|An interaction model for the formation of dwarf galaxies and 10 exp 8 solar mass clouds in spiral disks|
Ten H I clouds with masses larger than 10 exp 8 solar masses in theinteracting galaxies IC 2163/NGC 2207 are identified. Twenty-eight otherinteracting pairs of galaxies with large knots or star formationstructures in their optical images are also tabulated. It is suggestedthat interactions can lead to the formation of greater than 10 solarmass clouds and young stellar regions in the outer parts of galacticdisks, and that some of these regions may become gravitationally bounddwarf galaxies if they are ejected in tidal arms. It is proposed thatthe key to the origin of clouds of greater than 10 exp 8 solar mass ininteracting systems lies in the high velocity dispersion of theinterstellar gas. Numerical N-body simulations of the interactinggalaxies suggest that the complete detachment of an unbound dwarf galaxyrequires a companion mass comparable to or larger than the galaxy mass.
|The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog|
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.
|IRAS observations of an optically selected sample of interacting galaxies|
IRAS observations of a large, morphologically selected sample ofstrongly interacting disk-type galaxies have demonstrated thatgalaxy-galaxy collisions can lead to enhanced infrared emission, but notin all cases. Infrared luminosities of the interacting galaxies span alarge range, but are about a factor of 2 higher, on average, than thoseof isolated disk galaxies. The data suggest the existence of a cutoff inblue luminosity, below which no galaxies show markedly enhanced infraredemission. Only the most strongly interacting systems in the sample showextreme values of infrared excess, suggesting that deep,interpenetrating collisions are necessary to drive infrared emission toextreme levels. Comparisons with optical indicators of star formationshow that infrared excess and color temperatures correlate with thelevel of star-formation activity in the interacting galaxies. Allinteracting galaxies in our sample that exhibit an infrared excess andhave higher than normal color temperatures also have optical indicatorsof high levels of star formation. It is not necessary to invokeprocesses other than star formation to account for the enhanced infraredluminosity in this sample of interacting galaxies.
|Global properties of interacting disk-type galaxies|
Optical, far-IR, and radio observations of global properties arepresented for a sample of strongly interacting disk-type galaxies.Global star formation rates (SFRs) for the galaxies span a large rangeand are, on average, a factor of 2.5 higher than similarly determinedglobal SFRs for isolated spiral galaxies. New star formation occurspreferentially in or near the nuclear regions. H I 21 cm emission-lineprofiles indicate the presence of anomalous velocity material andchaotic patterns of gas motion in many interacting systems. Few systemsshow evidence for the presence of a well-organized rotating H I disksuch as are seen in isolated spiral galaxies. Neutral hydrogen gasmass-to-blue luminosity ratios are not atypical when compared withisolated spirals. The evidence indicates that local rather than globalproperties of these galaxies govern the star-formation process. Theobservations generally support the notion that enhanced SFRs are causedby increased cloud collision rates and dissipative flows of gas to thenucleus.
A new list of isolated galaxies has been compiled in order to determinewhether or not a true isolated sample can be selected. The sampleselection and the statistical characteristics of the sample arediscussed. In agreement with previous findings, it is concluded that anunclustered background seems to be observationally and operationallymeaningless, and that clustering dominates in all regions of space.
|High signal-to-noise ratio observations of H I in 243 galaxies|
The 21 cm spectral-line system of the Arecibo Observatory was used tomeasure neutral hydrogen emission from 243 faint galaxies. Most lie nearthe plane of the Local Supercluster. All observations reach anunsmoothed signal-to-noise ratio of at least 7.0; the average for theset is 23. The resulting data are used to estimate H I masses, systemicvelocities, and accurate profile widths at 20 percent, 25 percent, 50percent, and 80 percent of peak intensity levels. The widths are used tocalibrate directly the bias introduced by popular data-smoothingoperation. The data include observations of 65 objects with previouslyunknown redshifts.
|A statistical study of the relationship between galaxy interactions and nuclear activity|
Small-aperture near- and mid-infrared photometry of a complete sample ofinteracting galaxies has been obtained. Statistical comparison of thenuclear properties of these galaxies with samples of noninteractinggalaxies shows that signs of abnormal nuclear activity are much morecommon in interacting systems. In particular, a population of nucleiwith extremely luminous 10 micron emission is unique to the interactingsample. Roughly half of the interacting galaxies with nuclear 10 micronsources also exhibit evidence of extended 10 micron emission usingmeasurements from IRAS. The far-infrared luminosities of the interactingsample are also greater than those of representative selections ofnormal galaxies. The identification of extraluminous infrared emissionin a significant number of the surveyed galaxies suggests thatinteractions may in some way be associated with other high-luminosityphenomena such as Seyfert nuclei and QSOs.
|Star-formation rates of interacting galaxies|
Spectrophotometry for central regions of five interacting systems ofgalaxies chosen from the Arp Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies has beenobtained. The data are analyzed to derive star-formation rates fordifferent epochs in the galaxies' histories. Oxygen abundances areestimated from emission-line ratios, and stellar population mixes aredetermined via spectral synthesis modeling. All systems have near-solaroxygen abundances. Only one system, Arp 299, is found to be definitelyundergoing a burst of star formation, while the remaining systems arefound to be characterized by nearly constant rates of star formation andare not obviously different from noninteracting disk galaxies.
|A 21 centimeter line survey of a complete sample of interacting and isolated galaxies|
The paper presents 21 cm line observations of a complete sample ofinteracting and isolated galaxies made with the National Radio AstronomyObservatory 91 and 43 m telescopes and the Arecibo 3035 m telescope. The21 cm line data are combined with a homogeneous set of optical data onangular diameters, axial ratios, magnitudes, and colors, and integralproperties are calculated for the galaxies in both samples. In thispaper, the sample selection procedures, the method of observation, thedata reduction, and the observational errors are described. Thedetection percentages are presented for both samples.
|Radial velocities of double galaxies|
Spectral observations of 92 galaxies in isolated pairs have been carriedout. In 52 cases radial velocities were measured. The mean value of theorbital mass-to-luminosity ratio for 18 pairs is (16.2 plus or minus10.0) times the solar value.
|Galaxies of the M 51 type.|
|Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1966ApJS...14....1A&db_key=AST
|The Interaction of Galaxies and the Nature of Their Arms, Spanning Filaments and Tails. The Morphology of Galaxies. V.|