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|Seeking the Local Convergence Depth. IV. Tully-Fisher Observations of 35 Abell Clusters|
We present Tully-Fisher observations for 35 rich Abell clusters ofgalaxies. Results from I-band photometry and optical rotation curve workconstitute the bulk of this paper. This is the third such datainstallment of an all-sky survey of 52 clusters in the distance range~50 to 200 h^-1 Mpc. The complete data set provides the basis fordetermining an accurate Tully-Fisher template relation and forestimating the amplitude and direction of the local bulk flow on a 100h^-1 Mpc scale.
|Kinematics of the Hercules supercluster|
The Hercules supercluster consists of the Abell clusters A2147, A2151,and A2152. Previous studies of the kinematics have been confounded bythe difficulty of correctly assigning galaxies to the individualclusters, which are not well separated. Our study has a total of 468available velocities for galaxies in the region, 175 of them new. Thereare 414 galaxies in the supercluster, about three times the number usedin the previous supercluster study. We verify the existence of the threeindividual clusters and compute their individual dynamical parameters.We investigate several techniques for assigning galaxy membership toclusters in this crowded field. We use the KMM mixture-modelingalgorithm to separate the galaxies into clusters; we find that A2152 hasa higher mean velocity than previous studies have reported. A2147 andA2152 also have lower velocity dispersions: 821 and 715 km/s,respectively. The assignment of galaxies to either A2152 or A2147requires velocity and position information. We study the kinematics ofthe supercluster using the two-body formalism of Beers et al. (1982) andconclude that A2147 and A2151 are probably bound to each other and thatthe supercluster as a whole may also be bound. The mass of thesupercluster, if bound, is (7.6 +/- 2.0) 10 exp 15/h M(solar); with thesupercluster luminosity, (1.4 +/- 0.2) 10 exp 13/sq h L(solar), thisyields 0.34 +/- 0.1.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system|
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.
|A VLA 20 CM survey of poor groups of galaxies|
The paper reports on VLA 20 cm observations of an extensive sample ofgalaxies in 139 poor groups. These groups, composed of galaxies down tothe limit of the Zwicky et al. (CGCG) catalog, were chosen using apercolation algorithm set at a high surface-density threshold.Approximately 50 percent of the groups have measured redshifts. Thesegroups were surveyed using a 'snapshot' mode of the VLA with aresolution of about 13 arcsec. Analysis of the resulting radio andoptical properties reveals that the presence of a nearby companiongalaxy has an important role in generating radio emission in a galaxy.CCD observations of two radio-loud, disturbed galaxies with companionsare presented and are used to discuss models of radio-source production.Nine tailed radio galaxies are found in the poor groups, which is muchmore than had been expected from previous work on rich clusters and fromtheoretical models. The paper discusses previous statistical biases andproposes a method for bending head-tail sources in poor groups. From theconfinement of extended radio features associated with tailed sources,the presence of a substantial intracluster medium that should radiatesignificantly at soft-X-ray energies is predicted.
|The Distance to the Hercules Supercluster. II. Application of Tertiary Indicators and an Estimate of the Hubble Constant|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1986ApJS...62..283B&db_key=AST
|The distance to the Hercules supercluster. I - Basic data for 220 galaxies in CGCG field 108.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1986ApJS...62..255B&db_key=AST
|A catalog of radio, optical, and infrared observations of spiral galaxies in clusters|
The results of a major observational program on the luminosities,colors, and gas contents of spiral galaxies in clusters of galaxies arepresented. The data have been used as part of a detailed investigationinto the nature of cluster spirals and for revisions of the distancescale using the infrared Tully-Fisher relation. The observationalstrategies, reduction procedures, and sources or error are brieflydiscussed. The data include 21-cm H I observations, UBVR multiaperturephotometry, and H-band photometry of several hunderd spiral galaxies in10 clusters.
|Gas deficiency in cluster galaxies - A comparison of nine clusters|
The available 21 cm line data in the literature for galaxies in nineclusters is combined with new high-sensitivity observations of 51galaxies in five of the nine clusters in order to test fordiscriminating circumstances between those clusters which show H Ideficiency among their spiral population and those which do not. An H Ideficiency for the complete cluster sample is derived employing acomparison sample of galaxies chosen from the Catalog of IsolatedGalaxies. The deficiency and its radial dependence is summarized foreach cluster and a composite. A comparison of the environments indifferent clusters leads to the conclusion that the occurrence of H Ideficiency is correlated with the presence of a hot X-ray intraclustermedium, and that an ongoing interaction process is active through thecores of X-ray clusters.
|The H I content of galaxies in the Hercules supercluster Evidence for sweeping|
Arecibo observations of the neutral hydrogen content of 52 galaxies inthe Hercules supercluster reveal signs of environmental dependence.Supercluster galaxies are compared with a sample of isolated galaxieswith the same luminosity range, and galaxies found at large distancesfrom the condensation appear to have normal M(H)/L ratios, while thosenear the cluster A2147 have marked deficiencies. The deficienciescontrast with the normal to mildly gas deficient A2151, which indicatesthat gas deficiency of spiral galaxies in Hercules is caused by removaldue to ram pressure of the motion of galaxies through the intraclustermedium. Calculations which take into account the intracluster mediumdensity and velocity dispersion indicate the existence of a sweepingmechanism. Optical data also show that swept galaxies with more markedM(H)/L deficiencies tend to be redder than those with a normal ratio,especially in the case of Zw 108-072 in A2147. Results suggest thatsubstantial galactic evolution may be catalyzed by opportuneenvironmental conditions, and a large number of gas deficienct spiralgalaxies undergo a gas-sweeping stage over a relatively short timescale.
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