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|Intragroup diffuse light in compact groups of galaxies: HCG 79, 88 and 95|
Deep B and R images of three Hickson Compact Groups, HCG 79, 88 and 95,have been analysed using a new wavelet technique to measure possibleintragroup diffuse light present in these systems. The method used,OV_WAV, is a wavelet technique particularly suitable fordetecting low surface brightness extended structures, down to asignal-to-noise ratio (S/N) = 0.1 per pixel, which corresponds to a5σ detection level in wavelet space. The three groups studied arein different evolutionary stages, as can be judged by their verydifferent fractions of the total light contained in their intragrouphaloes: 46 +/- 11 per cent for HCG 79 and 11 +/- 26 per cent for HCG 95,in the B band, and HCG 88 had no component detected down to a limitingsurface brightness of 29.1B mag arcsec-2. For HCG 95, theintragroup light (IGL) is red, similar to the mean colours of the groupgalaxies themselves, suggesting that it is formed by an old populationwith no significant ongoing star formation. For HCG 79, however, theintragroup material has a significantly bluer colour than the meancolour of the group galaxies, suggesting that the diffuse light may, atleast in part, come from stripping of dwarf galaxies which dissolvedinto the group potential well.
|The Tully-Fisher Relation for Hickson Compact Groups|
We investigate the properties of the B-band Tully-Fisher (TF) relationfor 25 compact group galaxies, using Vmax derived from 2-Dvelocity maps. Our main result is that the majority of the HicksonCompact Group (HCG) galaxies lie on the TF relation, although with largescatter. However, 20% of the galaxies, including the lowest-masssystems, seem to have higher B luminosities, for a given mass, oralternatively, a mass which is too low for their luminosities. We favourthe scenario of brightening of the outliers due to either enhanced starformation or merging, rather than truncation of the dark halo due tointeractions, to explain the position of the outliers on the TFrelation.
|The Relation between Galaxy Activity and the Dynamics of Compact Groups of Galaxies|
Using a sample of 91 galaxies distributed over 27 compact groups (CGs)of galaxies, we define an index that allows us to quantify their levelof activity due to an active galactic nucleus (AGN) or star formation.By combining the mean activity index with the mean morphological type ofthe galaxies in a group, we are able to quantify the evolutionary stateof the groups. We find that they span an evolutionary sequence thatcorrelates with the spatial configuration of the galaxies in the CG. Wedistinguish three main configuration types: A, B, and C. Type A CGs showpredominantly low velocity dispersions and are rich in late-type spiralsthat show active star formation or harbor an AGN. Type B groups haveintermediate velocity dispersions and contain a large fraction ofinteracting or merging galaxies. Type C comprises CGs with high velocitydispersions, which are dominated by elliptical galaxies that show noactivity. We suggest that evolution proceeds A==>B==>C. Mappingthe groups with different evolution levels in a diagram of radius versusvelocity dispersion does not reveal the pattern expected based on theconventional fast merger model for CGs, which predicts a direct relationbetween these two parameters. Instead, we observe a trend contrary toexpectation: the evolutionary state of a group increases with velocitydispersion. This trend seems to be related to the masses of thestructures in which CGs are embedded. In general, the evolutionary stateof a group increases with the mass of the structure. This suggestseither that galaxies evolve more rapidly in massive structures or thatthe formation of CGs embedded in massive structures predated theformation of CGs associated with lower mass systems. Our observationsare consistent with the structure formation predicted by the CDM model(or ΛCDM), only if the formation of galaxies is a biased process.
|Dynamical Effects of Interactions and the Tully-Fisher Relation for Hickson Compact Groups|
We investigate the properties of the B-band Tully-Fisher (T-F) relationfor 25 compact group galaxies, using Vmax derived fromtwo-dimensional velocity maps. Our main result is that the majority ofthe Hickson Compact Group galaxies lie on the T-F relation. However,about 20% of the galaxies, including the lowest-mass systems, havehigher B luminosities for a given mass, or alternatively, a mass that istoo low for their luminosities. We favor a scenario in which outliershave been brightened because of either enhanced star formation ormerging. Alternatively, the T-F outliers may have undergone truncationof their dark halo due to interactions. It is possible that in somecases both effects contribute. The fact that the B-band T-F relation issimilar for compact group and field galaxies tells us that thesegalaxies show common mass-to-size relations and that the halos ofcompact group galaxies have not been significantly stripped insideR25. We find that 75% of the compact group galaxies studied(22 out of 29) have highly peculiar velocity fields. Nevertheless, acareful choice of inclination, position angle, and center, obtained fromthe velocity field, and an average of the velocities over a large sectorof the galaxy enabled the determination of fairly well-behaved rotationcurves for the galaxies. However, two of the compact group galaxies HCG91a and HCG 96a, which are the most massive members in M51-like pairs,have very asymmetric rotation curves, with one arm rising and the otherone falling, indicating most probably a recent perturbation by the smallclose companions.
|A Multi-Band Photometric Study of Tidal Debris in a Compact Group of Galaxies: Seyfert's Sextet|
In order to investigate the properties of the prominent tidal debrisfeature extending to the northeast of a compact group of galaxies,Seyfert's Sextet, we analyzed multi-band (U, B, V, VR, R, I, J, H, andK') photometric imaging data and obtained the following results: 1) Theradial surface brightness distribution of this tidal debris in Seyfert'sSextet (TDSS) in each band appears to be well approximated by anexponential profile. 2) The observed B-V color of TDSS is similar tothose of dwarf elliptical galaxies in nearby clusters. 3) Comparing thespectral energy distribution (SED) of TDSS with theoretical photometricevolution models and with the SED of the stars in the outer part of HCG79b, we find that its SED is comparable to that of a ~10Gyr-old stellarpopulation with solar metallicity, similar to the stellar population inthe outer part of HCG 79b. This suggests that TDSS consists of starsthat may have been liberated from HCG 79b by strong ga laxyinteractions, not a pre-existing dwarf galaxy as previously thought.
|The Beginning of the End: Hubble Space Telescope Images of Seyfert's Sextet|
Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images ofHickson Compact Group (HCG) 79, Seyfert's Sextet, are presented. Bothpoint sources and extended sources detected on the three wide-fieldchips were photometered in four filters: F336W, F439W, F555W, and F814W.Unlike other HCGs that have been imaged with HST, there do not appear tobe any candidate young star clusters among the detected point sources.The majority of the point sources that may be star clusters associatedwith the Sextet have red colors consistent with stellar populationsolder than 1 Gyr. A similar conclusion is drawn with regard to theextended sources. The majority of these appear to be backgroundgalaxies, but a few candidate dwarf galaxies are identified aspotentially associated with Seyfert's Sextet. However, no blue,star-forming objects similar to the tidal dwarf galaxy candidatesidentified in other HCGs are found among the extended objects identifiedin this study. A redshift for one dwarf galaxy candidate was measuredfrom a spectrum obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, and thisobject was found to have a redshift similar to NGC 6027e, the discordantspiral formerly identified as a member of this compact group. The HSTobservations presented here and previous radio observations of theneutral gas content of this group suggest that the interactions thathave taken place in the Sextet only redistributed the stars from themember galaxies within the group. We speculate that future interactionsmay be strong enough to strip the gas from NGC 6027d and triggerstar-cluster formation.
|Where is the neutral atomic gas in Hickson groups?|
We have analyzed the total HI contents of 72 Hickson compact groups ofgalaxies (HCGs) and the detailed spatial distributions and kinematics ofHI within a subset of 16 groups using the high angular resolutionobservations obtained with the VLA in order to investigate a possibleevolutionary scenario for these densest systems in the present daygalaxy hierarchy. For the more homogeneous subsample of 48 groups, wefound a mean HI deficiency of Def_HI = 0.40 +/- 0.07, which correspondsto 40% of the expected HI for the optical luminosities and morphologicaltypes of the member galaxies. The individual galaxies show largerdegrees of deficiency than the groups globally, Def_HI = 0.62 +/- 0.09(24% of the expected HI), due in most cases to efficient gas strippingfrom individual galaxies into the group environment visible in the VLAmaps. The degree of deficiency is found to be similar to the centralgalaxies of Virgo and Coma cluster, and Coma I group, in spite of thesignificantly different characteristics (number of galaxies, velocitydispersion) of these environments. It does not seem plausible that asignificant amount of extended HI has been missed by the observations.Hence phase transformation of the atomic gas should explain the HIdeficiency. The groups richer in early type galaxies or more compactwith larger velocity dispersions show a weak tendency to be more HIdeficient. The detection rate of HCGs at X-ray wavelengths is larger forHI deficient groups, although the hot gas distribution and hence itsorigin is only known for a few cases. In the evolutionary scenario wepropose, the amount of detected HI would decrease further withevolution, by continuous tidal stripping and/or heating. The H_2 contentalso tends to be lower than expected for the galaxies in HI deficientgroups, this may suggest that the HI stripping by frequent tidalinteraction breaks the balance between the disruption of molecularclouds by star formation and the replenishment from the ambient HI. Thiswork is partially based on observations made with the VLA operated bythe National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the NationalScience Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by AssociatedUniversities, Inc., ALFOSC, which is owned by the Instituto deAstrofísica de Andalucía (IAA, CSIC) and operated at theNordic Optical Telescope (NOT) under agreement between IAA and the NBIfAof the Astronomical Observatory of Copenhagen, and 1.5 m telescope ofthe Observatorio de Sierra Nevada, Granada, Spain, which is operated bythe IAA (CSIC).
|Deep Optical Imaging of a Compact Group of Galaxies: Seyfert's Sextet|
To investigate the dynamical status of Seyfert's Sextet (SS), we haveobtained a deep optical (VR+I) image of this group. Our image shows thata faint envelope, down to a surface brightnessμoptical(AB)~=27 mag arcsec-2, surrounds themember galaxies. This envelope is irregular in shape. It is likely thatthis shape is attributed either to recent-past or to ongoing galaxyinteractions in SS. If the member galaxies have experienced a number ofmutual interactions over a long timescale, the shape of the envelopeshould be rounder. Therefore, the irregularly shaped morphology suggeststhat SS is in an early phase of dynamical interaction among the membergalaxies. It is interesting to note that the soft X-ray image obtainedwith ROSAT (Pildis, Bregman, & Evrard) is significantly similar inmorphology. We discuss the possible future evolution of SS briefly.
|A Dynamical Study of Galaxies in the Hickson Compact Groups|
To investigate dynamical properties of spiral galaxies in the Hicksoncompact groups (HCGs), we present rotation curves of 30 galaxies in 20HCGs. We found as follows: (1) There is no significant relation betweendynamical peculiarity and morphological peculiarity in HCG spiralgalaxies. (2) There is no significant relation between the dynamicalproperties and the frequency distribution of nuclear activities in HCGspiral galaxies. (3) There are no significant correlations between thedynamical properties of HCG spiral galaxies and any group properties(i.e., size, velocity dispersion, galaxy number density, and crossingtime). (4) Asymmetric and peculiar rotation curves are more frequentlyseen in the HCG spiral galaxies than in field spiral galaxies or incluster ones. However, this tendency is more obviously seen in late-typeHCG spiral galaxies. These results suggest that the dynamical propertiesof HCG spiral galaxies do not strongly correlate with the morphology,the nuclear activity, and the group properties. Our results also suggestthat more frequent galaxy collisions occur in the HCGs than in the fieldand in the clusters.
|The Nuclear Activity of Galaxies in the Hickson Compact Groups|
In order to investigate the nuclear activity of galaxies residing incompact groups of galaxies, we present results of our opticalspectroscopic program made at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. We haveperformed optical spectroscopy of 69 galaxies belonging to 31 Hicksoncompact groups (HCGs) of galaxies. Among them, three galaxies havediscordant redshifts and, moreover, spectral quality is too poor toclassify another three galaxies. Therefore, we describe our results forthe remaining 63 galaxies. Our main results are summarized as follows:(1) We have found in our sample 28 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 16 HII nuclei, and 19 normal galaxies showing no emission line. We used thisHCG sample for statistical analyses. (2) Comparing the frequencydistributions of activity types between the HCGs and the field galaxieswhose data are taken from Ho, Filippenko, & Sargent (382 fieldgalaxies), we find that the frequency of H II nuclei in the HCGs issignificantly less than that in the field. However, this difference maybe due to selection bias to the effect that our HCG sample contains moreearly-type galaxies than the field, because it is known that H II nucleiare rarer in early-type galaxies than in later ones. (3) Applying acorrection to this morphological bias to the HCG sample, we find thatthere is no statistically significant difference in the frequency ofoccurrence of emission-line galaxies between the HCGs and the field.This implies that the dense galaxy environment in the HCGs does notaffect the triggering of either the AGN activity and the nuclearstarburst. We discuss some implications on the nuclear activity in theHCG galaxies.
|On the Influence of the Environment on the Star Formation Rates of a Sample of Galaxies in Nearby Compact Groups|
We present the results of a study of the star formation rates (SFRs) ofa sample of disk galaxies in nearby compact groups compared with theSFRs of a sample of field galaxies. For this purpose, Hαluminosities and equivalent widths were derived for the galaxies of oursample. A direct comparison of the equivalent widths and Hαluminosities, normalized to the B luminosities and estimated area of thegalaxies of both samples, yields the result that the median values ofthese quantities are almost identical for both samples, although thedistributions for the compact-group sample are broader around the meanvalue than was found in the field galaxy sample. This result can beexplained by assuming that although interactions between galaxies incompact groups can alter the SFRs, the median value of the normalizedSFRs is preserved, being almost indistinguishable from the correspondingvalue for field galaxies. Measuring the global L_Hα/L_B of thegroups, including early-type galaxies, we find that most of the groupsthat show the highest level of L_Hα/L_B with respect to a set ofsynthetic groups built out of field galaxies show tidal features in atleast one of their members. Finally, we have explored the relationshipbetween the ratio L_Hα/L_B and several relevant dynamicalparameters of the groups: velocity dispersion, crossing time, radius,and the mass-to-luminosity ratio, finding no clear correlation. Thissuggests that the exact dynamical state of a group does not control theSFR of the group as a whole. Our results are compatible with a scenariofor compact groups of galaxies in which the dark matter of the group isarranged in a common halo, therefore preventing a fast collapse of thegalaxies.
|An H_alpha catalogue of galaxies in Hickson compact groups. I. The sample|
We present H_alpha photometry for a sample of 95 galaxies in HicksonCompact Groups obtained from observations of 31 groups. The Cataloguelists isophotal and adaptive aperture (Kron aperture) flux measurementsfor about 75% of the accordant galaxies inside the observed HCGs, 22 outof which are upper limits. Non standard data reduction procedures havebeen used to obtain the continuum subtracted H_alpha images for each HCGof the target sample. Flux calibration has also been performed in orderto obtain H_alpha luminosities for the whole sample. Both the datareduction and calibration procedures are carefully described in thispaper. The new data listed in this Catalogue are of great importance inunderstanding the star formation rate inside HCG galaxies and in givingnew insights on its dependence on galaxy interactions. Tables 3 to 10and Figs. 6 to 11 are only available in electronic version athttp://www.edpsciences.com Tables 7, 8, 9 are also available inelectronic version form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Atlas of H alpha Emission of a Sample of Nearby Hickson Compact Groups of Galaxies|
H alpha and adjacent continuum images are presented for a sample ofnearby groups of galaxies extracted from the Atlas of Compact Groups ofGalaxies. Also, more detailed H alpha maps of the most remarkablegalaxies are shown in this paper. A short description of the H alphaemission for each of the galaxies with accordant redshift is presentedtogether with a morphological classification of the accordant galaxiesin the sample. A large fraction of ellipticals and lenticulars weredetected in H alpha . Also, clear signs of interactions were found inseven of the groups, but in only in three of them was H alpha emissiondetected along the tidal features. Candidates of dwarf galaxies werefound at the tips of the tidal tails developed during the interactionsin these three groups.
|Effects of Interaction-induced Activities in Hickson Compact Groups: CO and Far-Infrared Study|
A study of 2.6 mm CO J = 1 --> 0 and far-infrared (FIR) emission in adistance-limited (z < 0.03) complete sample of Hickson compact group(HCG) galaxies was conducted in order to examine the effects of theirunique environment on the interstellar medium of component galaxies andto search for a possible enhancement of star formation and nuclearactivity. Ubiquitous tidal interactions in these dense groups wouldpredict enhanced activities among the HCG galaxies compared to isolatedgalaxies. Instead, their CO and FIR properties (thus, "star formationefficiency") are surprisingly similar to isolated spirals. The CO datafor 80 HCG galaxies presented here (including 10 obtained from theliterature) indicate that the spirals globally show the same H2 contentas the isolated comparison sample, although 20% are deficient in COemission. Because of their large optical luminosity, low metallicity isnot likely the main cause for the low CO luminosity. The CO deficiencyappears linked with the group evolution, and gas exhaustion through paststar formation and removal of the external gas reserve by tidalstripping of the outer H I disk offer a possible explanation. The IRASdata for the entire redshift-limited complete sample of 161 HCG galaxieswere reanalyzed using ADDSCAN/SCANPI, improving the sensitivity by afactor of 3-5 over the existing Point Source Catalog (PSC) and resolvingbetter the contribution from individual galaxies. The new analysis ofthe IRAS data confirms the previous suggestion that FIR emission in HCGgalaxies is similar to isolated, Virgo Cluster, and weakly interactinggalaxies. Their H2 and FIR characteristics yield a star formationefficiency that is similar to that of these comparison samples. A factor2 enhancement in the 25-100 mu m flux ratio among the HCG spirals isfound, which suggests intense localized nuclear starburst activitysimilar to that of H II galaxies. A number of early-type galaxies inHCGs are detected in CO and FIR, lending further support to the ideathat tidal interactions and tidally induced evolution of the groups andmember galaxies are important in our sample.
|A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography|
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to22.214.171.124) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Far infrared properties of Hickson compact groups of galaxies. I. High resolution IRAS maps and fluxes.|
The Far Infrared (FIR) properties of galaxies which are members ofcompact groups bear relevant information on the dynamical status and thephysical properties of these structures. All studies published so farhave been undermined by the poor sensitivity and spatial resolution ofthe IRAS-PSC and IRAS Sky Survey data. We used the HIRAS softwareavailable at the IRAS server at the Laboratory for Space Research inGroningen to fully exploit the redundancy of the IRAS data and toapproach the theoretical diffraction limit of IRAS. Among the 97 groupswhich were observed by IRAS, 62 were detected in at least one band,while reliable upper limits were derived for all the others. Among thedetected groups, 49 were fully or partially resolved, i.e. it waspossible to discriminate which member or members emit most of the FIRlight. At 60μm, for instance, 87 individual sources were detected in62 groups. In order to ease the comparison with data obtained at otherwavelengths - and in particular in the X and radio domains - we giveco-added and HIRAS maps for all the detected groups.
|Morphology of galaxies in compact groups|
We present the results of an isophotal analysis of 140 early-typegalaxies and a visual inspection of images of an additional 202 galaxiesin compact groups. This is essentially the entire sample of galaxies inthe subset of 92 Hickson compact groups which have at least threeaccordant members. About 12% of the elliptical galaxies have largercharacteristic radii and shallower surface brightness profiles thangalaxies of the same luminosity in less dense environments. The averageellipticity of elliptical galaxies in compact groups is a slowlyincreasing function of the metric radius, as it is for field andloose-group galaxies. No alignment is found among the major axes of thegalaxies and the major axis of the group. When combined with previouslypublished morphological, kinematic, radio, infrared, and colorinformation on the same galaxies, our data show that 43% of the galaxiesin the compact group sample show morphological and/or kinematicaldistortions indicative of interactions and/or mergers. About 32% of thegroups have three or more galaxies which show some sign of interaction.This is a lower limit, since for the great majority of the galaxies inthe groups, only imaging and low-resolution spectra are available. Forthe subsample of 16 groups for which published detailed kinematical dataare also available, the fraction of groups with three or more galaxiesin interaction is 75%. No correlation is found between the number ofinteracting galaxies in a group and the group velocity dispersion orcrossing time. These observations strongly support the view that compactgroups are systems of physically associated galaxies and not chancealignments of field, loose-group, or cluster galaxies. They also confirmthe importance of compact groups for studies of interactions and galaxyevolution. While the lack of a good control sample makes it difficult tomake quantitative comparisons for some aspects of this study, it isclear that the fraction of galaxies showing evidence of interactions ismuch higher in compact groups than in other environments.
|Star formation and merging in compact groups of galaxies|
New UBV aperture photometry for 177 galaxies in Hickson compact groupsis presented. The analysis of the color-color diagram indicates that,contrary to what one naively would expect, only a slight enhancement intheir star formation rates is present. The results are confirmed by theanalysis of the IRAS data, taking in particular into account the 25μmdetections. Star formation in compact groups is not found to be higherthan in isolated pairs of galaxies. Earlier results on the absence ofclear candidates for merger products of late type galaxies are confirmedand strengthened. It is pointed out that the relation between velocitydispersion and morphological mixing found for Hickson groups could beone of the clues to understand the evolution of galaxies in them.
|On actual presence of discordant-redshift galaxies in compact groups|
Hickson's compact galaxy groups were classified using the statisticalcriterion which includes the radial velocities of galaxies as well astheir relative positions. These groups on the whole and their componentsare identified as the confident and probable non-chance ones as well asprobable and confident chance ones. All confident chance objects havethe discordant radial velocities with the differences of radialvelocities (DV) Epsilon between 1,000 km/s and 20,000 km/s. The specialclass of objects 'bright discordants' is selected. These galaxies havethe discordant radial velocities with DV Epsilon between 825 km/s and8440 km/s and have a strong tendency to be the brightest components oftheir groups. The lowest difference of radial velocities for the lastclass of objects mean value of DV = (1.0 +/- 0.2) x 103 km/sand we accept this value of DV as the lowest value of discordant radialvelocities. It is found that the biggest part of Hickson's compactgroups consist of non-chance aggregations of galaxies and some of thecases of discordant-redshifts require a special study in order toexplain their origin from a dynamic or some other point of view.
|Dynamical properties of compact groups of galaxies|
Radial velocities are presented for 457 galaxies in the 100 Hicksoncompact groups. More than 84 percent of the galaxies measured havevelocities within 1000 km/s of the median velocity in the group.Ninety-two groups have at least three accordant members, and 69 groupshave at least four. The radial velocities of these groups range from1380 to 42,731 km/s with a median of 8889 km/s, corresponding to amedian distance of 89/h Mpc. The apparent space density of these systemsranges from 300 to as much as 10 exp 8 sq h/sq Mpc, which exceeds thedensities in the centers of rich clusters. The median projectedseparation between galaxies is 39/h kpc, comparable to the sizes of thegalaxies themselves. A significant correlation is found between crossingtime and the fraction of gas-rich galaxies in the groups, and a weakanticorrelation is found between crossing time and the luminositycontrast of the first-ranked galaxy.
|Optical properties and dynamics of galaxies in the Hickson compact groups|
The way in which galaxy properties in dense galaxy environments comparewith the properties isolated in the field is presently evaluated inlight of broadband R and H-alpha images, as well as H-alpha long-slitspectroscopy, for a set of galaxies (in 21 Hickson compact groups) whoseobserved velocity patterns range from too peculiar for rotation-curveformation, to abnormal, to normal. A surprisingly high correlation isnoted between absolute magnitude and (log) maximum rotation velocity,especially in the case of galaxies with normal rotation curves. Theseobservations support a model in which the compact-group galaxies haveonly recently accumulated from the general galaxy distribution, and inwhich tidal interactions are frequent and persisting.
|The luminosity function of compact groups of galaxies|
An analysis of the luminosity function of 68 compact groups of galaxiescataloged by Hickson (1982) is presented. The luminosities of compactgroup galaxies are consistent with their being drawn from a Schechterluminosity function. Individual morphological-type luminosity functionsare also determined. Both the total and morphological-type specificluminosity functions of compact group galaxies are significantlydifferent from those of field, loose-group, and cluster galaxies. Inparticular, the luminosity function of HCG elliptical galaxies has amean magnitude which is significantly brighter than the mean magnitudeof Virgo cluster elliptical galaxies. The mean luminosity density ofgalaxies in compact groups is estimated. The obtained result isconsistent with the conventional scenario in which compact groups mergeto form elliptical galaxies on a relatively short time scale.
|VLA neutral hydrogen imaging of compact groups of galaxies. II - HCG 31, 44, and 79|
Neutral hydrogen images of three compact groups of galaxies arepresented: HCG 31, 44, and 79. The images were obtained with the verylarge array (VLA), an on-line Hanning smoothing was applied to the data,and the H I spectral channel was isolated. The images were made on thePipeline, and were produced by means of a method described by Gorkon andEkers (1988). The images of HCG 44 are compared with earlier Areciboobservations. The H I emission in HCG 44 is discovered within thegalaxies, whereas the emission in 31 and 79 can be found throughout thegroup in clouds that are larger than the galaxies. Evidence of arelationship between the compact groups is found in the H I data, andthe groups are considered to be merging into a single object. Some ofthe groups are theorized to be young amorphous galaxies where the H I isstill bound to individual galaxies, and which have just begun tocondense from the intergalactic medium. The kinematics of the gas areshown to vary, and a common gaseous envelope contains the dwarfgalaxies.
|Frequency of Warped Spiral Galaxies at Visible Wavelengths|
A list of optical warped spiral galaxies with basic position andgeometrical parameters is presented. From this list an attempt todetermine the frequency of warped discs has been made. All northern NGChigh inclined spirals were examined in the Palomar Observatory SkySurvey. Warps were observed in about half of these galaxies, whichindicate that nearly all spiral galaxies are warped.
|A photometric catalog of compact groups of galaxies|
The paper presents astrometry, photometry, and morphological types,derived from CCD images, for 463 galaxies in the 100 compact groupsselected by Hickson. Some minor revisions to the membership of theoriginal catalog are made, based on these new images. The completenessof the catalog is considered as a function of group magnitude andGalactic latitude. At high Galactic latitude the catalog is estimated tobe 90 percent complete for groups with total B(T) magnitude 13.0 orless. It is less complete at lower Galactic latitude because ofobscuration and high stellar density.
|Neutral hydrogen in compact groups of galaxies|
Integrated H I profiles were detected for 34 of 51 Hickson compactgroups (HCGs) of galaxies, and sensitive upper limits to the H I fluxdensity were measured for the other 17. About 60 percent of the galaxieswithin compact groups are spirals, and a significant tendency exists forthe fraction of elliptical galaxies to increase with group surfacebrightness. The amount of dark matter within the compact group region isnegligibly small. An HCG on average contains half as much neutralhydrogen as a loose group with a similar spectrum of galaxy luminositiesand morphological types, implying that compact groups are independentdynamical entities and not transient or projected configurations ofloose groups. The observed fraction of galaxies which are luminousenough to be possible merger products of compact groups is smallcompared with the fraction required by the theory of dynamical friction.A clear discrepancy thus exists between solid empirical evidence and astraightforward prediction of Newtonian dynamical theory in a settingwhich does not permit a dark matter explanation.
|Analysis of optical imagery for Seyfert's Sextet and VV 172|
Seyfert's Sextet and VV 172, 5-m photographs have been subjected toimage processing to yield field-galaxy density analysis, redshift-scaledimagery, interaction morphology display and enhancement, colordifference imagery,modeling of the VV 172 halo, and image textureanalysis of the spiral galaxy components of Seyfert's Sextet. An effortis made to evaluate the evidence for physical association of thediscordant redshift components of these groups. An especially noteworthycharacteristic of the groups is their extended luminous halos. The haloof VV 172 cannot be explained by the overlapping envelopes of galaxieswith normal luminosity profiles, and the high redshift spiral galaxy inthe Sextet is found to have an asymmetric internal structure andassociated filament which suggest gravitational perturbation by theother members of the group.
|X-ray observations of peculiar galaxies with the Einstein Observatory|
The results of X-ray observations with the Einstein Observatory of 33galaxies are presented. Almost all of these galaxies, some of which liein groups and in interactive pairs, display disturbed morphologies. Nouniform, well-defined selection criterion can describe the samplegalaxies, but almost all lie in a region of the optical color/colordiagram that suggests that they are experiencing bursts of starformation. This region is compatible with the locus of Markariangalaxies. The observed sample and the X-ray data are presented, and theX-ray data are discussed and compared with the optical and radioproperties of the galaxies. It is concluded that nuclear activity is notthe predominant source of X-rays in late-type peculiar galaxies and thatthe X-ray emission is likely to originate from the Population I galacticcomponent, in particular binary sources and possible young SNR's.
|nests of galaxies, their fragmentation.|
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