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[O II] as a Star Formation Rate Indicator
We investigate the [O II] emission line as a star formation rate (SFR)indicator using integrated spectra of 97 galaxies from the Nearby FieldGalaxies Survey (NFGS). The sample includes all Hubble types andcontains SFRs ranging from 0.01 to 100 Msolaryr-1. We compare the Kennicutt [O II] and Hα SFRcalibrations and show that there are two significant effects thatproduce disagreement between SFR([O II]) and SFR(Hα): reddeningand metallicity. Differences in the ionization state of the interstellarmedium do not contribute significantly to the observed differencebetween SFR([O II]) and SFR(Hα) for the NFGS galaxies withmetallicities log(O/H)+12>~8.5. The Kennicutt [O II]-SFR relationassumes a typical reddening for nearby galaxies; in practice, thereddening differs significantly from sample to sample. We derive a newSFR([O II]) calibration that does not contain a reddening assumption.Our new SFR([O II]) calibration also provides an optional correction formetallicity. Our SFRs derived from [O II] agree with those derived fromHα to within 0.03-0.05 dex. We show that the reddening, E(B-V),increases with intrinsic (i.e., reddening-corrected) [O II] luminosityfor the NFGS sample. We apply our SFR([O II]) calibration withmetallicity correction to two samples: high-redshift 0.8

Starbursts versus Truncated Star Formation in Nearby Clusters of Galaxies
We present long-slit spectroscopy, B- and R-bandpass imaging, and 21 cmobservations of a sample of early-type galaxies in nearby clusters,which are known to be either in a star-forming phase or to have had starformation that recently terminated. From the long-slit spectra, obtainedwith the Blanco 4 m telescope, we find that emission lines in thestar-forming cluster galaxies are significantly more centrallyconcentrated than in a sample of field galaxies. The broadband imagingreveals that two currently star-forming early-type galaxies in thePegasus I cluster have blue nuclei, again indicating that recent starformation has been concentrated. In contrast, the two galaxies for whichstar formation has already ended show no central color gradient. ThePegasus I galaxy with the most evident signs of ongoing star formation(NGC 7648), exhibits signatures of a tidal encounter. Neutral hydrogenobservations of that galaxy with the Arecibo radio telescope reveal thepresence of ~4×108 Msolar of H I. Areciboobservations of other current or recent star-forming early-type galaxiesin Pegasus I indicate smaller amounts of gas in one of them, and onlyupper limits in others. These observations indicate that NGC 7648 in thePegasus I cluster owes its present star formation episode to some formof tidal interaction. The same may be true for the other galaxies withcentralized star formation, but we cannot rule out the possibility thattheir outer disks have been removed via ram pressure stripping, followedby rapid quenching of star formation in the central region.

Optical surface photometry of a sample of disk galaxies. II. Structural components
This work presents the structural decomposition of a sample of 11 diskgalaxies, which span a range of different morphological types. The U, B,V, R, and I photometric information given in Paper I (color andcolor-index images and luminosity, ellipticity, and position-angleprofiles) has been used to decide what types of components form thegalaxies before carrying out the decomposition. We find and model suchcomponents as bulges, disks, bars, lenses and rings.

Spectrophotometry of Nearby Field Galaxies: The Data
We have obtained integrated and nuclear spectra as well as U, B, Rsurface photometry for a representative sample of 196 nearby galaxies.These galaxies span the entire Hubble sequence in morphological type, aswell as a wide range of luminosities (MB=-14 to -22). Here wepresent the spectrophotometry for these galaxies. The selection of thesample and the U, B, R surface photometry is described in a companionpaper. Our goals for the project include measuring the current starformation rates and metallicities of these galaxies, and elucidatingtheir star formation histories, as a function of luminosity andmorphology. We thereby extend the work of Kennicutt to lower luminositysystems. We anticipate that our study will be useful as a benchmark forstudies of galaxies at high redshift. We describe the observing, datareduction, and calibration techniques and demonstrate that ourspectrophotometry agrees well with that of Kennicutt. The spectra spanthe range 3550-7250 Å at a resolution (FWHM) of ~6 Å andhave an overall relative spectrophotometric accuracy of ~+/-6%. Wepresent a spectrophotometric atlas of integrated and nuclear rest-framespectra as well as tables of equivalent widths and synthetic colors. Theatlas and tables of measurements will be made available electronically.We study the correlations of galaxy properties determined from thespectra and images. Our findings include: (1) galaxies of a givenmorphological class display a wide range of continuum shapes andemission-line strengths if a broad range of luminosities are considered,(2) emission-line strengths tend to increase and continua tend to getbluer as the luminosity decreases, and (3) the scatter on the generalcorrelation between nuclear and integrated Hα emission-linestrengths is large.

Surface Photometry of Nearby Field Galaxies: The Data
We have obtained integrated spectra and multifilter photometry for arepresentative sample of ~200 nearby galaxies. These galaxies span theentire Hubble sequence in morphological type, as well as a wide range ofluminosities (MB=-14 to -22) and colors (B-R=0.4-1.8). Herewe describe the sample selection criteria and the U, B, R surfacephotometry for these galaxies. The spectrophotometric results will bepresented in a companion paper. Our goals for the project includemeasuring the current star formation rates and metallicity of thesegalaxies, and elucidating their star formation histories, as a functionof luminosity and morphology. We thereby extend the work of Kennicutt tolower luminosity systems. We anticipate that our study will be useful asa benchmark for studies of galaxies at high redshift. We discuss theobserving, data reduction, and calibration techniques and show that ourphotometry agrees well with previous work in those cases in whichearlier data are available. We present an atlas of images, radialsurface brightness profiles, and color profiles as well as tables ofderived parameters. The atlas and tables of measurements will be madeavailable electronically. We study the correlations of galaxy propertiesdetermined from the galaxy images. Our findings include the following:(1) colors determined within the effective radius correlate better withmorphological type than with MB and (2) 50% of thelow-luminosity galaxies are bluest in their centers.

The FIRST Bright Quasar Survey. II. 60 Nights and 1200 Spectra Later
We have used the Very Large Array (VLA) FIRST survey and the AutomatedPlate Measuring Facility (APM) catalog of the Palomar Observatory SkySurvey I (POSS-I) plates as the basis for constructing a newradio-selected sample of optically bright quasars. This is the firstradio-selected sample that is competitive in size with current opticallyselected quasar surveys. Using only two basic criteria, radio-opticalpositional coincidence and optical morphology, quasars and BL Lacobjects can be identified with 60% selection efficiency; the efficiencyincreases to 70% for objects fainter than 17 mag. We show that a moresophisticated selection scheme can predict with better than 85%reliability which candidates will turn out to be quasars. This paperpresents the second installment of the FIRST Bright Quasar Survey(FBQS), with a catalog of 636 quasars distributed over 2682deg2. The quasar sample is characterized and all spectra aredisplayed. The FBQS detects both radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars outto redshift z>3. We find a large population of objects ofintermediate radio loudness; there is no evidence in our sample for abimodal distribution of radio characteristics. The sample includes ~29broad absorption line quasars, both high and low ionization, and anumber of new objects with remarkable optical spectra.

Optical Spectral Signatures of Dusty Starburst Galaxies
We analyze the optical spectral properties of the complete sample ofVery Luminous Infrared Galaxies presented by Wu et al., and we find ahigh fraction (~50%) of spectra showing both a strong Hδ line inabsorption and relatively modest [O II] emission [e(a) spectra]. Thee(a) signature has been proposed as an efficient method to identifydusty starburst galaxies, and we study the star formation activity andthe nature of these galaxies, as well as the effects of dust on theirobserved properties. We examine their emission-line characteristics, inparticular their [O II]/Hα ratio, and we find this to be greatlyaffected by reddening. A search for AGN spectral signatures reveals thatthe e(a) galaxies are typically H II/LINER galaxies. We compare the starformation rates derived from the FIR luminosities with the estimatesbased on the Hα line and find that the values obtained from theoptical emission lines are a factor of 10-70 (Hα) and 20-140 ([OII]) lower than the FIR estimates (50-300 Msolaryr-1). We then study the morphological properties of the e(a)galaxies, looking for a near companion or signs of a merger/interaction.In order to explore the evolution of the e(a) population, we present anoverview of the available observations of e(a) galaxies in differentenvironments both at low and high redshift. Finally, we discuss the roleof dust in determining the e(a) spectral properties and we propose ascenario of selective obscuration in which the extinction decreases withthe stellar age.

BVRI imaging of M 51-type pairs. II. Bulge and disk parameters
We present decompositions of azimuthally averaged surface brightnessprofiles in optical B, V, R and I-bands for a sample of 40 M 51-typeinteracting galaxies. The profiles were modelled by an exponential diskand a spherical bulge described either by the R1/4 law or byan exponential function. Half of the galaxies were well fitted by bothbulge models, whereas for 35 % the exponential function was a betterchoice. Special care was taken on eliminating superpositions of thecompanion galaxies. The mean B-band central surface brightness mu_0 wasfound to be 21.5 mag arcsec-2, which is near to the valueoriginally found by Freeman (\cite{freeman70}), but the scatter wasfairly large. Galaxy interactions have strongly modified the disks inmany of the galaxies in the sample. For example, six of them hadextremely flat brightness profiles outside the exponential part of thedisk, and many showed significant isophotal twists. Tables 1 to 4 andFigs. 2 to 4 are only available in the electronic version athttp://www.edpsciences.org}

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

A Subarcsecond-Resolution Near-Infrared Study of Seyfert and ``Normal'' Galaxies. I. Imaging Data
We present new high-resolution near-infrared observations in the J, H,and K bands, obtained to study the properties of Seyfert host galaxies.The data set consists of images in the three bands of practically theentire CfA sample of Seyfert galaxies, and K-band images of a controlsample of nonactive, ``normal,'' galaxies, matched to the Seyfert samplein the distribution of type and inclination. The spatial resolution andsampling of the new images is a factor of 2 better than previouslypublished K-band data. In this paper, we present the data in the form ofprofiles of surface brightness and color, ellipticity and major axisposition angle, as well as gray-scale maps of surface brightness in H orK and both J-H and H-K colors. We compare our surface brightness andcolor profiles with the literature and find good agreement. Our data arediscussed in detail in three subsequent publications, where we analyzethe morphologies of Seyfert and normal hosts, quantify the strength ofnonaxisymmetric features in disks and their relationship to nuclearactivity, address the question of bar fraction in Seyferts and normalgalaxies, and analyze the color information in the framework of emissionmechanisms in Seyfert 1's and 2's and in nonactive galaxies.

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

A statistical study of the spectra of very luminous IRAS galaxies. II. Spectral and environmental analysis
Spectroscopic observations of a sample of 73 very luminous IRAS galaxies(log(LIR/Lsun)>=11.5 for H0=50 km\s(-1) ; Mpc(-1) ,q0=0.5) from the 2 Jy redshift surveycatalogue were carried out using the 2.16 m telescope at the BeijingAstronomical Observatory. The observational data, including the opticalimages (extracted from Digital Sky Survey) and spectra for thesegalaxies, are presented in Paper I \cite[(Wu et al. 1998)]{wu98}. Inthis paper, we give the spectral and morphological classifications forthese very luminous IRAS galaxies (VLIRGs). We show that about 60% ofVLIRGs exhibit AGN-like spectra (Seyfert 1s, Seyfert 2s, LINER-likegalaxies). This fraction goes up to 82% for the ultraluminous IRASgalaxies (ULIRGs) subsample (Log(LIR/Lsun) >=12.0). 56% of the VLIRGs show strong interaction or merging signatures;this fraction rises to 91% for the ULIRGs. These statistical resultsstrongly suggest that interaction triggers nuclear activities andenhances the infrared luminosity. We find that LINER and a mixture typewhich have optical properties of both HII galaxies and LINERs could beat the transition stage from infrared luminous HII galaxies to AGNs;their main energy production is from starbursts as well as AGNs. Bothinfrared luminosities and Hα equivalent widths increasedramatically as nuclear separations between VLIRGs and their nearestneighbors decrease. There is little doubt that strong starbursts happenin the nuclei of VLIRGs. Assuming class 0 as advanced merger, weconstruct a simple merger sequence, from morphological classes 1 to 4(with near or far companions), to class 5 and 6 (interacting pairs andmergers) and then to class 0 (isolated galaxies). Along this sequence,VLIRGs evolve from HII galaxies to AGNs. Table 1 is only available atthe CDS via anonymous ftp or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr

BVRI imaging of M51-type interacting galaxy pairs. I. Data reductions
Deep broad-band BVRI photometry of a sample of 22 closely interactingisolated galaxy pairs is presented. The sample consists of pairs with alarge variety of orbital geometries, but most of them are M51-typepairs: a small companion in the vicinity of a prominent two-armedspiral. This subsample will be later modelled in detail with N-bodysimulations. Nine of the thirteen M51-type pairs show enhanced starformation in the central regions of the companions, detected in B-V orR-I color maps, and only one pair in the nucleus of the main galaxy.This is expected if there is mass transfer from the main galaxy to thecompanion. Some pairs with larger separation, and with more massivecompanions show global instabilities manifesting as strong colorgradients at least in one of the members.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

A statistical study of the spectra of very luminous IRAS galaxies. I. Data
This paper presents the results of spectral observations for the largestcomplete sample of very luminous IRAS galaxies obtained to date. Thesample consists of those 73 objects for which log(L_IR/Lsun)>= 11.5 (H0=50;km; s(-1) Mpc(-1) , q0=0.5) andmag <= 15.5 , and was extracted from the 2 Jy IRAS redshift catalog.All the spectra were obtained using the 2.16 m telescope of BeijingAstronomical Observatory during the years 1994-1996. A total of 123galaxy spectra were obtained with spectral ranges of 4400;Angstroms to7100;Angstroms and 3500;Angstroms to 8100;Angstroms at resolutions of11.2;Angstroms and 9.3;Angstroms respectively. In addition to the 73spectra for sample galaxies, we also present spectra for ten non-samplegalaxies and a further 40 for the companions of sample galaxies. Thedata presented include nuclear spectrum and the parameters describingthe emission lines, absorption lines and continua as well as DSS imagesand environmental parameters. Table 1 is also available in electricform, Table 2-4 are only available in electronic form form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130. 79.128.5) or via http:cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html. Figures 4 and 9 are published in theon-line version of A&A..

The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.

Neutral hydrogen observations of galaxies in superclusters
Neutral hydrogen observations of spiral galaxies in the Uppsala GeneralCatalog were made with the 91 m telescope in Green Bank. Results of theH I observations are presented for 309 objects north of declination +38deg in the right ascension range between 10 h and 22 h and for a sampleof 46 objects just south of the equator in the region around R.A.between 0 h and 3 h. Many of these objects are outlying members ofsuperclusters and may be useful in the study of deviations from Hubbleflow on supercluster scales. Velocity widths as measured by fivedifferent algorithms are presented along with a profile quality index.

Cosmology from a galaxy group catalog. I - Binaries
A new, completely objective group-finding algorithm is described andapplied to the CfA redshift catalog. The binary galaxies are isolatedfor analysis. The assumptions underlying the analysis are (1) that lighttraces mass, (2) that our binary galaxy subsets are representative lighttracers, and (3) that the binary orbits are circular. The primary resultof the work is that the resulting bias-free binary catalogs are afunction of the assumed cosmological model. For virtually any inputvalue of Omega(0) in the range 0.01-5.00, there is a reasonablyconsistent interpretation of the CfA survey such that the specifiedvalue of Omega(0) can be derived from the binary sample obtained underthat interpretation. A secondary result is that the higher the inputvalue of Omega(0), the broader the intrinsic distribution in M/L, andhence the less valid the assumption that light traces mass.

Double galaxies - Redshift measurements, error analysis, and mean mass/luminosity ratio
New radial velocities for 44 double galaxy systems are presented. Theratio k between the internal and external errors in the redshift data isestimated by comparing data from catalog galaxies with a sample fromWhite et al. (1983). This ratio is found to increase from 1.0 to 2.1from galaxies with strong emission lines to absorption-line objects. Thedisparity between the absolute and internal errors diminishes for theredshift differentials of pair components, because the individual errorsin the redshifts measured for the members of a given pair are observedto be positively correlated. The average value of k for the whole sampleis estimated by considering the values of the first four moments of themass/luminosity ratio as functions of k. The absolute error in theredshift differential is 1.4 times the internal error, bringing the meanratio of orbital mass to luminosity for 490 pairs into good agreementwith the values determined from the differential rotation of galaxies.

A 21 centimeter line survey of a complete sample of interacting and isolated galaxies
The paper presents 21 cm line observations of a complete sample ofinteracting and isolated galaxies made with the National Radio AstronomyObservatory 91 and 43 m telescopes and the Arecibo 3035 m telescope. The21 cm line data are combined with a homogeneous set of optical data onangular diameters, axial ratios, magnitudes, and colors, and integralproperties are calculated for the galaxies in both samples. In thispaper, the sample selection procedures, the method of observation, thedata reduction, and the observational errors are described. Thedetection percentages are presented for both samples.

A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.

Flocculent and grand design spiral structure in field, binary and group galaxies
A 12-division morphological system emphasizing arm continuity, lengthand symmetry has been developed for the classification of all spiralgalaxies according to the regularity of their spiral arm structure. Armclassifications were tabulated for 305 barred and nonbarred spiralgalaxies; of these, 79 are isolated, 52 are binary and 174 are ingroups. Among the isolated SA galaxies, 68 + or - 10% have irregular andfragmented, or 'flocculent', spiral structures. Only 32 + or - 10% havesymmetric spiral arms in the classic grand design pattern. Flocculentspirals are the most common structures of galaxies without companions orbars. Since flocculent galaxies may have bars and companions, and granddesign galaxies may have neither bars nor companions, such perturbationsare neither perfectly effective nor always necessary in the driving ofgrand design patterns.

Binary galaxie. I. A well-defined statistical sample.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1976ApJ...208...20T&db_key=AST

Radial velocities of double galaxies
Spectral observations of 92 galaxies in isolated pairs have been carriedout. In 52 cases radial velocities were measured. The mean value of theorbital mass-to-luminosity ratio for 18 pairs is (16.2 plus or minus10.0) times the solar value.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:15h44m27.80s
Aparent dimensions:0.977′ × 0.646′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 5993

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