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# NGC 5879

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 HI content in galaxies in loose groupsGas deficiency in cluster spirals is well known and ram-pressurestripping is considered the main gas removal mechanism. In some compactgroups too gas deficiency is reported. However, gas deficiency in loosegroups is not yet well established. Lower dispersion of the membervelocities and the lower density of the intragroup medium in small loosegroups favour tidal stripping as the main gas removal process in them.Recent releases of data from the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) andcatalogues of nearby loose groups with associated diffuse X-ray emissionhave allowed us to test this notion. In this paper, we address thefollowing questions: (i) do galaxies in groups with diffuse X-rayemission statistically have lower gas content compared to the ones ingroups without diffuse X-ray emission? (ii) does HI deficiency vary withthe X-ray luminosity, LX, of the loose group in a systematicway? We find that (i) galaxies in groups with diffuse X-ray emission, onaverage, are HI deficient, and have lost more gas compared to those ingroups without X-ray emission; the latter are found not to havesignificant HI deficiency; (ii) no systematic dependence of the HIdeficiency with LX is found. Ram-pressure-assisted tidalstripping and evaporation by thermal conduction are the two possiblemechanisms to account for this excess gas loss. The Hα Galaxy Survey . III. Constraints on supernova progenitors from spatial correlations with Hα emissionAims.We attempt to constrain progenitors of the different types ofsupernovae from their spatial distributions relative to star formationregions in their host galaxies, as traced by Hα + [Nii] lineemission. Methods: .We analyse 63 supernovae which have occurredwithin galaxies from our Hα survey of the local Universe. Threestatistical tests are used, based on pixel statistics, Hα radialgrowth curves, and total galaxy emission-line fluxes. Results:.Many type II supernovae come from regions of low or zero emission lineflux, and more than would be expected if the latter accurately traceshigh-mass star formation. We interpret this excess as a 40% "Runaway"fraction in the progenitor stars. Supernovae of types Ib and Ic doappear to trace star formation activity, with a much higher fractioncoming from the centres of bright star formation regions than is thecase for the type II supernovae. Type Ia supernovae overall show a weakcorrelation with locations of current star formation, but there isevidence that a significant minority, up to about 40%, may be linked tothe young stellar population. The radial distribution of allcore-collapse supernovae (types Ib, Ic and II) closely follows that ofthe line emission and hence star formation in their host galaxies, apartfrom a central deficiency which is less marked for supernovae of typesIb and Ic than for those of type II. Core-collapse supernova ratesoverall are consistent with being proportional to galaxy totalluminosities and star formation rates; however, within this total thetype Ib and Ic supernovae show a moderate bias towards more luminoushost galaxies, and type II supernovae a slight bias towardslower-luminosity hosts. Discovery of PAHs in the halo of NGC 5907We have used sensitive archival data from the Infrared Space Observatory(ISO) to make maps of the edge-on low SFR galaxy, NGC 5907, in 6different MIR bands: LW2, LW5, LW6, LW7, LW8, and LW10, covering thespectrum from 6.5 to 15.0 μm and including several narrow bands thatisolate the infrared aromatic spectral features commonly referred to asPAHs. Most of the MIR emission is dominated by PAHs and it is likelythat emission from VSGs contribute only negligibly except in the broadIRAS-equivalent band. The flux ratios are typical of galaxies with lowSFRs or quiesent regions within galaxies (e.g. M 83) and a very highPAH/continuum ratio is observed. The PAH emission follows the COdistribution and also shows some correlation within the disk with theλ850 μm distribution. However, the PAH emission also reacheslarger galactocentric radii than the CO and other correlations suggestthat the PAHs are also more widespread. A significant new discovery isthe presence of PAHs in the halo of the galaxy. In the narrow bands thatisolate single PAH features, the emission shows structure similar tohigh latitude features seen in other galaxies in other tracers. Thefeatures extend as far as 6.5 kpc from the plane but scale heights of3.5 kpc are more typical. The λ11.3/λ7.7 ratio alsoappears to increase with distance from the major axis. To our knowledge,this is the first time PAHs have been seen in the halo of an externalgalaxy. Just as significantly, they are seen in a low SFR galaxy,suggesting that strong SNe and winds are not necessary for these largemolecules to reach high latitudes. GHASP: an Hα kinematic survey of spiral and irregular galaxies - IV. 44 new velocity fields. Extension, shape and asymmetry of Hα rotation curvesWe present Fabry-Perot observations obtained in the frame of the GHASPsurvey (Gassendi HAlpha survey of SPirals). We have derived the Hαmap, the velocity field and the rotation curve for a new set of 44galaxies. The data presented in this paper are combined with the datapublished in the three previous papers providing a total number of 85 ofthe 96 galaxies observed up to now. This sample of kinematical data hasbeen divided into two groups: isolated (ISO) and softly interacting(SOFT) galaxies. In this paper, the extension of the Hα discs, theshape of the rotation curves, the kinematical asymmetry and theTully-Fisher relation have been investigated for both ISO and SOFTgalaxies. The Hα extension is roughly proportional toR25 for ISO as well as for SOFT galaxies. The smallestextensions of the ionized disc are found for ISO galaxies. The innerslope of the rotation curves is found to be correlated with the centralconcentration of light more clearly than with the type or thekinematical asymmetry, for ISO as well as for SOFT galaxies. The outerslope of the rotation curves increases with the type and with thekinematical asymmetry for ISO galaxies but shows no special trend forSOFT galaxies. No decreasing rotation curve is found for SOFT galaxies.The asymmetry of the rotation curves is correlated with themorphological type, the luminosity, the (B-V) colour and the maximalrotational velocity of galaxies. Our results show that the brightest,the most massive and the reddest galaxies, which are fast rotators, arethe least asymmetric, meaning that they are the most efficient withwhich to average the mass distribution on the whole disc. Asymmetry inthe rotation curves seems to be linked with local star formation,betraying disturbances of the gravitational potential. The Tully-Fisherrelation has a smaller slope for ISO than for SOFT galaxies. Nuclear Properties of Nearby Spiral Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Imaging and STIS SpectroscopyWe investigate the central regions of 23 spiral galaxies using SpaceTelescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectroscopy and archivalNear-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) imaging. Thesample is taken from our program to determine the masses of centralmassive black holes (MBHs) in 54 nearby spiral galaxies. Stars arelikely to contribute significantly to any dynamical central massconcentration that we find in our MBH program, and this paper is part ofa series to investigate the nuclear properties of these galaxies. We usethe Nuker law to fit surface brightness profiles, derived from theNICMOS images, to look for nuclear star clusters and find possibleextended sources in three of the 23 galaxies studied (13%). The factthat this fraction is lower than that inferred from optical Hubble SpaceTelescope studies is probably due to the greater spatial resolution ofthose studies. Using R-H and J-H colors and equivalent widths ofHα emission (from the STIS spectra), we investigate the nature ofthe stellar population with evolutionary models. Under the assumption ofhot stars ionizing the gas, as opposed to a weak active galactic nucleus(AGN), we find that there are young stellar populations (~10-20 Myr);however, these data do not allow us to determine what percentage of thetotal nuclear stellar population they form. In addition, in an attemptto find any unknown AGN, we use [N II] and [S II] line flux ratios(relative to Hα) and find tentative evidence for weak AGNs in NGC1300 and NGC 4536.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc.,under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. The Rotation Curves of Dwarf Galaxies: A Problem for Cold Dark Matter?We address the issue of accuracy in recovering density profiles fromobservations of rotation curves of galaxies. We observe'' and analyzeour models in much the same way as observers do the real galaxies. Ourmodels include stellar disks, disks with bars, and small bulges. We findthat the tilted-ring model analysis produces an underestimate of thecentral rotational velocity. In some cases the galaxy halo densityprofile seems to have a flat core, while in reality it does not. Weidentify three effects that explain the systematic biases: inclination,small bulge, and bar. Inclination effects are due to the finitethickness of the disk, bar, or bulge. Admixture of a nonrotating bulgecomponent reduces the rotational velocity. A small (200-500 pc) bulgemay be overlooked, leading to systematic bias even on relatively large(~1 kpc) distances. In the case of a disk with a bar, the underestimateof the circular velocity is larger because of a combination ofnoncircular motions and random velocities. The effect of the bar dependson the angle that the bar makes with the line of sight. Signatures ofbars can be difficult to detect in the surface brightness profiles ofthe model galaxies. The variations of inclination angle and isophoteposition angle with radius are more reliable indicators of bar presencethan the surface brightness profiles. The systematic biases in thecentral ~1 kpc of galaxies are not large. Each effect separately givestypically a few km s-1 error, but the effects add up. In somecases the error in circular velocity was a factor of 2, but typically weget about a 20% effect. The result is the false inference that thedensity profile of the halo flattens in the central parts. Ourobservations of real galaxies show that for a large fraction of galaxiesthe velocity of gas rotation (as measured by emission lines) is veryclose to the rotation of the stellar component (as measured byabsorption lines). This implies that the systematic effects discussed inthis paper are also applicable both for the stars and emission-line gas. Circumnuclear Structure and Black Hole Fueling: Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Imaging of 250 Active and Normal GalaxiesWhy are the nuclei of some galaxies more active than others? If mostgalaxies harbor a central massive black hole, the main difference isprobably in how well it is fueled by its surroundings. We investigatethe hypothesis that such a difference can be seen in the detailedcircumnuclear morphologies of galaxies using several quantitativelydefined features, including bars, isophotal twists, boxy and diskyisophotes, and strong nonaxisymmetric features in unsharp-masked images.These diagnostics are applied to 250 high-resolution images of galaxycenters obtained in the near-infrared with NICMOS on the Hubble SpaceTelescope. To guard against the influence of possible biases andselection effects, we have carefully matched samples of Seyfert 1,Seyfert 2, LINER, starburst, and normal galaxies in their basicproperties, taking particular care to ensure that each was observed witha similar average scale (10-15 pc pixel-1). Severalmorphological differences among our five different spectroscopicclassifications emerge from the analysis. The H II/starburst galaxiesshow the strongest deviations from smooth elliptical isophotes, whilethe normal galaxies and LINERs have the least disturbed morphology. TheSeyfert 2s have significantly more twisted isophotes than any othercategory, and the early-type Seyfert 2s are significantly more disturbedthan the early-type Seyfert 1s. The morphological differences betweenSeyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s suggest that more is at work than simply theviewing angle of the central engine. They may correspond to differentevolutionary stages. The Stellar Populations of Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph ObservationsWe present a study of the stellar populations of low-luminosity activegalactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Our goal is to search for spectroscopicsignatures of young and intermediate-age stars and to investigate theirrelationship with the ionization mechanism in LLAGNs. The method used isbased on the stellar population synthesis of the optical continuum ofthe innermost (20-100 pc) regions in these galaxies. For this purpose,we have collected high spatial resolution optical (2900-5700 Å)STIS spectra of 28 nearby LLAGNs that are available in the Hubble SpaceTelescope archive. The analysis of these data is compared with a similaranalysis also presented here for 51 ground-based spectra of LLAGNs. Ourmain findings are as follows: (1) No features due to Wolf-Rayet starswere convincingly detected in the STIS spectra. (2) Young starscontribute very little to the optical continuum in the ground-basedaperture. However, the fraction of light provided by these stars ishigher than 10% in most of the weak-[O I] ([OI]/Hα<=0.25) LLAGNSTIS spectra. (3) Intermediate-age stars contribute significantly to theoptical continuum of these nuclei. This population is more frequent inobjects with weak than with strong [O I]. Weak-[O I] LLAGNs that haveyoung stars stand out for their intermediate-age population. (4) Most ofthe strong-[O I] LLAGNs have predominantly old stellar population. A fewof these objects also show a featureless continuum that contributessignificantly to the optical continuum. These results suggest that youngand intermediate-age stars do not play a significant role in theionization of LLAGNs with strong [O I]. However, the ionization inweak-[O I] LLAGNs with young and/or intermediate-age populations couldbe due to stellar processes. A comparison of the properties of theseobjects with Seyfert 2 galaxies that harbor a nuclear starburst suggeststhat weak-[O I] LLAGNs are the lower luminosity counterparts of theSeyfert 2 composite nuclei.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555. Based on observations made with the Nordic OpticalTelescope (NOT), operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark,Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio delRoque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica deCanarias. The Stellar Populations of Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Ground-based ObservationsWe present a spectroscopic study of the stellar populations oflow-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Our main goal is todetermine whether the stars that live in the innermost (100 pc scale)regions of these galaxies are in some way related to the emission-lineproperties, which would imply a link between the stellar population andthe ionization mechanism. High signal-to-noise ratio, ground-basedlong-slit spectra in the 3500-5500 Å interval were collected for60 galaxies: 51 LINERs and LINER/H II transition objects, two starburstgalaxies, and seven nonactive galaxies. In this paper, the first of aseries, we (1) describe the sample; (2) present the nuclear spectra; (3)characterize the stellar populations of LLAGNs by means of an empiricalcomparison with normal galaxies; (4) measure a set of spectral indices,including several absorption-line equivalent widths and colorsindicative of stellar populations; and (5) correlate the stellar indiceswith emission-line ratios that may distinguish between possibleexcitation sources for the gas. Our main findings are as follows: (1)Few LLAGNs have a detectable young (<~107 yr) starburstcomponent, indicating that very massive stars do not contributesignificantly to the optical continuum. In particular, no features dueto Wolf-Rayet stars were convincingly detected. (2) High-order Balmerabsorption lines of H I (HOBLs), on the other hand, are detected in ~40%of LLAGNs. These features, which are strongest in108-109 yr intermediate-age stellar populations,are accompanied by diluted metal absorption lines and bluer colors thanother objects in the sample. (3) These intermediate-age populations arevery common (~50%) in LLAGNs with relatively weak [O I] emission([OI]/Hα<=0.25) but rare (~10%) in LLAGNs with stronger [O I].This is intriguing since LLAGNs with weak [O I] have been previouslyhypothesized to be transition objects'' in which both an AGN and youngstars contribute to the emission-line excitation. Massive stars, ifpresent, are completely outshone by intermediate-age and old stars inthe optical. This happens in at least a couple of objects whereindependent UV spectroscopy detects young starbursts not seen in theoptical. (4) Objects with predominantly old stars span the whole rangeof [O I]/Hα values, but (5) sources with significant young and/orintermediate-age populations are nearly all (~90%) weak-[O I] emitters.These new findings suggest a link between the stellar populations andthe gas ionization mechanism. The strong-[O I] objects are most likelytrue LLAGNs, with stellar processes being insignificant. However, theweak-[O I] objects may comprise two populations, one where theionization is dominated by stellar processes and another where it isgoverned by either an AGN or a more even mixture of stellar and AGNprocesses. Possible stellar sources for the ionization include weakstarbursts, supernova remnants, and evolved poststarburst populations.These scenarios are examined and constrained by means of complementaryobservations and detailed modeling of the stellar populations inforthcoming communications.Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operatedon the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway,and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos ofthe Instituto de Astrofísica de Canárias. Nuclear Properties of a Sample of Nearby Spiral Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope STIS ImagingWe present surface photometry for the central regions of a sample of 48spiral galaxies (mostly unbarred and barred of type Sbc or Sc) observedwith the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble SpaceTelescope. Surface brightness profiles (SBPs) were derived and modeledwith a Nuker law. We also analyzed archival Wide Field Planetary Camera2 images with a larger field of view, which are available for 18galaxies in our sample. We modeled the extracted bulge SBPs with anexponential, an r1/4, or an rn profile. Inagreement with previous studies, we find that bulges of Sbc galaxiesfall into two categories: bulges well described by an exponentialprofile and those well described by an r1/4 profile. Only onegalaxy requires the use of a more general Sérsic profile toproperly describe the bulge. Nuclear photometrically distinct componentsare found in ~55% of the galaxies. For those that we classify as starclusters on the basis of their resolved extent, we find absolutemagnitudes that are brighter on average than those previously identifiedin spiral galaxies. This might be due to a bias in our sample towardstar-forming galaxies, combined with a trend for star-forming galaxiesto host brighter central clusters.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555. The Hα galaxy survey. I. The galaxy sample, Hα narrow-band observations and star formation parameters for 334 galaxiesWe discuss the selection and observations of a large sample of nearbygalaxies, which we are using to quantify the star formation activity inthe local Universe. The sample consists of 334 galaxies across allHubble types from S0/a to Im and with recession velocities of between 0and 3000 km s-1. The basic data for each galaxy are narrowband H\alpha +[NII] and R-band imaging, from which we derive starformation rates, H\alpha +[NII] equivalent widths and surfacebrightnesses, and R-band total magnitudes. A strong correlation is foundbetween total star formation rate and Hubble type, with the strongeststar formation in isolated galaxies occurring in Sc and Sbc types. Moresurprisingly, no significant trend is found between H\alpha +[NII]equivalent width and galaxy R-band luminosity. More detailed analyses ofthe data set presented here will be described in subsequent papers.Based on observations made with the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope operatedon the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto deAstrofísica de Canarias.The full version of Table \ref{tab3} is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/414/23 Reduced image datafor this survey can be downloaded fromhttp://www.astro.livjm.ac.uk/HaGS/ Dark halo properties from rotation curvesWe study a large set of high spatial resolution optical rotation curvesof galaxies with the goal of determining the model parameters for a discembedded within a cold dark matter (CDM) halo, which we model witheither a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile or pseudo-isothermal profile.We show that parameter degeneracies present in lower resolution data arelifted at these higher resolutions. 34 per cent of the galaxies do nothave a meaningful fit when using the NFW profile and 32 per cent whenusing the pseudo-isothermal profile, however only 14 per cent do nothave a meaningful fit in either model. In both models we findcorrelations between the disc baryon fraction fd and the spinparameter of the halo λ', between fd and the dark halomass M200, and between M200 and the concentrationparameter c. We show that the distribution of the concentrationparameter c, for a NFW halo, is in good agreement with CDM predictions;no significant galaxy population is found with very low values of c. Theoverall distribution of λ' is in good agreement with theoreticalpredictions from hierarchical tidal torque theory. The whole sample isalso well fitted by a pseudo-isothermal dark halo with a core, but thesize of the core is rather small (6 per cent of the virial radius orsmaller; for 70 per cent of the sample the core size is less than 2kpc). Thus we conclude that the profile of dark matter is steep(r-1 or steeper) down to this radius; large dark matter cores(and therefore very low dark matter central densities) seem to beexcluded. Low-surface-brightness galaxies tend to have higher values ofλ' for a given fd and lower values of c for a givenmass than high-surface-brightness galaxies. In an appendix we give someuseful formulae for pseudo-isothermal profile haloes and we discuss indetail the issue of parameter degeneracies. The Near-Infrared Ca II Triplet-σ Relation for Bulges of Spiral GalaxiesWe present measurements of the near-infrared Ca II triplet (CaT, CaT*),Paschen (PaT), and magnesium (Mg I) indices for a well-studied sample of19 bulges of early to intermediate spiral galaxies. We find that boththe CaT* and CaT indices decrease with central velocity dispersionσ with small scatter. This dependence is similar to that recentlyfound by Cenarro for elliptical galaxies, implying a uniformCaT*-σ relation that applies to galaxies from ellipticals tointermediate-type spirals. The decrease of CaT and CaT* with σcontrasts with the well-known increase of another α-element index,Mg2, with σ. We discuss the role of Ca underabundance([Ca/Fe]<0) and initial mass function variations in the onset of theobserved relations. An Atlas of Hubble Space Telescope Spectra and Images of Nearby Spiral GalaxiesWe have observed 54 nearby spiral galaxies with the Space TelescopeImaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to obtainoptical long-slit spectra of nuclear gas disks and STIS optical (~Rband) images of the central 5''×5'' of thegalaxies. These spectra are being used to determine the velocity fieldof nuclear disks and hence to detect the presence of central massiveblack holes. Here we present the spectra for the successfulobservations. Dust obscuration can be significant at opticalwavelengths, and so we also combine the STIS images with archivalNear-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer H-band images toproduce color maps to investigate the morphology of gas and dust in thecentral regions. We find a great variety in the different morphologies,from smooth distributions to well-defined nuclear spirals and dustlanes.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS5-26555. Minor axis kinematics of 19 S0-Sbc bulgesWe present minor axis kinematic profiles for a well-studied sample of 19early- to intermediate-type disk galaxies. We introduce, for the firsttime, the use of single-burst stellar population (SSP) models to obtainstellar velocities, velocity dispersions and higher order Gauss-Hermitemoments (h3, h4) from galaxy spectra in thenear-infrared Ca II triplet region. SSP models, which employs thesynthetic spectra of \citet{vazdekis03}, provide a means to address thetemplate-mismatch problem, and are shown to provide as good or betterfits as traditional stellar templates. We anticipate the technique to beof particular use for high-redshift galaxy kinematics. We give themeasurement of a recently defined CaT* index\citep{cenarro01}, and describe the global properties of the bulgekinematics as derived from the kinematic profiles. We detectsmall-amplitude minor-axis rotation, generally due to inner isophotaltwists as a result of slightly triaxial bulges or misaligned innerdisks; such inner features do not show peculiar colors or distinctCaT* index values. Velocity dispersion profiles, which extendwell into the disk region, show a wide range of slopes. Flattened bulgestend to have shallower velocity dispersion profiles. The inferredsimilarity of bulge and disk radial velocity dispersions supports theinterpretation of these bulges as thickened disks.Appendix B is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxiesWe have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of normality''. Thedefinition of a normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5 Bulges on the Fundamental Plane of early-type galaxiesIn an ongoing effort to study the formation and evolution of galacticbulges, we have investigated the position of 19 bulges of type S0-Sbc onthe Fundamental Plane (FP). We find that bulges, in both B and K band,lie close to but slightly below the FP defined by ellipticals and S0s,i.e. are slightly brighter. There are hints that bulges of latermorphological type are situated below the other bulges in our sample.The FP results are consistent with the picture, obtained from our recentanalysis of HST colours, that bulges are old, except for the Sbcgalaxies. The fact that bulges lie so close to the FP of ellipticals andS0s implies that their formation epoch must have been similar to, atmost about 2.5 Gyr earlier than, cluster Es and S0s, and that thesurrounding disc does not significantly affect their structure. The H I Line Width/Linear Diameter Relationship as an Independent Test of the Hubble ConstantThe relationship between corrected H I line widths and linear diameters(LW/LD) for spiral galaxies is used as an independent check on the valueof the Hubble constant. After calibrating the Tully-Fisher (TF) relationin both the B and I bands, the B-band relation is used for galaxies ofmorphological/luminosity types Sc I, Sc I.2, Sc I.3, Sab, Sb, Sb I-II,and Sb II to derive the LW/LD relation. We find that for this sample thescatter in the LW/LD is smallest with a Hubble constant of 90-95 kms-1 Mpc-1. Lower values of the Hubble constantproduce a separation in the LW/LD relation that is a function ofmorphological type. Since a Hubble constant of 90-95 is significantlylarger than the final Key Project value of 72 km s-1Mpc-1, a comparison of TF, surface brightness fluctuation(SBF), and fundamental plane (FP) is made. This comparison indicatesthat the Key Project TF distances to 21 clusters may be too large. For asample of 11 clusters, the Key Project TF distances provide anunweighted mean Hubble constant of 77 km s-1Mpc-1, while a combination of the FP, SBF, and our TFdistances for the same 11 clusters gives H0=91 kms-1 Mpc-1. A more subtle result in our data is amorphological dichotomy in the Hubble constant. The data suggest that ScI galaxies follow a Hubble constant of 90-95 while Sb galaxies follow aHubble constant closer to 75 km s-1 Mpc-1.Possible explanations for this result are considered, but it is shownthat this Sb/Sc I Hubble flow discrepancy is also present in the VirgoCluster and is consistent with previous investigations that indicatethat some galaxies carry a component of age-related intrinsic redshift. Bar Galaxies and Their EnvironmentsThe prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment. Radio sources in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei. III. AGNs'' in a distance-limited sample of LLAGNs''This paper presents the results of a high resolution radio imagingsurvey of all known (96) low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs)at D <= 19 Mpc. We first report new 2 cm (150 mas resolution usingthe VLA) and 6 cm (2 mas resolution using the VLBA) radio observationsof the previously unobserved nuclei in our samples and then presentresults on the complete survey. We find that almost half of all LINERsand low-luminosity Seyferts have flat-spectrum radio cores when observedat 150 mas resolution. Higher (2 mas) resolution observations of aflux-limited subsample have provided a 100% (16 of 16) detection rate ofpc-scale radio cores, with implied brightness temperatures gtrsim108 K. The five LLAGNs with the highest core radio fluxesalso have pc-scale jets''. Compact radio cores are almost exclusivelyfound in massive ellipticals and in type 1 nuclei (i.e. nuclei withbroad Hα emission). Only a few transition'' nuclei have compactradio cores; those detected in the radio have optical emission-linediagnostic ratios close to those of LINERs/Seyferts. This indicates thatsome transition nuclei are truly composite Seyfert/LINER+H II regionnuclei, with the radio core power depending on the strength of theformer component. The core radio power is correlated with the nuclearoptical broad'' Hα luminosity, the nuclear optical narrow''emission-line luminosity and width, and with the galaxy luminosity. Inthese correlations LLAGNs fall close to the low-luminosityextrapolations of more powerful AGNs. The scalings suggest that many ofthe radio-non-detected LLAGNs are simply lower power versions of theradio-detected LLAGNs. The ratio of core radio power to nuclear opticalemission-line luminosity increases with increasing bulge luminosity forall LLAGNs. Also, there is evidence that the luminosity of the diskcomponent of the galaxy is correlated with the nuclear emission-lineluminosity (but not the core radio power). About half of all LLAGNs withmultiple epoch data show significant inter-year radio variability.Investigation of a sample of ~ 150 nearby bright galaxies, most of themLLAGNs, shows that the nuclear (<=150 mas size) radio power isstrongly correlated with both the black hole mass and the galaxy bulgeluminosity; linear regression fits to all ~ 150 galaxies give: logP2 cm = 1.31(+/-0.16) log {MMDO} + 8.77 and logP2 cm = 1.89(+/-0.21) log LB(bulge) -0.17. Lowaccretion rates (<=10-2-10-3 of the Eddingtonrate) are implied in both advection- and jet-type models. In brief, allevidence points towards the presence of accreting massive black holes ina large fraction, perhaps all, of LLAGNs, with the nuclear radioemission originating in either the accretion inflow onto the massiveblack hole or from jets launched by this black hole-accretion disksystem. BeppoSAX observations of LINER-2 galaxiesWe present BeppoSAX observations of 6 type-2'' LINER andtransition'' galaxies (NGC 3379, NGC 3627, NGC 4125, NGC 4374, NGC5195 and NGC 5879) from the Ho et al. (\cite{Ho1997}) spectroscopicsample of nearby galaxies. All objects are detected in the 2-10 keVband, having luminosities in the range L2-10 keV ~1*E39-1*E40 erg s-1. The PDS upperlimits above 10 keV place constraints on the presence of a heavilyobscured AGN in the case of NGC 3379 and NGC 4125. No significantvariability is detected in any of the objects. The spectra are describedin most cases by a simple power-law model with a spectral slope of Gamma~ 1.7-2.5 while there is evidence neither for a significant absorptionabove the Galactic nor for an FeKalpha emission line.Therefore, based on the spectral properties alone, it is difficult todifferentiate between a low-luminosity AGN or a star-forming galaxyscenario. However, imaging observations of NGC 3627 and NGC 5195 withChandra ACIS-S reveal very weak nuclear sources while most of the X-rayflux originates either in off-nuclear point sources or in diffuseemission. The above clearly argue in favour of a star-forming origin forthe bulk of the X-ray emission, at least in the above two sources. Supernovae in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxiesIn order to investigate the influence of environment on supernova (SN)production, we have performed a statistical investigation of the SNediscovered in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxies. 22SNe in 18 isolated galaxies, 48 SNe in 40 galaxy members of 37 pairs and211 SNe in 170 galaxy members of 116 groups have been selected andstudied. We found that the radial distributions of core-collapse SNe ingalaxies located in different environments are similar, and consistentwith those reported by Bartunov, Makarova & Tsvetkov. SNe discoveredin pairs do not favour a particular direction with respect to thecompanion galaxy. Also, the azimuthal distributions inside the hostmembers of galaxy groups are consistent with being isotropics. The factthat SNe are more frequent in the brighter components of the pairs andgroups is expected from the dependence of the SN rates on the galaxyluminosity. There is an indication that the SN rate is higher in galaxypairs compared with that in groups. This can be related to the enhancedstar formation rate in strongly interacting systems. It is concludedthat, with the possible exception of strongly interacting systems, theparent galaxy environment has no direct influence on SN production. Homogenization of the Stellar Population along Late-Type Spiral GalaxiesWe present a study of the broadband UBV color profiles for 257 Sbcbarred and nonbarred galaxies, using photoelectric aperture photometrydata from the literature. Using robust statistical methods, we haveestimated the color gradients of the galaxies, as well as the total andbulge mean colors. A comparative photometric study using CCD images wasdone. In our sample, the color gradients are negative (reddish inward)in approximately 59% of the objects, are almost null in 27%, and arepositive in 14%, considering only the face-on galaxies, which representapproximately 51% of the sample. The results do not change, essentially,when we include the edge-on galaxies. As a consequence of this study wehave also found that barred galaxies are overrepresented among theobjects having null or positive gradients, indicating that bars act as amechanism of homogenization of the stellar population. This effect ismore evident in the U-B color index, although it can also be detected inthe B-V color. A correlation between the total and bulge colors wasfound that is a consequence of an underlying correlation between thecolors of bulges and disks found by other authors. Moreover, the meantotal color is the same irrespective of the gradient regime, whilebulges are bluer in galaxies with null or positive gradients, whichindicates an increase of the star formation rate in the central regionsof these objects. We have also made a quantitative evaluation of theamount of extinction in the center of these galaxies. This was doneusing the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and the Near InfraredCamera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) Hubble Space Telescope(HST) archival data, as well as CCD B, V, and I images. We show thatalthough the extinction in the V-band can reach values up to 2 mag inthe central region, it is unlikely that dust plays a fundamental role inglobal color gradients. We found no correlation between color and O/Habundance gradients. This result could suggest that the color gradientsare more sensitive to the age rather than to the metallicity of thestellar population. However, the absence of this correlation may becaused by dust extinction. We discuss this result by considering apicture in which bars are a relatively fast, recurrent phenomenon. Theseresults are not compatible with a pure classical monolithic scenario forbulge and disk formation. On the contrary, they favor a scenario inwhich both these components are evolving in a correlated process inwhich stellar bars play a crucial role. Based partly on observationsmade at the Pico dos Dias Observatory (PDO/LNA-CNPq), Brazil. The Nature of Composite LINER/H II Galaxies as Revealed from High-Resolution VLA ObservationsA sample of 37 nearby galaxies displaying composite LINER/H II and pureH II spectra was observed with the VLA in an investigation of the natureof their weak radio emission. The resulting radio contour maps overlaidon optical galaxy images are presented here, together with an extensiveliterature list and discussion of the individual galaxies. Radiomorphological data permit assessment of the classical active galacticnucleus (AGN)'' contribution to the global activity observed in thesetransition'' LINER galaxies. One in five of the latter objects displayclear AGN characteristics: these occur exclusively in bulge-dominatedhosts. Multiwavelength Observations of Dusty Star Formation at Low and High RedshiftIf high-redshift galaxies resemble rapidly star-forming galaxies in thelocal universe, most of the luminosity produced by their massive starswill have been absorbed by dust and reradiated as far-infrared photonsthat cannot be detected with existing facilities. This paper examineswhat can be learned about high-redshift star formation from the smallfraction of high-redshift galaxies' luminosities that is emitted ataccessible wavelengths. We first consider the most basic ingredient inthe analysis of high-redshift surveys: the estimation of star formationrates for detected galaxies. Standard techniques require an estimate ofthe bolometric luminosity produced by their massive stars. We review andquantify empirical correlations between bolometric luminosities producedby star formation and the UV, mid-IR, sub-mm, and radio luminosities ofgalaxies in the local universe. These correlations suggest thatobservations of high-redshift galaxies at any of these wavelengthsshould constrain their star formation rates to within ~0.2-0.3 dex. Weassemble the limited evidence that high-redshift galaxies obey theselocally calibrated correlations. The second part of the paper assesseswhether existing surveys have found the galaxies that host the majorityof star formation at high redshift even though they directly detect onlya small fraction of the luminosities of individual galaxies. We describethe characteristic luminosities and dust obscurations of galaxies atz~0, z~1, and z~3. After discussing the relationship between thehigh-redshift populations selected in surveys at different wavelengths,we calculate the contribution to the 850 μm background from each andargue that these known galaxy populations can together have produced theentire observed background. The available data show that a correlationbetween star formation rate and dust obscurationLbol,dust/LUV exists at low and high redshiftalike. The existence of this correlation plays a central role in themajor conclusion of this paper: most star formation at high redshiftoccurred in galaxies with moderate dust obscurations1<~Lbol,dust/LUV<~100 similar to those thathost the majority of star formation in the local universe and to thosethat are detected in UV-selected surveys. Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of GroupsIn this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales. Correlations among Global Photometric Properties of Disk GalaxiesUsing a two-dimensional galaxy image decomposition technique, we extractglobal bulge and disk parameters for a complete sample of early-typedisk galaxies in the near-infrared K band. We find significantcorrelation of the bulge parameter n with the central bulge surfacebrightness μb(0) and with effective radiusre. Using bivariate analysis techniques, we findthat logn, logre, and μb(0) are distributed ina plane with small scatter. We do not find a strong correlation of nwith bulge-to-disk luminosity ratio, contrary to earlier reports. Forthese early-type disk galaxies, re and the diskscale length rd are well correlated, but withlarge scatter. We examine the implications of our results for variousbulge formation scenarios in disk galaxies. Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. StatisticsWe present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Galactic bulges from Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS observations: ages and dustWe present optical and near-infrared colour maps of the central regionsof bulges of S0 and spiral galaxies obtained with WFPC2 and NICMOS onthe Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By combined use of HST andground-based data, the colour information spans a region from a few tensof pc to a few kpc. In almost all galaxies, the colour profiles in thecentral 100-200pc become more rapidly redder. We attribute the highcentral colour indices to a central concentration of dust. We infer anaverage extinction at the centre of AV=0.6-1.0mag. Severalobjects show central dust rings or discs at subkpc scales similar tothose found by others in giant ellipticals. For galactic bulges of typesS0 to Sb, the tightness of the B-I versus I-H relation suggests that theage spread among bulges of early-type galaxies is small, at most 2Gyr.Colours at 1Reff, where we expect extinction to benegligible, are similar to those of elliptical galaxies in the Comacluster, suggesting that these bulges formed at the same time as thebright galaxies in Coma. Furthermore, the galaxy ages are found to beindependent of their environment. As it is likely that Coma was formedat redshift z>3, our bulges, which are in groups and in the field,must also have been formed at this epoch. Bulges of early-type spiralscannot be formed by secular evolution of bars at recent epochs, becausesuch bulges would be much younger. There are three galaxies of type Sbcand later; their bulges are younger and could perhaps arise from secularevolution of transient bars. Our results are in good agreement withsemi-analytic predictions, which also predict that bulges, in clustersand in the field, are as old as giant ellipticals in clusters. Evolutionary tracks of active spirals.Not Available
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