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Properties of isolated disk galaxies
We present a new sample of northern isolated galaxies, which are definedby the physical criterion that they were not affected by other galaxiesin their evolution during the last few Gyr. To find them we used thelogarithmic ratio, f, between inner and tidal forces acting upon thecandidate galaxy by a possible perturber. The analysis of thedistribution of the f-values for the galaxies in the Coma cluster leadus to adopt the criterion f ≤ -4.5 for isolated galaxies. Thecandidates were chosen from the CfA catalog of galaxies within thevolume defined by cz ≤5000 km s-1, galactic latitudehigher than 40o and declination ≥-2.5o. Theselection of the sample, based on redshift values (when available),magnitudes and sizes of the candidate galaxies and possible perturberspresent in the same field is discussed. The final list of selectedisolated galaxies includes 203 objects from the initial 1706. The listcontains only truly isolated galaxies in the sense defined, but it is byno means complete, since all the galaxies with possible companions underthe f-criterion but with unknown redshift were discarded. We alsoselected a sample of perturbed galaxies comprised of all the diskgalaxies from the initial list with companions (with known redshift)satisfying f ≥ -2 and \Delta(cz) ≤500 km s-1; a totalof 130 objects. The statistical comparison of both samples showssignificant differences in morphology, sizes, masses, luminosities andcolor indices. Confirming previous results, we found that late spiral,Sc-type galaxies are, in particular, more frequent among isolatedgalaxies, whereas Lenticular galaxies are more abundant among perturbedgalaxies. Isolated systems appear to be smaller, less luminous and bluerthan interacting objects. We also found that bars are twice as frequentamong perturbed galaxies compared to isolated galaxies, in particularfor early Spirals and Lenticulars. The perturbed galaxies have higherLFIR/LB and Mmol/LB ratios,but the atomic gas content is similar for the two samples. The analysisof the luminosity-size and mass-luminosity relations shows similartrends for both families, the main difference being the almost totalabsence of big, bright and massive galaxies among the family of isolatedsystems, together with the almost total absence of small, faint and lowmass galaxies among the perturbed systems. All these aspects indicatethat the evolution induced by interactions with neighbors would proceedfrom late, small, faint and low mass Spirals to earlier, bigger, moreluminous and more massive spiral and lenticular galaxies, producing atthe same time a larger fraction of barred galaxies but preserving thesame relations between global parameters. The properties we found forour sample of isolated galaxies appear similar to those of high redshiftgalaxies, suggesting that the present-day isolated galaxies could bequietly evolved, unused building blocks surviving in low densityenvironments.Tables \ref{t1} and \ref{t2} are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Massive Star Clusters in Ongoing Galaxy Interactions: Clues to Cluster Formation
We present HST WFPC2 observations, supplemented by ground-based Hαdata, of the star-cluster populations in two pairs of interactinggalaxies selected for being in very different kinds of encounters seenat different stages. Dynamical information and n-body simulationsprovide the details of encounter geometry, mass ratio, and timing. InNGC 5752/4 we are seeing a weak encounter, well past closest approach,after about 2.5×108 yr. The large spiral NGC 5754 has anormal population of disk clusters, while the fainter companion NGC 5752exhibits a rich population of luminous clusters with a flatterluminosity function. The strong, ongoing encounter in NGC 6621/2, seenabout 1.0×108 yr past closest approach between roughlyequal-mass galaxies, has produced an extensive population of luminousclusters, particularly young and luminous in a small region between thetwo nuclei. This region is dynamically interesting, with such a strongperturbation in the velocity field that the rotation curve reversessign. From these results, in comparison with other strongly interactingsystems discussed in the literature, cluster formation requires athreshold level of perturbation, with stage of the interaction a lessimportant factor. The location of the most active star formation in NGC6621/2 draws attention to a possible role for the Toomre stabilitythreshold in shaping star formation in interacting galaxies. The richcluster populations in NGC 5752 and NGC 6621 show that direct contactbetween gas-rich galaxy disks is not a requirement to form luminousclusters and that they can be triggered by processes happening within asingle galaxy disk (albeit triggered by external perturbations).Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.

Galaxy structures in the Hercules region
216 redshifts have been obtained in a region of 981 sq deg south of theHercules supercluster. 172 of these redshifts are of galaxies withmpg less than or equal to 15.1, 110 of which had no previousvelocity measurement. 44 new redshifts are of galaxies fainter thanmpg = 15.1. With these new data we have been able to define asample in a vast region (approximately 1700 sq deg) around Herculeslimited to mpg less than or equal to 15.1 with a velocitycompleteness of 81.5%. 189 galaxies have been morphologically classifiedso that all galaxies in the sample with known velocity now also haveknown morphology. The magnitude limited sample, including 556 galaxies,is then used to identify and describe galaxy structures in the region.We find that the overdense volume is small, that its overall appearanceis that of a coral branch floating in a sea of nothing and that earlyand late type galaxies defined different structures.

The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.

Neutral hydrogen observations of galaxies in superclusters
Neutral hydrogen observations of spiral galaxies in the Uppsala GeneralCatalog were made with the 91 m telescope in Green Bank. Results of theH I observations are presented for 309 objects north of declination +38deg in the right ascension range between 10 h and 22 h and for a sampleof 46 objects just south of the equator in the region around R.A.between 0 h and 3 h. Many of these objects are outlying members ofsuperclusters and may be useful in the study of deviations from Hubbleflow on supercluster scales. Velocity widths as measured by fivedifferent algorithms are presented along with a profile quality index.

Effects of Interactions on the Radio Properties of Non-Seyfert Galaxies
On the basis of radio surveys published in the literature we havecompared the radio properties of samples of relatively isolated spiralgalaxies with LINER- and H II- region-like nuclei (hereafter called Land H galaxies) with corresponding samples of non-Seyfert interactinggalaxies, in order to explore the effects of interactions on their radioproperties. Basically, we have found enhanced total and central radioemission (per light unit) in interacting H galaxies (compared with theirrelatively isolated counterparts) and enhanced central radio emission(per light unit) in interacting L galaxies. Analogous enhancements inthe strength of the total and nuclear Hα emission lines areobserved in interacting galaxies. Furthermore, within a sample ofinteracting galaxies, there appears to be evidence of enhanced total andcentral radio emission (per light unit) in strongly interacting galaxieswhich are likely to have H II-region-like nuclei, compared withmoderately interacting objects of the same nuclear type. Interacting Hgalaxies contain more extended central radio sources than isolatedgalaxies, whereas no difference in this sense is observed in the case ofL galaxies. L galaxies which contain, on average, weaker total andcentral radio sources than the H galaxies have, on average, smallercentral radio sources (of greater radio surface brightness) than the Hgalaxies and follow a less-steep logarithmic radio power-radio sizerelation. As regards the Seyfert galaxies, which are known to becharacterized by powerful central radio emission, we have found thatthey contain, on average, central radio sources of intermediate size,which obey a power-size relation of intermediate steepness (with respectto the L and H galaxies). Thus our statistical study reveals basicstructural differences between the radio properties of the L, H andSeyfert galaxies, and between the effects of interactions on the radioproperties of the three classes of galaxies.

A deep redshift survey of IRAS galaxies towards the Bootes void
Redshifts were measured for a complete sample of galaxies detected bythe IRAS within 11.5 deg of the center of the void in Bootes discoveredby Kirshner et al (1981). There are 12 IRAS galaxies within the void asdefined by the above authors, seven of which were discovered in thissurvey. One of these has a companion at the same redshift. The resultingdensity of IRAS galaxies in the void is measured to be between 1/6 and1/3 of the average density; the uncertainty is dominated by Poissonstatistics. Good agreement is found between the selection function andnumber density derived from the present sample and those derived fromthe all-sky sample of Strauss (1989). The optical spectra of the newlyfound galaxies in the void are typical of IRAS galaxies in the field.

Crashing galaxies, cosmic fireworks
The study of binary systems is reviewed. The history of the study ofinteracting galaxies, the behavior of gas in binary systems, studies toidentify the processes that occur when galaxies interact, and therelationship of Seyfert galaxies and quasars to binary systems arediscussed. The development of an atlas of peculiar galaxies (Arp, 1966)and methods for modeling galaxy interactions are examined.

The effects of interactions on spiral galaxies. II - Disk star-formation rates
H-alpha emission-line and IRAS far-IR observations of interacting spiraland irregular galaxies are here used to assess the influence ofinteractions on their global star-formation rates. Two samples ofinteracting galaxies were observed: a complete sample of close pairs,and an Arp atlas sample of peculiar systems. When compared to a controlsample of single galaxies, both samples of interacting systems exhibitsystematically higher levels of H-alpha and infrared emission onaverage, and a larger dispersion in emission properties. Emission levelsin the very active system are much more strongly correlated with theproperties of the interaction than with the internal properties of thegalaxies themselves. Strong disk emission is almost always accompaniedby unusually strong nuclear activity. Simple star-formation burst modelscan reproduce the observed H-alpha equivalent widths and broadbandcolors of most of the galaxies. The bursts are relatively short (fewtimes 10 million yr) and rarely involve more than 1-2 percent of agalaxy's total mass.

The effects of interactions on spiral galaxies. III - A radio continuum survey of galactic nuclei at 1.49 GHz
The radio continuum emission from the central region of a sample ofinteracting spiral galaxies (92 galaxies of which 60 in a completesample) and of a control sample of more isolated spiral galaxies (94)was observed with the Very Large Array at 1.49 GHz. The angularresolution of the observations is about 1.3 arcsec, and the detectionlimits are about 0.6 and 1.5 mJy for point sources and extended sourceswith a half power size of 10 arcsec, respectively. This survey, incombination with published optical spectroscopy, provides the data for adetailed comparison of the central region in interacting and moreisolated spiral galaxies.

A catalog of stellar velocity dispersions. I - Compilation and standard galaxies
A catalog of central stellar velocity dispersion measurements ispresented, current through June 1984. The catalog includes 1096measurements of 725 galaxies. A set of 51 standard galaxies is definedwhich consists of galaxies with at least three reliable, concordantmeasurements. It is suggested that future studies observed some of thesestandard galaxies in the course of their observations so that differentstudies can be normalized to the same system. Previous studies arecompared with the derived standards to determine relative accuracies andto compute scale factors where necessary.

The effects of interactions on spiral galaxies. I - Nuclear activity and star formation
When the present results of spectrophotometry for the nuclei of 161(mostly spiral) galaxies with bright companions and emission lineimaging of 63 galaxies were compared to a similarly observed sample ofisolated-spiral nuclei, both samples of interacting galaxies exhibitedsignificant excesses of nuclear emission. The rate of nuclear starformation is significantly above average even in systems withoutnoticeable tidal distortion in the outer disks, suggesting that thenear-nuclear gas is only marginally stable in isolated galaxies. Theresults obtained suggest that nuclear phenomena are triggered by atidally induced influx of gas from the disk into the nuclear regions,rather than gas transfer between the galaxies.

A search for environmental effects on the optical properties of galaxies in groups
Environmental density-related modifications of basic optical properties(luminosities, sizes, axial ratios, and colors) of galaxies belonging toGeller and Huchra's (1983) groups have been investigated. Remarkably, itis found that the broad maxima of the distributions of luminosities anddiameters of spirals and the whole corresponding distributions oflenticulars tend to move to lower values as one goes to groups of highcompactness, whereas the luminosity-diameter relationship of spiralstends to become flatter. No color and axial ratio differences betweengalaxies of high- and low-compactness groups have been detected.

A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.

Binary galaxie. I. A well-defined statistical sample.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1976ApJ...208...20T&db_key=AST

Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1966ApJS...14....1A&db_key=AST

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:14h45m19.60s
Aparent dimensions:1.445′ × 1.23′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 5754

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