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A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Comparative study of fine structure in samples of isolated and paired early-type galaxies
Fine structure in early-type galaxies is considered to be among the morerobust indicators of a past merging or acquisition event, althoughgrowing evidence from numerical simulations suggests that fine structuremay be also interpreted in a `weak interaction' framework. We present amorphological study of a sample composed of 61 `isolated' early-typegalaxies addressed to the detection of fine structure. This sample hasbeen selected in order to be statistically comparable to a set of 54early-type galaxies, members of pairs analysed by Reduzzi & Rampazzowith a similar technique. The rate of occurrence of fine structuredetected in the `isolated' galaxy sample is significantly higher thanthat found for the pairs. In particular, the fraction of isolatedearly-type galaxies exhibiting shells is 16.4 per cent, a percentagesimilar to that found by Malin & Carter for RC2 isolated objects inthe southern sky, while the fraction of early-type galaxies in pairs is~=4 per cent. We discuss the comparison between the two samples in thecontext of the merger versus the weak interaction origin of finestructures. Concerning the formation of shells, although the mergerorigin cannot be ruled out, the observed difference is more naturallyexplained within the weak interaction framework.

Ultraviolet properties of early-type galaxies.
We analyse the UV properties of early-type galaxies from their UVspectra in the IUE library, including both normal and active nuclei. Weco-added the spectra, and hence the objects into groups of similarspectral properties in the UV, also taking into account their propertiesin the visible/near-infrared ranges. Although, owing to the presence ofa residual fixed pattern noise, IUE data cannot be improved byco-addition as expected for spectra containing only random noise, thisprocedure still provided spectra of higher signal/noise ratio than inprevious studies, often based on individual spectra and therefromderived colour indices. Thanks to the co-adding procedure, informationon spectral features can now be assessed. The red stellar populationgroups exhibit a far-UV flux at different levels. The higher ones denotethe presence of the UV turnup, which possibly exhibits absorptionfeatures, at least as detected through the IUE aperture. As to the bluestellar population groups and/or AGNs, we have carried out simplesyntheses with UV star cluster templates and galaxy spectra in order toinfer the properties such as burst ages and contamination by an activenucleus. It has been possible to derive information on the extinctionlaw affecting some internally reddened galaxies; there are cases wherethe presence of the λ2200 A absorption feature suggests areddening law similar to the Galactic one, and others without theλ2200A feature, suggesting that it is rather an SMC type lawwhich applies, then.

On the nature of the UV turnup in early-type galaxies.
We study the UV turnup in early-type galaxies from coadded IUE spectrareaching an unprecedented signal to noise ratio. Some spectral groupsresulted with strong or moderate UV turnup, while in others it is veryweak or absent. We study the relationships of the UV turnup intensitywith absolute magnitude, X-ray and Hα luminosities. Galaxies inthe strong UV turnup groups are systematically bright, and have highX-ray and Hα emission luminosities; however, some other galaxieswith the latter properties do not exhibit a significant UV turnup. Thespectral groups with an important intermediate age component are far-UVweak. The contribution from an intermediate age population with varyingstrength might explain why some red stellar population early-typegalaxies present the UV turnup while others do not. The availablespectral groups have been further coadded into one with strong UV turnupand another one without it, and we analyse their difference. We comparethe spectral slope of the isolated UV turnup with IUE spectra of varioushot sources which had been proposed in previous studies to explain it.We conclude that only very hot stars like sdO and sdB subdwarfs, somenuclei of planetary nebulae or DO white dwarfs, have the proper slope toexplain the UV turnup. The UV turnup as detected through the IUEaperture is not featureless: it presents absorptions similar to thoseobserved in the galaxies with weak far-UV flux. These features appear tobe the λ1400A and λ1600A ones, characteristic ofmoderately cool white dwarfs (DA5), which indicates that these stars aredominant flux contributors between λ1300-2000A in the far-UV weakgroups. The cooling time of DA5 stars together with the evolutionarytime since they left the main sequence, imply that they evolved fromlow-mass stars possibly associated with the initial burst of starformation in early-type galaxies and/or merger events at intermediateages. On the other hand, two possible scenarii are discussed for theorigin of the hot component which causes the UV turnup, one related tolate stages of normal evolution of low-mass stars, and another relatedto past nuclear activity events and jets which might have blown away theatmospheres of red giants in the central parts of the galaxies, exposingthe hot stellar cores and mimicking a spectral distribution like that ofthe hottest stars observed.

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.

The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies
The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies (CSRG) is a comprehensivecompilation of diameters, axis ratios, relative bar position angles, andmorphologies of inner and outer rings, pseudorings, and lenses in 3692galaxies south of declination -17 deg. The purpose of the catalog is toevaluate the idea that these ring phenomena are related to orbitalresonances with a bar or oval in galaxy potentials. The catalog is basedon visual inspection of most of the 606 fields of the Science ResearchCouncil (SRC) IIIa-J southern sky survey, with the ESO-B, ESO-R, andPalomar Sky surveys used as auxiliaries when needed for overexposed coreregions. The catalog is most complete for SRC fields 1-303 (mostly southof declination -42 deg). In addition to ringed galaxies, a list of 859mostly nonringed galaxies intended for comparison with other catalogs isprovided. Other findings from the CSRG that are not based on statisticsare the identification of intrinsic bar/ring misalignment; bars whichunderfill inner rings; dimpling of R'1pseudorings; pointy, rectangular, or hexagonal inner or outer ringshapes; a peculiar polar-ring-related system; and other extreme examplesof spiral structure and ring morphology.

Total and effective colors of 501 galaxies in the Cousins VRI photometric system
Total color indices (V-R)T, (V-I)T and effectivecolor indices (V-R)e, (V-I)e in the Cousins VRIphotometric system are presented for 501 mostly normal galaxies. Thecolors are computed using a procedure outlined in the Third ReferenceCatalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) whereby standard color curvesapproximated by Laplace-Gauss integrals are fitted to observedphotoelectric multiaperture photometry. 11 sources of such photometrywere used for our analysis, each source being assigned an appropriateweight according to a rigorous analysis of residuals of the data fromthe best-fitting standard color curves. Together with the integrated B-Vand U-B colors provided in RC3, our analysis widens the range ofwavelength of homogeneously defined colors of normal galaxies of allHubble types. We present color-color and color-type relations that canbe modeled to understand the star formation history of galaxies.

Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.

The supergalactic plane redshift survey
Redshift measurements, about 1000 of which are new, are presented for1314 galaxies in a survey toward the apex of the large-scale streamingflow for ellipticals. The velocity histogram shows that the excess ingalaxy number counts in this area is due to a substantial concentrationof galaxies with discrete peaks at V about 3000 km/s and V about 4500km/s. After correction for the sampling function, the centroid of thedensity distribution is found to be near V about 4500 km/s.Normalization to the more extensive SSRS survey, which was selected bythe same criteria, shows that the region studied contains a considerableoverdensity of galaxies from 2000 to 6000 km/s. This result is in goodagreement with the 'great attractor' model suggested by Lynden-Bell etal. (1988) which attributes the peculiar motions of elliptical galaxiesover a large region of space to an extensive mass overdensity whichincludes the Hydra-Centaurus and Pavo-Indus superclusters. The centroidof the density enhancement is also consistent with new data by Dresslerand Faber (1990) of peculiar motions of elliptical and spiral galaxies,both of which show a zero crossing of the Hubble line at approximately4500-5000 km/s.

Triaxiality in disk galaxies
Thirty-two bulges of nearby spirals have been observed, to detectmisalignment between disk and bulge apparent major axes. Suchmisalignment is unequivocally present in the majority of observedobjects. This may be due to the triaxiality of disks, bulges, or both.The probability distribution function for the axial ratios is derivedunder the two extreme hypotheses, i.e., that either only disks (case I)or only bulges (case II) are triaxial: the observational data areequally well fitted by either one. Since dynamical evidence and theinternal twisting of isophotes show that bulges are triaxial, case I isunlikely, but an intermediate case cannot be ruled out. Thesedistribution functions are compared with available constraints; inparticular, that of case II is projected and compared with thedistribution of apparent ellipticities of minor-axis dust-laneellipticals and of all ellipticals. Both tests show that the observedand derived distributions are consistent.

New velocity dispersions and photometry for E and S0 galaxies in the great attractor
New spectroscopy and photometry have been obtained for 136 ellipticaland S0 galaxies in the direction of the large-scale streaming flowattributed to the great attractor. Measurements of central velocitydispersion (sigma), total B magnitudes B(T), the photometric parameterDn, and the absorption-line index Mg2 are presented. Both internal andexternal comparisons indicate that measurements of log sigma areaccurate to 0.05 dex, B(T) to 0.15 mag, Dn to 0.015 dex, and Mg2 to0.017 mag. These data have been used by Dressler and Faber (1990) toestimate distances for these galaxies via the Dn-sigma relation. It isshown in this paper that the Dn-Mg2 relation also predicts the sametrends of peculiar velocity with distance, but with less accuracy. Therelative accuracy of other distance indicators for elliptical galaxiesis also discussed.

Low-luminosity radio sources in early-type galaxies
A sensitive radio continuum survey of 114 nearby E and S0 galaxies hasbeen made to search for weak sources. The radio detection rate is 42percent, with a flux limit of 0.8 mJy at 5 GHz. By deriving the radioluminosity function for a complete sample, it is shown that most brightearly-type galaxies have low-luminosity nonthermal radio sources.Galaxies of similar optical luminosity vary widely in radio luminosity,but a characteristic radio power rises roughly as the optical luminositysquared. S0 galaxies have weaker radio sources on average thanelliptical galaxies, but this can be explained by the low luminosity ofmost S0 bulges relative to ellipticals. No correlation is found betweenradio power and axial ratio for galaxies with radio luminosities below10 to the 23rd W/Hz.

On the relationship between radio emission and optical properties in early-type galaxies
To study the origin of radio activity in early-type galaxies, thepossible dependence of their radio emission on basic optical parameters,such as the absolute magnitude, the central velocity dispersion sigma,and the mean surface brightness mu is explored. A sample of 743 E and SOgalaxies is used which is based on three independent radio surveys ofoptically selected galaxies with virtually complete information onmagnitudes, morphological types, redshift distances, diameters, andradio fluxes. For both E and SO galaxies, only the absolute magnitudeappears to be directly related to the radio activity, while sigma and mudo not. Also, a significant dependence of the apparent flattening onradio power is confirmed for E galaxies. Some relevant implications ofthese results are discussed.

The components of mid- and far-infrared emission from S0 and early-type shell galaxies
The IRAS database has been used to study detections of about 150early-type elliptical and S0 galaxies exhibiting a shell structure. Nostrong evidence for the expected enhancement of either star formationrates or heating of the interstellar medium is found. It is suggestedthat for some of the sample galaxies either a contribution from warmdust surrounding evolved stars or emission from an active nucleus may besignificant.

Spectra of shell ellipticals - Redshifts, velocity dispersions and evidence for recent nuclear star formation
Nuclear spectra are presented for 100 of the galaxies in the Malin andCarter (1983) catalog. Redshifts and velocity dispersions are given forsome of the galaxies. It is found that about 10 percent of the samplegalaxies have colors, absolute magnitudes, and spectra characteristic ofthe poststarburst galaxies in high reshift clusters. It is suggestedthat the more distant poststarburst galaxies may have undergone mergeror accretion events.

A catalogue of early-type galaxies with emission lines
Spectroscopic and photometric data on 289 early-type galaxies (E and S0)with optical emission lines are presented and possible correlationsamong properties of the galaxies in the sample are investigated. Theoccurrence of phenomena as radio emission, presence of neutral hydrogenand dust shows an increase in comparison with the occurrence of the samephenomena in these morphological classes as a whole. There is noevidence of a relationship between apparent shape and presence ofionized gas in the central regions.

Ionized gas in elliptical and S0 galaxies. I - A survey for H-alpha and forbidden N II emission
A spectroscopic survey of a large sample of southern E and S0 galaxiesin order to detect ionized gas in the nuclei is reported. The strongestline in the 6000-7000 A range was nearly always forbidden N II 6584 A,followed by H-alpha and forbidden S II 6716, 6731 A. Identical detectionrates of about 50 percent were obtained for the forbidden N II line inboth E and S0 galaxies. The mass of ionized gas in early-type galaxieswas very small, with values typically in the range 1000-10,000 solarmasses. The relative emission-line strengths in virtually every casewere indistinguishable from those of LINER nuclei. The observed valuesof the forbidden N II 6584 A/H-alpha ratios fell mostly between one andthree and seem correlated with galaxy absolute magnitude. The existenceof such a correlation may be indicative of metallicity differences.

Southern Galaxy Catalogue.
Not Available

Radio and optical observations of a complete sample of E and SO galaxies. III. A radio continuum survey at 2.7 and 5.0 GHz.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984AJ.....89...53S&db_key=AST

Radio and optical observations of a complete sample of E and SO galaxies. II. UBV aperture photometry.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984AJ.....89...34S&db_key=AST

Radio and optical observations of a complete sample of E and S0 galaxies. I - Radial velocities. II - UBV aperture photometry. III - A radio continuum survey at 2.7 and 5.0 GHz
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984AJ.....89...23S&db_key=AST

UBVRI photoelectric photometry of 191 southern galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984A&AS...58..249L&db_key=AST

A catalog of elliptical galaxies with shells
We present a catalog of 137 elliptical galaxies south of -17 deg declination which exhibit shell or ripple features at large distances from the galaxy or in the outer envelope. Some of these galaxies show similar features in the inner envelope when suitable high resolution plate material is examined. Very few of the galaxies are associated with radio sources. We discuss the environment of shell galaxies, and the proportion of ellipticals which have these features. It appears that about half of the galaxies with shells are isolated and most of the rest are members of small groups. We discuss several individual examples which appear to be typical of this class of galaxy, and others which probably illustrate an evolutionary sequence.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:14h35m36.20s
Aparent dimensions:2.512′ × 1.148′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 5670

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