basedon CCD images, we succeed in isolating a cluster of galaxies with anaverage velocity of 11,467 km/s located to the NE of the assumedcentroid of A2151, where early and late type galaxies share the samedynamical properties. The implications of this result for the nature andidentification of the x-ray source is briefly discussed.
|Dark matter and dynamics in the Hercules Cluster (A2151)|
New 21-cm observations of faint spiral galaxies in the Hercules cluster(A2151) are presented in order to investigate the dynamics throughoutthe cluster core, out to a projected radius of 1.8/h Mpc. The globaldynamical mass of Hercules is calculated using the virial theorem andthe projected mass estimator. These masses lie in the range 3-9 x 10 exp14 solar masses. The importance of subclustering in A2151 by eye isexamined via the statistical test of Dressler & Shectman (1988), andby considering the effects of the detected substructure on the dynamicalmass determination. The clumpy distribution is interpreted as a signthat the galaxies in the cluster have not reached dynamical equilibriumin the gravitational potential.
|The surface brightness test for the expansion of the universe. III - Reduction of data for the several brightest galaxies in clusters to standard conditions and a first indication that the expansion is real|
Petrosian radii, effective radii, apparent magnitudes, and averagesurface brightnesses are presented for the first few ranked galaxies in56 nearby clusters and groups. The correlations between (SB) and both Mand R are derived from the data, and a selection effect that imitates aTolman signal in these data but which is an artifact of the sample isdiscussed. Correction procedures are applied to the high-redshift galaxysample of Djorgovski and Spinrad (1981), and a well-defined Tolmansignal is found in the data. Although this appears to be strong proofthat the universe expands and therefore that the conventionalinterpretation of the redshift is correct, the reliability of theconclusion is cautioned. Methods to optimize the Tolman test in futureobservational programs are discussed.
|Associations between quasi-stellar objects and galaxies|
A table is presented here listing all close pairs of QSOs and galaxiesthat were found in a computer-aided search of catalogs of QSOs andbright galaxies and an extensive search of the literature. There is alarge excess of pairs with separations of 2 arcmin lor less, or about 60kpc, over the numbers expected if the configurations were accidental.The angular separation for 392 pairs adds to the evidence for physicalassociation, and it is shown that selection effects are not important. Ageneral rule is stated that QSOs tend to lie in the vicinity of normalgalaxies much more often than is expected by chance whether or not thegalaxies and the QSOs have the same redshifts. It is emphasized thatthis rule cannot be explained in terms of gravitational microlensing,and it is concluded that some part of the redshift of all classes ofactive nuclei is not associated with the expansion of the universe.
|The structure of brightest cluster members. II - Mergers|
Surface photometry of 342 bright elliptical galaxies in 103 clusters isanalyzed for evidence of mergers. Structural differences betweenbrightest cluster members (BCMs) and normal ellipticals can besummarized as having enlarged characteristic radii and shallow profileslopes (beta greater than -1.7). Profile morphology criteria for theelliptical types gE, D, and cD are outlined. Comparison of observationswith numerical simulations of mergers strongly suggests a past historyof dynamical growth for BCMs. Weak correlations of global clusterproperties to BCMs supports the hypothesis proposed by Merritt (1984)that mergers are important in early subgroups before virialization andformation of a cluster identity.
|A catalog of galaxies in Hercules from the Palomar Sky Survey and the Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner|
The development of galaxies catalogs from the Palomar Sky Survey usingthe Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner (APS) is examined. The design andoperation of APS are described. The algorithm used to distinguish starsfrom galaxies is discussed, and the completeness and confusion of thealgorithm as a function of magnitude are estimated. The quality of thephotometric calibration for galaxy magnitudes and surface-brightnessthresholds is evaluated. The relation between the distribution of colorsand morphological types is studied. The luminosity functions forHercules galaxies are calculated and presented. The catalog generatedusing the APS is 80 percent complete; photometry good to 0.23 mag rms ispossible; and J-F colors are good to 0.17 mag rms.
|The Distance to the Hercules Supercluster. II. Application of Tertiary Indicators and an Estimate of the Hubble Constant|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1986ApJS...62..283B&db_key=AST
|The distance to the Hercules supercluster. I - Basic data for 220 galaxies in CGCG field 108.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1986ApJS...62..255B&db_key=AST
|The evolution of galaxies in clusters. IV - Photometry of 10 low-redshift clusters|
Colors and magnitudes, obtained from Palomar 48 inch (1.2 m) Schmidtplates in the J and F bands, and morphological types are presented forgalaxies in the cores of 10 nearby clusters of galaxies. In the typicalcluster, the sample includes all galaxies within a radius of 1.5 Mpc(assuming H(0) = 50 km/s/Mpc) of the cluster center and brighter than J= 17.5.The accuracy of the photometry varies with cluster, but mostmagnitudes are accurate to 0.10 mag, and typical errors in the colorsare of the same order. As expected, the colors of the elliptical and S0galaxies show a narrow dispersion about a mean color which decreaseswith magnitude. However, the colors of the spiral galaxies are notentirely as expected, having a smaller dispersion than would have beenpredicted from their morphological types.
|A catalog of morphological types in 55 rich clusters of galaxies|
Data are presented from a study of 55 rich clusters of galaxies. Thedata include positions, morphological types, estimated total magnitudes,bulge sizes, and ellipticities for about 6000 galaxies, as determinedfrom high scale photographic plates. Data reduction procedures aredescribed, and a brief analysis of cluster richness, which indicatesthat Abell richness classes are only rough indicators of total clustermembership, is included.
|Optical redshifts of 59 galaxies|
This paper presents the results of an observing program carried out tomeasure galaxy redshifts with the Cassegrain Digicon Spectrograph systemon the McDonald Observatory 2.1 m Struve telescope. New redshiftdeterminations are presented for 59 galaxies, obtained for emission linespectra by conventional wavelength determination techniques and forabsorption line spectra by Fourier transform filtering and crosscorrelation techniques with respect to velocity standard spectra of NGC3115 and NGC 4736. With respect to published redshifts for 29 galaxies,the new redshifts show a mean residual of -1 km/sec and rms residual of49 km/sec, without apparent systematic trends, from -300 to +13,700km/sec.
|Corrections to the Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (Third List)|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1972PASP...84..462C&db_key=AST
|Notes on the Hercules Galaxy Cluster|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1971PASP...83..320C&db_key=AST
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