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Multiwavelength Star Formation Indicators: Observations
We present a compilation of multiwavelength data on different starformation indicators for a sample of nearby star forming galaxies. Herewe discuss the observations, reductions and measurements of ultravioletimages obtained with STIS on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST),ground-based Hα, and VLA 8.46 GHz radio images. These observationsare complemented with infrared fluxes, as well as large-apertureoptical, radio, and ultraviolet data from the literature. This databasewill be used in a forthcoming paper to compare star formation rates atdifferent wave bands. We also present spectral energy distributions(SEDs) for those galaxies with at least one far-infrared measurementsfrom ISO, longward of 100 μm. These SEDs are divided in two groups,those that are dominated by the far-infrared emission, and those forwhich the contribution from the far-infrared and optical emission iscomparable. These SEDs are useful tools to study the properties ofhigh-redshift galaxies.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 mtelescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical ResearchConsortium.

Ultraviolet-to-Far-Infrared Properties of Local Star-forming Galaxies
We present the results of a multiwavelength study of nearby galaxiesaimed at understanding the relation between the ultraviolet andfar-infrared emission in star-forming galaxies. The data set comprisesnew ultraviolet (from HST STIS), ground-based Hα, and radiocontinuum observations, together with archival infrared data (from IRASand ISO). The local galaxies are used as benchmarks for comparison ofthe infrared-to-ultraviolet properties with two populations ofhigh-redshift galaxies: the submillimeter star-forming galaxies detectedby SCUBA and the ultraviolet-selected Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). Inaddition, the long wavelength baseline covered by the present dataenables us to compare the star formation rates (SFRs) derived from theobserved ultraviolet, Hα, infrared, and radio luminosities and togauge the impact of dust opacity in the local galaxies. We also derive anew calibration for the nonthermal part of the radio SFR estimator,based on the comparison of 1.4 GHz measurements with a new estimator ofthe bolometric luminosity of the star-forming regions. We find that moreactively star-forming galaxies show higher dust opacities, which is inline with previous results. We find that the local star-forming galaxieshave a lower Fλ(205 μm)/Fλ(UV)ratio by 2-3 orders of magnitude than the submillimeter-selectedgalaxies and may have a similar or somewhat higherFλ(205 μm)/Fλ(UV) ratio thanLBGs. The Fλ(205 μm)/Fλ(UV) ratioof the local galaxy population may be influenced by the cool dustemission in the far-infrared heated by nonionizing stellar populations,which may be reduced or absent in the LBGs.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 mtelescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical ResearchConsortium.

Catalog of Double Nucleus Disk Galaxies
We have compiled a catalog of disk galaxies that have a double nucleus,through systematic examination of existing catalogs and publications.The Catalog of Double Nucleus Disk Galaxies includes 107 objects,together with their basic data. The aim of the catalog is to provide amore systematic and homogeneous basis for the study of the relevance ofgalaxy interactions and minor mergers in the formation of these doublenuclei. We have also investigated possible correlations betweengeometric and photometric parameters of the double nuclei and their hostgalaxies. The preliminary results indicate the presence of severalsignificant correlations that should be considered in any theoreticalscenario describing minor mergers and disk galaxy evolution.

The evolution of stars and gas in starburst galaxies
In systems undergoing starbursts the evolution of the young stellarpopulation is expected to drive changes in the emission-line properties.This evolution is usually studied theoretically, with a combination ofevolutionary synthesis models for the spectral energy distribution ofstarbursts and photoionization calculations. In this paper we present amore empirical approach to this issue. We apply empirical populationsynthesis techniques to samples of starburst and HII galaxies in orderto measure their evolutionary state and correlate the results with theiremission-line properties. A couple of useful tools are introduced thatgreatly facilitate the interpretation of the synthesis: (1) anevolutionary diagram, the axes of which are the strengths of the young,intermediate age and old components of the stellar population mix; and(2) the mean age of stars associated with the starburst, . These toolsare tested with grids of theoretical galaxy spectra and found to workvery well even when only a small number of observed properties(absorption-line equivalent widths and continuum colours) is used in thesynthesis.Starburst nuclei and HII galaxies are found to lie on a well-definedsequence in the evolutionary diagram. Using the empirically defined meanstarburst age in conjunction with emission-line data, we have verifiedthat the equivalent widths of Hβ and [OIII] decrease for increasing. The same evolutionary trend was identified for line ratios indicativeof the gas excitation, although no clear trend was identified formetal-rich systems. All these results are in excellent agreement withlong-known, but little tested, theoretical expectations.

The PDS versus Markarian starburst galaxies: comparing strong and weak IRAS emitter at 12 and 25 μm in the nearby Universe
The characteristics of the starburst galaxies from the Pico dos Diassurvey (PDS) are compared with those of the nearby ultraviolet (UV)bright Markarian starburst galaxies, having the same limit in redshift(vh < 7500 km s-1) and absolute B magnitude(MB < -18). An important difference is found: theMarkarian galaxies are generally undetected at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS.This is consistent with the UV excess shown by these galaxies andsuggests that the youngest star-forming regions dominating thesegalaxies are relatively free of dust.The far-infrared selection criteria for the PDS are shown to introduce astrong bias towards massive (luminous) and large size late-type spiralgalaxies. This is contrary to the Markarian galaxies, which are found tobe remarkably rich in smaller size early-type galaxies. These resultssuggest that only late-type spirals with a large and massive disc arestrong emitters at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS in the nearby Universe.The Markarian and PDS starburst galaxies are shown to share the sameenvironment. This rules out an explanation of the differences observedin terms of external parameters. These differences may be explained byassuming two different levels of evolution, the Markarian being lessevolved than the PDS galaxies. This interpretation is fully consistentwith the disc formation hypothesis proposed by Coziol et al. to explainthe special properties of the Markarian SBNG.

Evolutionary spectral energy distribution diagnostics of starburst galaxies: signature of bimodality
We construct an evolutionary spectral energy distribution (SED) model ofa starburst region, from the ultraviolet to submillimetre wavelengths.This model allows us to derive the star formation rate, optical depth bydust and apparent effective radius of starburst regions at variouswavelengths; as a result, the intrinsic surface brightness of starburstregions can be derived. Using this SED model, we analyse 16ultraviolet-selected starburst galaxies and 10 ultraluminous infraredgalaxies. The derived star formation rates and optical depths arecompared with emission-line measurements and are found to be consistent.The derived apparent effective radii are also consistent withobservations. From the SED analysis, we find a bimodal property of thestar formation rate with the optical depth and the compactness ofstellar distributions. While mild starbursts have a limiting intrinsicsurface brightnessLbolr-2e~= 1012Lsolar kpc-2, intense starbursts tend to be moreheavily obscured and concentrated within a characteristic scale ofre~= 0.3 kpc. We suggest that the mild starbursts can betriggered by a self-gravitating disc instability in which feedback iseffective in the shallow gravitational potential. On the other hand, theintense starbursts can be induced via an external dynamical perturbationsuch as galaxy merging, in which feedback is less effective owing to thedeep gravitational potential attained by the large gas concentrationwithin the central starburst region.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data
We present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere.

Star formation rate in galaxies from UV, IR, and Hα estimators
Infrared (IR) luminosity of galaxies originating from dust thermalemission can be used as an indicator of the star formation rate (SFR).Inoue et al. (\cite{inoue00}, IHK) have derived a formula for theconversion from dust IR luminosity to SFR by using the following threequantities: the fraction of Lyman continuum luminosity absorbed by gas(f), the fraction of UV luminosity absorbed by dust (epsilon ), and thefraction of dust heating from old (ga 108 yr) stellarpopulations (eta ). We develop a method to estimate those threequantities based on the idea that the various way of SFR estimates fromultraviolet (UV) luminosity (2000 Å luminosity), Hαluminosity, and dust IR luminosity should return the same SFR. Afterapplying our method to samples of galaxies, the following results areobtained in our framework. First, our method is applied to a sample ofstar-forming galaxies, finding that f ~ 0.6, epsilon ~ 0.5, and eta ~0.4 as representative values. Next, we apply the method to a starburstsample, which shows larger extinction than the star-forming galaxysample. With the aid of f, epsilon , and eta , we are able to estimatereliable SFRs from UV and/or IR luminosities. Moreover, the Hαluminosity, if the Hα extinction is corrected by using the Balmerdecrement, is suitable for a statistical analysis of SFR, because thesame {correction factor for the Lyman continuum extinction (i.e. 1/f)}is applicable to both normal and starburst galaxies over all the rangeof SFR. The metallicity dependence of f and epsilon is also tested:Only the latter proves to have a correlation with metallicity. As anextension of our result, the local (z=0) comoving density of SFR can beestimated with our dust extinction corrections. We show that all UV,Hα , and IR comoving luminosity densities at z=0 give a consistentSFR per comoving volume ( ~ 3x 10-2h M_sun yr-1Mpc-3). Useful formulae for SFR estimate are listed.Tables 1 and 2, and Appendix A are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

A New Empirical Method for Estimating the Far-Infrared Flux of Galaxies
We propose a new empirical method to estimate the total far-infraredflux of galaxies from the spectral energy distribution (SED) atwavelengths of λ <= 100 μm. It is difficult to derive thetotal far-infrared luminosity from only the IRAS data, though it is oneof the most important properties of galaxies. Observations by InfraredTelescope in Space (IRTS) indicate that the SED of the diffuse emissionfrom the Galactic plane in this wavelength region can be derived fromthe 60 μm to 100 μm color. This empirical SED relation wasimproved in order to obtain a better fit to the Galactic plane data forIν(60 μm) / Iν(100 μm) > 0.6, andapplied to 96 IRAS galaxies for which ISOPHOT and KAO data are availableat λ > 100 μm. As a result, the empirical relation welldescribes the far-infrared (FIR) SED for a majority of galaxies.Additionally, the total FIR flux for λ >= 40 μm was derivedfrom the flux densities at 60 and 100 μm by using this model. For the96 IRAS galaxies, the uncertainty in the total far-infrared flux of thepresent method is 26%. The present method is more accurate than theprevious one widely used to derive the total infrared flux from the IRAS60 and 100 μm data.

An empirical calibration of star formation rate estimators
The observational determination of the behaviour of the star formationrate (SFR) with look-back time or redshift has two main weaknesses: (i)the large uncertainty of the dust/extinction corrections, and (ii) thatsystematic errors may be introduced by the fact that the SFR isestimated using different methods at different redshifts. Mostfrequently, the luminosity of the Hα emission line, that of theforbidden line [O II] λ3727 and that of the far-ultravioletcontinuum are used with low-, intermediate- and high-redshift galaxies,respectively. To assess the possible systematic differences among thedifferent SFR estimators and the role of dust, we have compared SFRestimates using Hα, [O II] λ3727 Å, ultraviolet (UV)and far-infrared (FIR) luminosities [SFR(Hα), SFR(O II), SFR(UV)and SFR(FIR), respectively of a sample comprising the 31 nearbystar-forming galaxies that have high-quality photometric data in the UV,optical and FIR. We review the different `standard' methods for theestimation of the SFR and find that while the standard method providesgood agreement between SFR(Hα) and SFR(FIR), both SFR(O II) andSFR(UV) are systematically higher than SFR(FIR), irrespective of theextinction law. We show that the excess in the SFR(O II) and SFR(UV) ismainly due to an overestimation of the extinction resulting from theeffect of underlying stellar Balmer absorptions in the measured emissionline fluxes. Taking this effect into consideration in the determinationof the extinction brings the SFR(O II) and SFR(UV) in line with theSFR(FIR), and simultaneously reduces the internal scatter of the SFRestimations. Based on these results, we have derived `unbiased' SFRexpressions for the SFR(UV), SFR(OII) and SFR(Hα). We have usedthese estimators to recompute the SFR history of the Universe using theresults of published surveys. The main results are that the use of theunbiased SFR estimators brings into agreement the results of allsurveys. Particularly important is the agreement achieved for the SFRderived from the FIR/millimetre and optical/UV surveys. The `unbiased'star formation history of the Universe shows a steep rise in the SFRfrom z =0 to z =1 with SFR ~(1+z)4.5, followed by a declinefor z>2 where SFR ~(1+z)-1.5. Galaxy formation models tendto have a much flatter slope from z=0 to z=1

A New Database of Observed Spectral Energy Distributions of Nearby Starburst Galaxies from the Ultraviolet to the Far-Infrared
We present a database of UV-to-FIR data of 83 nearby starburst galaxies.The galaxies are selected based upon the availability of IUE data. Wehave recalibrated the IUE UV spectra for these galaxies by incorporatingthe most recent improvements. For 45 of these galaxies we useobservations by Storchi-Bergmann et al. and McQuade et al. for thespectra in the optical range. The NIR data are from new observationsobtained at the NASA/IRTF and the Mount Laguna Observatory, combinedwith the published results from observations at the Kitt Peak NationalObservatory. In addition, published calibrated ISO data are included toprovide mid-IR flux densities for some of the galaxies. Theoptical-to-IR data are matched as closely as possible to the IUE largeaperture. In conjunction with IRAS and ISO FIR flux densities, all thesedata form a set of observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of thenuclear regions of nearby starburst galaxies. The SEDs should be usefulin studying star formation and dust/gas attenuation in galaxies. We alsopresent the magnitudes in the standard BVRI and various HST/WFPC2bandpasses synthesized from the UV and optical wavelength ranges ofthese SEDs. For some of the galaxies, the HST/WFPC2 magnitudessynthesized from the SEDs are checked with those directly measured fromWFPC2 images to test the photometric errors of the optical data andtheir effective matching of apertures with the UV data. The implicationsof the new SEDs on the star formation rates and dust/gas attenuation arebriefly discussed.

Far-Infrared Census of Starburst-Seyfert Connection
Far-infrared flux densities are newly extracted from the IRAS databasefor the Revised Shapley-Ames and CfA complete samples of Seyfertgalaxies. These data are used to classify the Seyfert galaxies intothose where the far-infrared continuum emission is dominated by theactive galactic nucleus (AGN), circumnuclear starburst, or host galaxy.While AGN-dominant objects consist of comparable numbers of Seyfert 1and 2 galaxies, starburst- and host-dominant objects consistpreferentially of Seyfert 2 galaxies. Thus, in addition to the dustytorus, the circumnuclear starburst region and host galaxy are importantin hiding the broad-line region. Morphologically, starburst-dominantSeyfert galaxies are of later types and more strongly interacting thanAGN-dominant Seyfert galaxies. In a later type galaxy, the AGN centralengine has a lower Eddington luminosity, and the gaseous content ishigher. The gas is efficiently supplied to the starburst via agalaxy-galaxy interaction. Morphologies of host-dominant Seyfertgalaxies are of various types. Since starbursts in Seyfert galaxies areolder than those in classical starburst galaxies, we propose anevolution from starburst to starburst-dominant Seyfert to host-dominantSeyfert for a late-type galaxy. An evolution from AGN-dominant Seyfertto host-dominant Seyfert is proposed for an early-type galaxy. Thesesequences have durations of a few times 108 yr and occurrepeatedly within a galaxy during its evolution from a late type to anearly type.

Star formation and dust extinction in nearby star-forming and starburst galaxies
We study the star formation rate and dust extinction properties of asample of nearby star-forming galaxies as derived from Hα and UV (~ 2000 Å) observations and we compare them to those of a sample ofstarburst galaxies. The dust extinction in Hα is estimated fromthe Balmer decrement and the extinction in UV using the FIR to UV fluxratio or the attenuation law for starburst galaxies of Calzetti et al.(\cite{calzetti5}). The Hα and UV emissions are stronglycorrelated with a very low scatter for the star-forming objects and witha much higher scatter for the starburst galaxies. The Hα to UVflux ratio is found to be larger by a factor ~ 2 for the starburstgalaxies. We compare both samples with a purely UV selected sample ofgalaxies and we conclude that the mean Hα and UV properties ofnearby star-forming galaxies are more representative of UV-selectedgalaxies than starburst galaxies. We emphasize that the Hα to UVflux ratio is strongly dependent on the dust extinction: the positivecorrelation found between FHα/FUV andFFIR/FUV vanishes when the Hα and UV fluxare corrected for dust extinction. The Hα to UV flux ratiosconverted into star formation rate and combined with the Balmerdecrement measurements are tentatively used to estimate the dustextinction in UV.

Strömgren Photometry from z=0 to z~1. I. The Method
We use rest-frame Strömgren photometry to observe clusters ofgalaxies in a self-consistent manner from z=0 to z=0.8. Strömgrenphotometry of galaxies is intended as a compromise between standardbroadband photometry and spectroscopy, in the sense that it is moresensitive to subtle variations in spectral energy distributions than theformer, yet much less time-consuming than the latter. principalcomponent analysis is used to facilitate extraction of information fromthe Strömgren data. By calibrating the principal components usingwell-studied galaxies, as well as models of stellar populations, wedevelop a purely empirical method to detect, and subsequently classify,cluster galaxies at all redshifts smaller than 0.8. Interlopers arediscarded with unprecedented efficiency (up to 100%). The firstprincipal component essentially reproduces the Hubble sequence and canthus be used to determine the global star formation history of clustermembers. The (PC2, PC3) plane allows us to identify Seyfert galaxies(and distinguish them from starbursts) based on photometric colorsalone. In the case of E/S0 galaxies with known redshift, we are able toresolve the age-dust-metallicity degeneracy, albeit at the accuracylimit of our present observations. We use this technique in later papersto probe galaxy clusters well beyond their cores and to faintermagnitudes than spectroscopy can achieve, because the faint end of theluminosity function as well as the outer cluster regions seem to exhibitthe strongest evolutionary trends. We are able to directly compare thesedata over the entire redshift range without a priori assumptions becauseour observations do not require first-order k-corrections. Thecompilation of such data for different cluster types over a wideredshift range is likely to set important constraints on the evolutionof galaxies and on the clustering process.

The Dust Temperature of the ``Dusty'' Radio Galaxy MG 1019+0535: Evidence for an Outflow
Radio galaxies characteristically have strong Lyα emission lines.However, a few have Lyα equivalent widths that are substantiallyweaker in relation to other emission lines. One in particular, MG1019+0535 (z=2.765), was studied by Dey, Spinrad, & Dickinson in1995. We report on our reduction of Infrared Space Observatory (ISO)data in the 160 μm band for this galaxy. We also compile informationon two other high-redshift active galaxies with weak Lyα lines,the radio galaxy TXS 0211-122 and the AGN-starburst galaxy F10214+4724,to provide a small weak-Lyα line sample. IRAS plus ISO data showthat F10214+4724 has a temperature 89+/-12 K. TXS 0211-122 was notdetected in either the submillimeter or microwave. Submillimetermeasurements of MG 1019+0535 by Cimatti et al. were suggestive of a dusttemperature in the range 35 K<=Td<=80 K. However, our 2σ upper limit on the flux at 160 μm shows thatTd<~32 K. An energy argument based on observations whichconstrain the total optical extinction strongly suggests that the dusttemperature must be even lower: Td<~20 K. We find thecontrast between the high-temperature dust in the active starburstgalaxy and the low-temperature dust in the evolved, albeit activegalaxy, is consistent with an expanding cloud of dust. We find that thetemperature range can be reconciled if we are seeing MG 1019+0535 at apoststarburst age of ~500-700 Myr, with the bulk of its dust cloud at agalactocentric distance Rd>~300 kpc.

Numerous Old Starburst Galaxies in the Local Universe
Old starburst galaxies are deficient in O stars and hence do not exhibitstrong line emission in the optical regime. However, there remain many Bstars, which are expected to heat dust grains and generate strongcontinuum emission in the far-infrared. The IRAS data for astatistically complete sample of nearby galaxies reveal for the firsttime that such objects are as numerous as 30%-40% of the local galaxypopulation.

Multiwavelength Observations of Dusty Star Formation at Low and High Redshift
If high-redshift galaxies resemble rapidly star-forming galaxies in thelocal universe, most of the luminosity produced by their massive starswill have been absorbed by dust and reradiated as far-infrared photonsthat cannot be detected with existing facilities. This paper examineswhat can be learned about high-redshift star formation from the smallfraction of high-redshift galaxies' luminosities that is emitted ataccessible wavelengths. We first consider the most basic ingredient inthe analysis of high-redshift surveys: the estimation of star formationrates for detected galaxies. Standard techniques require an estimate ofthe bolometric luminosity produced by their massive stars. We review andquantify empirical correlations between bolometric luminosities producedby star formation and the UV, mid-IR, sub-mm, and radio luminosities ofgalaxies in the local universe. These correlations suggest thatobservations of high-redshift galaxies at any of these wavelengthsshould constrain their star formation rates to within ~0.2-0.3 dex. Weassemble the limited evidence that high-redshift galaxies obey theselocally calibrated correlations. The second part of the paper assesseswhether existing surveys have found the galaxies that host the majorityof star formation at high redshift even though they directly detect onlya small fraction of the luminosities of individual galaxies. We describethe characteristic luminosities and dust obscurations of galaxies atz~0, z~1, and z~3. After discussing the relationship between thehigh-redshift populations selected in surveys at different wavelengths,we calculate the contribution to the 850 μm background from each andargue that these known galaxy populations can together have produced theentire observed background. The available data show that a correlationbetween star formation rate and dust obscurationLbol,dust/LUV exists at low and high redshiftalike. The existence of this correlation plays a central role in themajor conclusion of this paper: most star formation at high redshiftoccurred in galaxies with moderate dust obscurations1<~Lbol,dust/LUV<~100 similar to those thathost the majority of star formation in the local universe and to thosethat are detected in UV-selected surveys.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

The Dust Content and Opacity of Actively Star-forming Galaxies
We present far-infrared (FIR) photometry at 150 and 205 μm of eightlow-redshift starburst galaxies obtained with the Infrared SpaceObservatory (ISO) ISOPHOT. Five of the eight galaxies are detected inboth wave bands, and these data are used, in conjunction with IRASarchival photometry, to model the dust emission at λ>~40μm. The FIR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are best fitted by acombination of two modified Planck functions, with T~40-55 K (warm dust)and T~20-23 K (cool dust) and with a dust emissivity index ɛ=2.The cool dust can be a major contributor to the FIR emission ofstarburst galaxies, representing up to 60% of the total flux. Thiscomponent is heated not only by the general interstellar radiationfield, but also by the starburst itself. The cool dust mass is up to~150 times larger than the warm dust mass, bringing the gas-to-dustratios of the starbursts in our sample close to Milky Way values, oncerescaled for the appropriate metallicity. The ratio between the totaldust FIR emission in the range 1-1000 μm and the IRAS FIR emission inthe range 40-120 μm is ~1.75, with small variations from galaxy togalaxy. This ratio is about 40% larger than previously inferred fromdata at millimeter wavelengths. Although the galaxies in our sample aregenerally classified as ``UV bright,'' for four of them the UV energyemerging shortward of 0.2 μm is less than 15% of the FIR energy. Onaverage, about 30% of the bolometric flux is coming out in theUV-to-near-IR wavelength range; the rest is emitted in the FIR. Energybalance calculations show that the FIR emission predicted by the dustreddening of the UV-to-near-IR stellar emission is within a factor of ~2of the observed value in individual galaxies and within 20% whenaveraged over a large sample. If our sample of local starbursts isrepresentative of high-redshift (z>~1), UV-bright, star-forminggalaxies, these galaxies' FIR emission will be generally undetected insubmillimeter surveys, unless (1) their bolometric luminosity iscomparable to or larger than that of ultraluminous FIR galaxies and (2)their FIR SED contains a cool dust component. Based on observations withISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA member states(especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and theUnited Kingdom) with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

Star formation in distant starburst galaxies
This paper discusses the stellar population content of distant (5 000 kms^{-1} <== V_R<=16 000 km s^{-1}) galaxies with enhancedstar-formation activity. Distinction is made between isolated galaxiesand galaxies morphologically disturbed, with clear signs of interactionsuch as mergers. In these galaxies the International UltravioletExplorer (M_BoxIUE) large aperture samples most of the galaxy's body.Consequently, the resulting integrated spectra arise primarily from bluestellar populations of different ages together with significantcontributions from intermediate and old age components, subject tovarying reddening amounts. Instead of analysing individual, usually lowSignal-to-Noise ratio (S/N) spectra, our approach is to coadd thespectra of objects with similar spectral properties in the UV,considering as well their properties in the visible/near-infraredranges. Consequently, the resulting high (S/N) template spectra containthe average properties of a rather uniform class of objects, andinformation on spectral features can now be analysed with moreprecision. Three groups have been found for the interacting galaxies,corresponding to a red, blue and very blue continuum. Isolated galaxieshave been separated into two groups, one with a flat/red continuum andthe other with a blue continuum. For comparison, we also include in thepresent analysis two groups of nearby disturbed galaxies. Stellarpopulations are analysed by means of a synthesis algorithm based on starcluster spectral components of different ages which fit the observedspectra both in terms of continuum distribution and spectral features.Flux fractions of the different age groups found in the synthesis havebeen transformed into mass fractions, allowing inferences on the starformation histories. Young stellar populations (age <500 Myr) are themain flux contributors, except for the groups with a red spectrum notdue to extinction, arising from the intermediate (age ~1 - 2 Gyr) andold age populations. We also study the reddening values and theextinction law: a Small Magellanic Cloud-like extinction law isappropriate for all cases. As compared to nearby galaxies with enhancedstar-formation, the distant starburst galaxy spectral groups exhibitlarger contributions from the intermediate and old age populations. Thiseffect is mainly accounted for by the larger spatial area sampled by theM_BoxIUE slit in the distant galaxies, including not only the entirebulge but also evolved disk populations. The present results provide aquantitative measure of the star-forming activity in interactinggalaxies, compared to isolated galaxies. Based upon data collected withthe International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Satellite, supported byNASA, SERC and ESA.

Age and Dust Degeneracy for Starburst Galaxies Solved?
We present a newly built spectral evolution model of galaxies thatincludes both stellar and dust effects. Applying the model to 22 nearbystarburst galaxies shows that far-infrared (FIR) luminosity of galaxieshelps to break the age-dustiness degeneracy. We have derived a uniquesolution of age and the dustiness for each starburst galaxy. Theresulting starburst ages and optical depths are in the range 10<=t(Myr)<=500 and 0.5<=tau_V<=5.0, respectively. The result isrobust and is almost independent of model assumptions such as dustdistributions, extinction curves, and burst strengths. With the rapidlygrowing sensitivity of submillimeter detectors, it should becomepossible in the near future to determine the age and tau_V ofstar-forming galaxies at redshifts z~=3 and beyond. Accurate estimatesof tau_V for Lyman-break galaxies and high-z galaxies might require asubstantial revision of the previously claimed picture of star formationhistory over the Hubble time.

Dust Absorption and the Ultraviolet Luminosity Density at Z~3 as Calibrated by Local Starburst Galaxies
We refine a technique to measure the absorption-corrected ultraviolet(UV) luminosity of starburst galaxies using rest-frame UV quantitiesalone and apply it to Lyman-limit U dropouts at z~3 found in the HubbleDeep Field (HDF). The method is based on an observed correlation betweenthe ratio of far-infrared (FIR) to UV fluxes with spectral slope beta (aUV color). A simple fit to this relation allows the UV flux absorbed bydust and reprocessed to the FIR to be calculated, and hence thedust-free UV luminosity to be determined. International UltravioletExplorer spectra and Infrared Astronomical Satellite fluxes of localstarbursts are used to calibrate the F_FIR/F_1600 versus beta relationin terms of A_1600 (the dust absorption at 1600 Å) and thetransformation from broadband photometric color to beta. Bothcalibrations are almost completely independent of theoreticalstellar-population models. We show that the recent marginal andnondetections of HDF U dropouts at radio and submillimeter wavelengthsare consistent with their assumed starburst nature and our calculatedA_1600. This is also true of recent observations of the ratio of opticalemission-line flux to UV flux density in the brightest U dropouts. Thislatter ratio turns out not to be a good indicator of dust extinction. InU dropouts, absolute magnitude M_1600,0 correlates with beta: brightergalaxies are redder, as is observed to be the case for local starburstgalaxies. This suggests that a mass-metallicity relationship is alreadyin place at z~3. The absorption-corrected UV luminosity function of Udropouts extends up to M_1600,0~-24 AB mag, corresponding to a starformation rate ~200 M_solar yr^-1 (H_0=50 km s^-1 Mpc^-3 and q_0=0.5 areassumed throughout). The absorption-corrected UV luminosity density atz~3 is rho_1600,0>=1.4x10^27 ergs^-1 Hz^-1 Mpc^-1. It is still alower limit since completeness corrections have not been done andbecause only galaxies with A_1600<~3.6 mag are blue enough in the UVto be selected as U dropouts. The luminosity-weighted meandust-absorption factor of our sample is 5.4+/-0.9 at 1600 Å.

The Supernova Rate in Starburst Galaxies
We conducted an optical CCD search for supernovae in a sample of 142bright [m(B) <= 16 mag], nearby (z<=0.03) starburst galaxies overthe period 1988 December to 1991 June, to a limiting R-band magnitude of18. Five supernovae were found, in all cases outside the host galaxy'snucleus. We determine supernova rates (in supernova units or SNU) in theextranuclear regions to be 0.7 h^2 SNU for Type Ia, 0.7 h^2 SNU for TypeIb/c, and ~0.6 h^2 SNU for Type II, with large uncertainties but upperlimits of 2.2 h^2, 2.5 h^2, and 1.7 h^2 SNU, respectively. These ratesare similar to those measured in ``normal'' galaxies. We found noevidence for a supernova-induced brightening in any galactic nucleusand, with a few reasonable assumptions, can place upper limits of 9 h^2,12 h^2, and 7 h^2 SNU on the rates of unobscured supernovae Types Ia,Ib/c, and II, respectively, inside the nuclei.

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

Surface Brightness of Starbursts at Low and High Redshifts
Observations in the rest-frame ultraviolet from various space missionsare used to define the nearby starburst regions having the highestsurface brightness on scales of several hundred parsecs. The brightlimit is found to be 6 x 10^-16 ergs cm^-2 s^-1 Å^-1 arcsec^-2 forrest-frame wavelength of 1830 Å. Surface brightness in thebrightest pixel is measured for 18 galaxies in the Hubble Deep Fieldhaving z > 2.2. After correcting for cosmological dimming, we findthat the high-redshift starbursts have intrinsic ultraviolet surfacebrightness that is typically 4 times brighter than low-redshiftstarbursts. It is not possible to conclude whether this difference iscaused by decreased dust obscuration in the high-redshift starburstregions or by intrinsically more intense star formation. Surfacebrightness enhancement of starburst regions may be the primary factorfor explaining the observed increase with redshift of the ultravioletluminosity arising from star formation.

Dust in Starburst Galaxies
To investigate the nature of starburst dust, we constructed a model ofthe stars and dust in starburst galaxies and applied it to 30 observedstarburst spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The starburst model wasconstructed by combining two stellar evolutionary synthesis models witha model describing the radiative transfer of stellar photons throughdust. The stellar evolutionary synthesis models were used to compute thedust-free SEDs for stellar populations with ages between 1 x 106 and 15x 109 yr. Using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model, the effects ofdust were computed for average Milky Way (MW) and Small Magellanic Cloud(SMC) dust, two different star/dust geometries, and locally homogeneousor clumpy dust. Using color-color plots, the starburst model was used tointerpret the behavior of 30 starbursts with aperture-matched UV andoptical SEDs (and IR for 19 of the 30) from previous studies. From thecolor-color plots, it was evident that the dust in starbursts has anextinction curve lacking a 2175 Angstroms bump, like the SMC curve, anda steep far-UV rise, intermediate between the MW and SMC curves. Thestar/dust geometry that is able to explain the distribution of the 30starbursts in various color-color plots has an inner dust-free sphere ofstars surrounded by an outer star-free shell of clumpy dust. Whencombined with other work from the literature on the Orion region and the30 Dor region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, this work implies a trendin dust properties with star formation intensity.

The Spectral Energy Distribution of Normal, Starburst, and Active Galaxies.
We present the results of an extensive literature search ofmultiwavelength data for a sample of 59 galaxies, consisting of 26Starbursts, 15 Seyfert 2's, 5 LINER's, 6 normal spirals and 7 normalelliptical galaxies. The data include soft X-ray fluxes, ultraviolet andoptical spectra, near, mid/far infrared photometry and radiomeasurements, selected to match as closely as possible the IUE aperture(10\arcsecx20\arcsec). The galaxies are separated into 6 groups withsimilar characteristics, namely, Ellipticals, Spirals, LINER's, Seyfert2's, Starbursts of Low and High reddening, for which we create averagespectral energy distributions (SED). The individual groups SED's arenormalized to the lambda 7000 Angstroms flux and compared, looking forsimilarities and differences among them. We find that the SED's ofNormal Spirals and Ellipticals are very similar over the entire energyrange, and fainter than those of all other groups. LINER's SED's aresimilar to those of Seyfert 2's and Starbursts only in the visual tonear-IR waveband, being fainter in the remaining wavebands. Seyfert 2'sare similar to Starbursts in the radio to near-IR waveband, fainter inthe visual to ultraviolet, but stronger in the X-rays. Low and Highreddening Starbursts are similar along the entire SED, differing in theultraviolet, where Low reddening Starbursts are stronger, and in themid/far IR where they are fainter. We have also collectedmultiwavelength data for 4 HII regions, a thermal supernova remnant, anda non-thermal supernova remnant (SNR), which are compared with theStarburst SED's. The HII regions and thermal SNR's have similar SED's,differing only in the X-ray and far infrared. The non-thermal SNR SED isa flat continuum, different from all the other SED's. Comparing theSED's of Starbursts and HII regions we find that they are similar in themid/far IR parts of the spectrum, but HII regions are fainter in theradio and X-rays. Starbursts are also stronger than HII regions in thevisual and near-IR parts of the spectrum, due to the contribution fromold stars to Starbursts. The bolometric fluxes of the different types ofgalaxies are calculated integrating their SED's. These values arecompared with individual waveband flux densities, in order to determinethe wavebands which contribute most to the bolometric flux. In Seyfert2's, LINER's and Starbursts, the mid/far IR emission are the mostimportant contributers to the bolometric flux, while in normal Spiralsand Ellipticals this flux is dominated by the near-IR and visualwavebands. Linear regressions were performed between the bolometric andindividual band fluxes for each kind of galaxy. These fits can be usedine the calculation of the bolometric flux for other objects of similaractivity type, but with reduced waveband information.

Reddening and Star Formation in Starburst Galaxies
The reddening properties and the star formation history of a sample of19 starburst galaxies are investigated using multiwavelengthspectroscopy and infrared broad band photometry. New photometric data inthe J, H, and K bands of the central starburst regions are supplementedwith previously published spectra, covering the wavelength range0.12-2.2 mu m. In the infrared, the reddening value derived for thestellar continuum is in agreement with that of the ionized gas, but thetwo values diverge at shorter wavelengths; in the UV, the mean opticaldepth of the dust in front of the stars is smaller, being only 60%, thanthe optical depth of the dust in front of the nebular gas. Thisdifference can be better understood if the UV-bright stellar populationand the ionized gas are not co-spatial. A model of foreground clumpydust, with different covering factors for the gas and the stars, isproposed to account for the difference in reddening. A ``templatestarburst spectrum'', derived by combining the reddening-corrected UV,optical, and infrared data of all the galaxies in the sample, is used toinvestigate the star formation history of the galaxies. Spectralsynthesis models indicate that the observed UV emission can beattributed to a stellar population which is undergoing active starformation at a constant rate since ~ 2x10(7) yr, in agreement with thesupernova rates derived from the [FeII] emission line in the infrared.At least two, and probably more, intermediate age populations(age<2x10(9) yr) contribute to the optical and infrared emission,while populations older than ~ 2x10(9) yr do not contributesignificantly to the template. The stellar composition of the templatespectrum suggests episodic star formation over the last 10(9) yr, withstar formation rates as large as or larger than the present rates. Thesynthetic stellar populations are generated according to an Initial MassFunction (IMF) with Salpeter slope (alpha =2.35) in the mass range0.1-100 Msun, and reproduce a number of observationalconstraints, such as the spectral energy distribution of the templatespectrum, the equivalent width of the atomic hydrogen emission lines,and the mass-to-light ratios; the data, then, do not provide indicationfor a high-mass-star truncated or a low-mass-star deficient IMF instarburst galaxies.

Photometric Signatures of Starbursts in Interacting Galaxies and the Butcher-Oemler Effect
This paper presents new and synthetic narrowband photometry ofellipticals, spirals, Seyferts, and interacting galaxies in an attemptto identify the cause of the unusually high fraction of blue clustergalaxies in distance clusters (Butcher-Oemler effect). The propertiesand distribution of the low-redshift sample specifically points tostarbursts as the origin of the blue narrowband colors in interactingArp galaxies. Comparison between theoretical models and multicolordiagrams, particularly 4000 A break colors, indicates a photometricsignature that differs from both normal disk galaxy star formation andnonthermal components. This photometric signature is absent for theButcher-Oemler galaxies whose general color distribution, compared topresent-day clusters, is consistent with a majority of the bluepopulation involved in normal star formation rates (spiral-like) withthe addition of a small fraction of bright, blue interacting/mergersystems. This photometric picture of the Butcher-Oemler galaxies is inagreement with the morphological evidence from Hubble Space Telescopeimaging.

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Right ascension:15h06m33.60s
Aparent dimensions:0.794′ × 0.759′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 5860

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