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|Circumnuclear Structure and Black Hole Fueling: Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Imaging of 250 Active and Normal Galaxies|
Why are the nuclei of some galaxies more active than others? If mostgalaxies harbor a central massive black hole, the main difference isprobably in how well it is fueled by its surroundings. We investigatethe hypothesis that such a difference can be seen in the detailedcircumnuclear morphologies of galaxies using several quantitativelydefined features, including bars, isophotal twists, boxy and diskyisophotes, and strong nonaxisymmetric features in unsharp-masked images.These diagnostics are applied to 250 high-resolution images of galaxycenters obtained in the near-infrared with NICMOS on the Hubble SpaceTelescope. To guard against the influence of possible biases andselection effects, we have carefully matched samples of Seyfert 1,Seyfert 2, LINER, starburst, and normal galaxies in their basicproperties, taking particular care to ensure that each was observed witha similar average scale (10-15 pc pixel-1). Severalmorphological differences among our five different spectroscopicclassifications emerge from the analysis. The H II/starburst galaxiesshow the strongest deviations from smooth elliptical isophotes, whilethe normal galaxies and LINERs have the least disturbed morphology. TheSeyfert 2s have significantly more twisted isophotes than any othercategory, and the early-type Seyfert 2s are significantly more disturbedthan the early-type Seyfert 1s. The morphological differences betweenSeyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s suggest that more is at work than simply theviewing angle of the central engine. They may correspond to differentevolutionary stages.
|Bar Galaxies and Their Environments|
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.
|The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog|
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.
|Rotation curves and metallicity gradients from HII regions in spiral galaxies|
In this paper we study long slit spectra in the region of Hαemission line of a sample of 111 spiral galaxies with recognizable andwell defined spiral morphology and with a well determined environmentalstatus, ranging from isolation to non-disruptive interaction withsatellites or companions. The form and properties of the rotation curvesare considered as a function of the isolation degree, morphological typeand luminosity. The line ratios are used to estimate the metallicity ofall the detected HII regions, thus producing a composite metallicityprofile for different types of spirals. We have found that isolatedgalaxies tend to be of later types and lower luminosity than theinteracting galaxies. The outer parts of the rotation curves of isolatedgalaxies tend to be flatter than in interacting galaxies, but they showsimilar relations between global parameters. The scatter of theTully-Fisher relation defined by isolated galaxies is significantlylower than that of interacting galaxies. The [NII]/Hα ratios, usedas a metallicity indicator, show a clear trend between Z andmorphological type, t, with earlier spirals showing higher ratios; thistrend is tighter when instead of t the gradient of the inner rotationcurve, G, is used; no trend is found with the change in interactionstatus. The Z-gradient of the disks depends on the type, being almostflat for early spirals, and increasing for later types. The[NII]/Hα ratios measured for disk HII regions of interactinggalaxies are higher than for normal/isolated objects, even if all thegalaxy families present similar distributions of Hα EquivalentWidth. Tables 3 and 4 and Figs. 6, 7 and 21 are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org. Table 5 is only availablein electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(18.104.22.168) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/389 Based on dataobtained Asiago/Ekar Observatory. Also based on observations made withINT operated on the island of La Palma by ING in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto deAstrofísica de Canarias.
|Redshifts for 2410 Galaxies in the Century Survey Region|
The Century Survey strip covers 102 deg2 within the limits8h5<=α<=16h5, 29.0d<=δ<=30.0d, equinoxB1950.0. The strip passes through the Corona Borealis supercluster andthe outer region of the Coma cluster. Within the Century Survey region,we have measured 2410 redshifts that constitute four overlappingcomplete redshift surveys: (1) 1728 galaxies with Kron-CousinsRph<=16.13 covering the entire strip, (2) 507 galaxieswith Rph<=16.4 in right ascension range8h32m<=α<=10h45m, equinox B1950.0, (3) 1251 galaxies withabsorption- and K-corrected RCCDc<=16.2 (where ``c''indicates ``corrected'') covering the right ascension range8h5<=α<=13h5, equinox B1950.0, and (4) 1255 galaxieswith absorption- and K-corrected VCCDc<=16.7 also coveringthe right ascension range 8h5<=α<=13h5, equinoxB1950.0. All these redshift samples are more than 98% complete to thespecified magnitude limit. We derived samples 1 and 2 from scans of thePOSS1 red (E) plates calibrated with CCD photometry. We derived samples3 and 4 from deep V and R CCD images covering the entire region. Weinclude coarse morphological types for all the galaxies in sample 1. Thedistribution of (V-R)CCD for each type correspondsappropriately with the classification. Work reported here is basedpartly on observations obtained at the Michigan-Dartmouth-MITObservatory.
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|The NICMOS Snapshot Survey of Nearby Galaxies|
We present ``snapshot'' observations with the Near-Infrared Camera andMulti-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope(HST) of 94 nearby galaxies from the Revised Shapley Ames Catalog.Images with 0.2" resolution were obtained in two filters, a broadbandcontinuum filter (F160W, roughly equivalent to the H band) and anarrowband filter centered on the Paα line (F187N or F190N,depending on the galaxy redshift) with the 51^''x51^'' field of view ofthe NICMOS camera 3. A first-order continuum subtraction is performed,and the resulting line maps and integrated Paα line fluxes arepresented. A statistical analysis indicates that the average Paαsurface brightness in the central regions is highest in early-type(Sa-Sb) spirals.
|Very Wide Galaxy Pairs of the Northern and Southern Sky|
We present highly accurate observations of the 21 cm line of hydrogen ingalaxies made at the Arecibo and Parkes Observatories. The galaxiesobserved have been identified, through rigorous selection criteriaapplied to the CfA and SSRS catalogs, as being members of pairs withprojected separations of up to 1.5 Mpc (H0 = 75 km s-1 Mpc-1). Theseobservations form the completion of the Chengalur-Nordgren galaxy pairsample with data previously published by Chengalur, Nordgren andcolleagues. The new selection criteria used in this paper are anextension to larger projected separations of the criteria usedpreviously. Forty-nine new galaxies are observed, while H I is detectedin 41 of them. With the addition of these galaxies, the completed samplehas highly accurate H I velocities for a total of 219 galaxies.
|Bulge-Disk Decomposition of 659 Spiral and Lenticular Galaxy Brightness Profiles|
We present one of the largest homogeneous sets of spiral and lenticulargalaxy brightness profile decompositions completed to date. The 659galaxies in our sample have been fitted with a de Vaucouleurs law forthe bulge component and an inner-truncated exponential for the diskcomponent. Of the 659 galaxies in the sample, 620 were successfullyfitted with the chosen fitting functions. The fits are generally welldefined, with more than 90% having rms deviations from the observedprofile of less than 0.35 mag. We find no correlations of fittingquality, as measured by these rms residuals, with either morphologicaltype or inclination. Similarly, the estimated errors of the fittedcoefficients show no significant trends with type or inclination. Thesedecompositions form a useful basis for the study of the lightdistributions of spiral and lenticular galaxies. The object base issufficiently large that well-defined samples of galaxies can be selectedfrom it.
|On the question of radio emission of spiral galaxies in groups of galaxies|
It has been shown that the radio emission properties of spiral galaxies,if the other conditions are the same, are determined rather by thepresence of the close neighbours than by space density of galaxiesaround them. The rate of occurence of radio sources and their radioluminosities among the spiral members of groups of galaxies depend onthe projected seperation between them and their nearest neighbour. Theshorter this seperation the higher the probability of radio emission.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|Kinematics and dynamics of the MKW/AWM poor clusters|
We report 472 new redshifts for 416 galaxies in the regions of the 23poor clusters of galaxies originally identified by Morgan, Kayser, andWhite (MKW), and Albert, White, and Morgan (AWM). Eighteen of the poorclusters now have 10 or more available redshifts within 1.5/h Mpc of thecentral galaxy; 11 clusters have at least 20 available redshifts. Basedon the 21 clusters for which we have sufficient velocity information,the median velocity scale is 336 km/s, a factor of 2 smaller than foundfor rich clusters. Several of the poor clusters exhibit complex velocitydistributions due to the presence of nearby clumps of galaxies. We checkon the velocity of the dominant galaxy in each poor cluster relative tothe remaining cluster members. Significantly high relative velocities ofthe dominant galaxy are found in only 4 of 21 poor clusters, 3 of whichwe suspect are due to contamination of the parent velocity distribution.Several statistical tests indicate that the D/cD galaxies are at thekinematic centers of the parent poor cluster velocity distributions.Mass-to-light ratios for 13 of the 15 poor clusters for which we havethe required data are in the range 50 less than or = M/LB(0)less than or = 200 solar mass/solar luminosity. The complex nature ofthe regions surrounding many of the poor clusters suggests that thesegroupings may represent an early epoch of cluster formation. Forexample, the poor clusters MKW7 and MKWS are shown to be gravitationallybound and likely to merge to form a richer cluster within the nextseveral Gyrs. Eight of the nine other poor clusters for which simpletwo-body dynamical models can be carried out are consistent with beingbound to other clumps in their vicinity. Additional complex systems withmore than two gravitationally bound clumps are observed among the poorclusters.
|Spatially resolved optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of I ZW 18|
Long-slit optical and near-IR spectroscopy are presented for the brightNW and faint SE components of the oxygen-poor H II galaxy I Zw 18,yielding physical conditions and O, N, S, and He abundances for thesecomponents. All of the elemental abundances for the two components of IZw 18 are equal (within errors), thereby placing constraints onevolutionary theories for this system.
|The velocity field of clusters of galaxies within 100 megaparsecs. II - Northern clusters|
Distances and peculiar velocities for galaxies in eight clusters andgroups have been determined by means of the near-infrared Tully-Fisherrelation. With the possible exception of a group halfway between us andthe Hercules Cluster, we observe peculiar velocities of the same orderas the measuring errors of about 400 km/s. The present sample is drawnfrom the northern Galactic hemisphere and delineates a quiet region inthe Hubble flow. This contrasts with the large-scale flows seen in theHydra-Centaurus and Perseus-Pisces regions. We compare the observedpeculiar velocities with predictions based upon the gravity fieldinferred from the IRAS redshift survey. The differences between theobserved and predicted peculiar motions are generally small, except neardense structures, where the observed motions exceed the predictions bysignificant amounts. Kinematic models of the velocity field are alsocompared with the data. We cannot distinguish between parameterizedmodels with a great attractor or models with a bulk flow.
|General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups|
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.
|The velocity-distance relation for galaxies on a bubble|
The characteristic diameter of the most prominent void in the redshiftsurvey of de Lapparent et al. (1986) is measured. Distances and peculiarvelocities to individual galaxies are derived, and it is shown that thevoid is approximately a 'Hubble Bubble' in which the near and far edgesare separating with the general expansion of the universe. At the 3sigma level, infall toward the Coma cluster is detected for a portion ofthe bubble wall. Limits on the net outflow from the void and infall intoComa are used to estimate Omega.
|The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog|
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.
|Groups of galaxies in the Center for Astrophysics redshift survey|
By applying the Huchra and Geller (1982) objective group identificationalgorithm to the Center for Astrophysics' redshift survey, a catalog of128 groups with three or more members is extracted, and 92 of these areused as a statistical sample. A comparison of the distribution of groupcenters with the distribution of all galaxies in the survey indicatesqualitatively that groups trace the large-scale structure of the region.The physical properties of groups may be related to the details oflarge-scale structure, and it is concluded that differences among groupcatalogs may be due to the properties of large-scale structures andtheir location relative to the survey limits.
|Cosmology from a galaxy group catalog. I - Binaries|
A new, completely objective group-finding algorithm is described andapplied to the CfA redshift catalog. The binary galaxies are isolatedfor analysis. The assumptions underlying the analysis are (1) that lighttraces mass, (2) that our binary galaxy subsets are representative lighttracers, and (3) that the binary orbits are circular. The primary resultof the work is that the resulting bias-free binary catalogs are afunction of the assumed cosmological model. For virtually any inputvalue of Omega(0) in the range 0.01-5.00, there is a reasonablyconsistent interpretation of the CfA survey such that the specifiedvalue of Omega(0) can be derived from the binary sample obtained underthat interpretation. A secondary result is that the higher the inputvalue of Omega(0), the broader the intrinsic distribution in M/L, andhence the less valid the assumption that light traces mass.
|Arm classifications for spiral galaxies|
The spiral arm classes of 762 galaxies are tabulated; 636 galaxies withlow inclinations and radii larger than 1 arcmin were classified on thebasis of their blue images on the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS),76 SA galaxies in the group catalog of Geller and Huchra were alsoclassified from the POSS, and 253 galaxies in high-resolution atlaseswere classified from their atlas photographs. This spiral armclassification system was previously shown to correlate with thepresence of density waves, and galaxies with such waves were shown tooccur primarily in the densest galactic groups. The present sampleindicates, in addition, that grand design galaxies (i.e., those whichtend to contain prominent density wave modes) are physically larger thanflocculent galaxies (which do not contain such prominent modes) by afactor of about 1.5. A larger group sample confirms the previous resultthat grand design galaxies are preferentially in dense groups.
|Structure of superclusters and supercluster formation. V - Spatial correlation and voids|
The galaxian spatial correlation function is calculated for variousobservational samples having different sample volume. It is demonstratedthat the correlation length increases with sample volume. For volumesconsiderably smaller than the size of the Local Supercluster thecorrelation length is about half the conventional value, 5/h Mpc, whichcorresponds to sizes of intermediate samples, containing the wholesupercluster. Samples containing several superclusters have correlationlengths twice the conventional one. Similar calculations have beencarried out for various theoretical models. Samples representingluminous matter in a neutrino-dominated universe and having differentsample volumes have correlation length which increases with volume untilthe sample size reaches the average size of voids. Further increase inthe sample size does not change the correlation length, indicating thatfair samples of the model universe have been reached. These calculationsand simple theoretical estimates indicate that the value of thecorrelation length reflects the filling factor of the sample and thepresence of large voids in galaxy distribution. The observed correlationfunction of galaxies reflects the distribution of luminous matter. Aftercorrecting for the difference between the correlation functions of truemass and galaxies, the correlation length for a fair sample of theuniverse is estimated to be 10/h Mpc.
|High signal-to-noise ratio observations of H I in 243 galaxies|
The 21 cm spectral-line system of the Arecibo Observatory was used tomeasure neutral hydrogen emission from 243 faint galaxies. Most lie nearthe plane of the Local Supercluster. All observations reach anunsmoothed signal-to-noise ratio of at least 7.0; the average for theset is 23. The resulting data are used to estimate H I masses, systemicvelocities, and accurate profile widths at 20 percent, 25 percent, 50percent, and 80 percent of peak intensity levels. The widths are used tocalibrate directly the bias introduced by popular data-smoothingoperation. The data include observations of 65 objects with previouslyunknown redshifts.
|A search for environmental effects on the optical properties of galaxies in groups|
Environmental density-related modifications of basic optical properties(luminosities, sizes, axial ratios, and colors) of galaxies belonging toGeller and Huchra's (1983) groups have been investigated. Remarkably, itis found that the broad maxima of the distributions of luminosities anddiameters of spirals and the whole corresponding distributions oflenticulars tend to move to lower values as one goes to groups of highcompactness, whereas the luminosity-diameter relationship of spiralstends to become flatter. No color and axial ratio differences betweengalaxies of high- and low-compactness groups have been detected.
|Morphology of spiral galaxies. I - General properties|
Red Palomar Sky Survey plates are scanned to characterize a completesample of 605 spiral galaxies north of declination -33 deg havinginclination angle less than 56 deg and blue diameter 2-15 arcmin. Theselection of the data and the reduction and parameter-extractionprocedures are explained, and the data and the results of statisticalanalysis are presented in tables and graphs. Findings reported include alow frequency of occurrence for small inclination angles (suggestingdistortion of outer structures), similar distributions of central diskbrightness for types Sa-Sc but not for types Sd-Sm (where mean valuesare smaller), fewer late-type galaxies with large exponential-disk scalelengths, no galaxies with both high central brightness and large scalelength (indicating a limit on angular momentum in galaxy formation), anda correlation between mean surface brightness and absolute magnitude forlater-type galaxies but not for types Sa-Scd.
|Seven poor clusters of galaxies|
The measurement of 83 new redshifts from galaxies in the region of sevenof the poor clusters of galaxies identified by Morgan et al (1975) andAlbert et al (1977) has been followed by an estimation of cluster massesthrough the application of both the virial theorem and the projected masmethod. For each system, these two estimates are consistent. For the twoclusters with highest X-ray luminosities, the line-of-sight velocitydispersions are about 700 km/sec, while for the five other clusters, thedispersions are of the order of less than about 370 km/sec. The D or cDgalaxy in each poor cluster is at the kinematic center of each system.
|Regular strings of H II regions and superclouds in spiral galaxies - Clues to the origin of cloudy structure|
The large-scale dimensions of cloud and star formation are determinedusing studies of galaxies with long strings of regularly spaced, giant HII regions. The H II regions are found to be typically separated bydistances equal to approximately 0.2 of the radii at 25 mag per sqarcsec surface brightness. Giant H I clouds in similar chains are foundto show the same separations. These results indicate that coherentinterstellar clouds may have dimensions as large as a kiloparsec ormore, and that the individual clusters and OB associations formed bythese clouds should group together into giant star complexes. The largescales observed for these features are determined to be consistent withtheir formation by a gravitational instability in the rotating, magneticgas layers of galaxies. It is suggested that giant molecular clouds (M =10 to the 5th solar masses) are only the dense and transient cores oflarger H I clouds (M = 10 to the 7th solar masses), while individualmolecular clouds are short lived, and the largest of these clouds shouldbe in the spiral arms of galaxies.
|A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data|
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.
|Inner ring structures in galaxies as distance indicators. III - Distances to 453 spiral and lenticular galaxies|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1983ApJS...51..149B&db_key=AST
|Flocculent and grand design spiral structure in field, binary and group galaxies|
A 12-division morphological system emphasizing arm continuity, lengthand symmetry has been developed for the classification of all spiralgalaxies according to the regularity of their spiral arm structure. Armclassifications were tabulated for 305 barred and nonbarred spiralgalaxies; of these, 79 are isolated, 52 are binary and 174 are ingroups. Among the isolated SA galaxies, 68 + or - 10% have irregular andfragmented, or 'flocculent', spiral structures. Only 32 + or - 10% havesymmetric spiral arms in the classic grand design pattern. Flocculentspirals are the most common structures of galaxies without companions orbars. Since flocculent galaxies may have bars and companions, and granddesign galaxies may have neither bars nor companions, such perturbationsare neither perfectly effective nor always necessary in the driving ofgrand design patterns.
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