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|Active and Star-forming Galaxies and Their Supernovae|
To investigate the extent to which nuclear starbursts or other nuclearactivity may be connected with enhanced star formation activity in thehost galaxy, we perform a statistical investigation of supernovae (SNe)discovered in host galaxies from four samples: the Markarian galaxiessample, the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) sample, the north Galactic pole(NGP) sample of active or star-forming galaxies, and the NGP sample ofnormal galaxies. Forty-seven SNe in 41 Mrk galaxies, 10 SNe in six SBSgalaxies, 29 SNe in 26 NGP active or star-forming galaxies, and 29 SNein 26 NGP normal galaxies have been studied. We find that the rate ofSNe, particularly core-collapse (Types Ib/c and II) SNe, is higher inactive or star-forming galaxies in comparison with normal galaxies.Active or star-forming host galaxies of SNe are generally of latermorphological type and have lower luminosity and smaller linear sizethan normal host galaxies of SNe. The radial distribution of SNe inactive and star-forming galaxies shows a higher concentration toward thecenter of the active host galaxy than is the case for normal hostgalaxies, and this effect is more pronounced for core-collapse SNe.Ib/c-type SNe have been discovered only in active and star-forminggalaxies of our samples. About 78% of these SNe are associated with H IIregions or are located very close to the nuclear regions of these activegalaxies, which are in turn hosting AGNs or starburst nuclei. Besidesthese new results, our study also supports the conclusions of severalother earlier papers. We find that Type Ia SNe occur in all galaxytypes, whereas core-collapse SNe of Types Ib/c and II are found only inspiral and irregular galaxies. The radial distribution of Type Ib SNe intheir host galaxies is more centrally concentrated than that of Type IIand Ia SNe. The radial distances of Types Ib/c and II SNe, from thenuclei of their host galaxies, is larger for barred spiral hosts.Core-collapse SNe are concentrated in spiral arms and are often close toor in the H II regions, whereas Type Ia SNe show only a looseassociation with spiral arms and no clear association with H II regions.
|Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. VI. HI observations and the K-band Tully-Fisher relation|
This paper reports a study of the effect of a bar on the neutralhydrogen (HI) content of starburst and Seyfert galaxies. We also makecomparisons with a sample of ``normal'' galaxies and investigate howwell starburst and Seyfert galaxies follow the fundamental scalingTully-Fisher (TF) relation defined for normal galaxies. 111 Markarian(Mrk) IRAS galaxies were observed with the Nançay radiotelescope,and HI data were obtained for 80 galaxies, of which 64 are newdetections. We determined the (20 and 50%) linewidths, the maximumvelocity of rotation and total HI flux for each galaxy. Thesemeasurements are complemented by data from the literature to form asample of Mrk IRAS (74% starburst, 23% Seyfert and 3% unknown) galaxiescontaining 105 unbarred and 113 barred ones. Barred galaxies have lowertotal and bias-corrected HI masses than unbarred galaxies, and this istrue for both Mrk IRAS and normal galaxies. This robust result suggeststhat bars funnel the HI gas toward the center of the galaxy where itbecomes molecular before forming new stars. The Mrk IRAS galaxies havehigher bias-corrected HI masses than normal galaxies. They also showsignificant departures from the TF relation, both in the B and K bands.The most deviant points from the TF relation tend to have a strongfar-infrared luminosity and a low oxygen abundance. These resultssuggest that a fraction of our Mrk IRAS galaxies are still in theprocess of formation, and that their neutral HI gas, partly of externalorigin, has not yet reached a stationary state.Based on observations obtained at the large radiotelescope ofObservatoire de Nançay, operated by Observatoire de Paris.Tables 5 and 6 are only (and Table 4 also) available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/515
|Classifications of the Host Galaxies of Supernovae, Set II|
Classifications on the DDO system are given for an additional 231 hostgalaxies of supernovae that have been discovered during the course ofthe Lick Observatory Supernova Search with the Katzman Automatic ImagingTelescope (KAIT). This brings the total number of hosts of supernovae(SNe) discovered (or independently rediscovered) by KAIT, which have sofar been classified on a homogeneous system, to 408. The probabilitythat SNe Ia and SNe II have a different distribution of host-galaxyHubble types is found to be 99.7%. A significant difference is alsofound between the distributions of the host galaxies of SNe Ia and ofSNe Ibc (defined here to include SNe Ib, Ib/c, and Ic). However, nosignificant difference is detected between the frequency distributionsof the host galaxies of SNe II and SNe IIn. This suggests that SNe IInare generally not SNe Ia embedded in circumstellar material that aremasquerading as SNe II. Furthermore, no significant difference is foundbetween the distribution of the Hubble types of the hosts of SNe Ibc andof SNe II. Additionally, SNe II-P and SNe II-L are found to occur amongsimilar stellar populations. The ratio of the number of SNe Ia-pec tonormal SNe Ia appears to be higher in early-type galaxies than it is ingalaxies of later morphological types. This suggests that the ancestorsof SNe Ia-pec may differ systematically in age or composition from theprogenitors of normal SNe Ia. Unexpectedly, five SNe of Types Ib/c, II,and IIn (all of which are thought to have massive progenitors) are foundin host galaxies that are nominally classified as types E and S0.However, in each case the galaxy classification is uncertain, or newlyinspected images show evidence suggesting a later classification. Amongthese five objects, NGC 3720, the host galaxy of SN 2002at, wasapparently misidentified in the Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies.
|The PDS versus Markarian starburst galaxies: comparing strong and weak IRAS emitter at 12 and 25 μm in the nearby Universe|
The characteristics of the starburst galaxies from the Pico dos Diassurvey (PDS) are compared with those of the nearby ultraviolet (UV)bright Markarian starburst galaxies, having the same limit in redshift(vh < 7500 km s-1) and absolute B magnitude(MB < -18). An important difference is found: theMarkarian galaxies are generally undetected at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS.This is consistent with the UV excess shown by these galaxies andsuggests that the youngest star-forming regions dominating thesegalaxies are relatively free of dust.The far-infrared selection criteria for the PDS are shown to introduce astrong bias towards massive (luminous) and large size late-type spiralgalaxies. This is contrary to the Markarian galaxies, which are found tobe remarkably rich in smaller size early-type galaxies. These resultssuggest that only late-type spirals with a large and massive disc arestrong emitters at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS in the nearby Universe.The Markarian and PDS starburst galaxies are shown to share the sameenvironment. This rules out an explanation of the differences observedin terms of external parameters. These differences may be explained byassuming two different levels of evolution, the Markarian being lessevolved than the PDS galaxies. This interpretation is fully consistentwith the disc formation hypothesis proposed by Coziol et al. to explainthe special properties of the Markarian SBNG.
|Companions of Bright Barred Shapley-Ames Galaxies|
Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barredgalaxies from the Shapley-Ames Catalog is presented. Among the spiralbarred galaxies, there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclearstructures, galaxies not associated with any large-scale galaxy cloudstructure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms), andgalaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubbletypes. The companion galaxy list includes the number of companiongalaxies within 20 diameters, their Hubble type, and projectedseparation distance. In addition, the companion environment was searchedfor four known active spiral galaxies, three of them are Seyfertgalaxies, namely, NGC 1068, NGC 1097, and NGC 5548, and one is astarburst galaxy, M82. Among the results obtained, it is noted that theonly spiral barred galaxy classified as Seyfert 1 in our list has nocompanions within a projected distance of 20 diameters; six out of 10Seyfert 2 bar galaxies have no companions within 10 diameters, six outof 10 Seyfert 2 galaxies have one or more companions at projectedseparation distances between 10 and 20 diameters; six out of 12 galaxieswith circumnuclear structures have two or more companions within 20diameters.
|The cold gas properties of Markarian galaxies|
A sample of 61 Markarian galaxies detected in the CO line was compiled.Using available HI, element H2, optical and radio continuumdata, the analysis of the gas kinematics and the star formationproperties for this sample of galaxies was performed. The mainconclusion can be summarized as follows: (1) The HI and CO line widthsare well correlated. Interaction between galaxies has no influence onthe CO line broadening. A rapidly rotating nuclear disk in the galaxymight lead to the CO line broadening with less influence on the HI line.(2) The atomic and molecular gas surface densities are well correlatedwith the blue, FIR and radio continuum surface brightness; however, thecorrelation for molecular component is stronger.\ (3) In general, thegalaxies with UV-excess (Markarian galaxies) do not differ in their starformation properties from the non-UV galaxies.
|Star Formation Rates in Interacting Starburst Galaxies|
By narrowband imaging in Hα and in the adjacent red stellarcontinuum we have studied the rate and distribution of star formation in43 systems of luminous and ultraluminous IR galaxies currentlyundergoing interaction and merging. These galaxies are amongst the mostluminous at 60 μm and range in distance from ~50 up to 100 Mpc. Herewe present the Hα and the adjacent red-continuum narrowbandimages, and we compare the star formation rates derived from Hαwith those estimated from the IR luminosity. We find clear evidence forsubstantial extinction and obscuration of star-forming regions in theoptical. Without correction for reddening in the host galaxy orcorrection for [N II] contamination, the star formation rates derivedfor Hα are typically 0.5-1.0 dex lower than those estimated fromthe IR flux, and the scatter in the correlation is very large. However,an unexpected result is that when spectroscopic data are used toeliminate objects dominated by an active nucleus, to determine thegalaxian extinction, and to correct the Hα flux for both reddeningand for the contamination by the [N II] emission, a remarkably goodcorrelation emerges between the star formation rates estimated from theHα flux and those derived from the FIR continuum. In addition, astrong correlation is found between the extinction in the line-emittingregion, AHα, and the rate of star formation. Ourresults invalidate the use of Hα imaging as a reliable indicatorof star formation in starburst galaxies unless spectroscopic data arealso available. This has important implications for the determination ofstar formation rates in high-redshift galaxies. Finally, we find nocorrelation between the measured star formation rates, and theinteraction class, suggesting that the enhanced star formation ratestriggered by the interaction continue throughout the whole of themerging sequence.
|Bar Galaxies and Their Environments|
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.
|Supernova 2001bq in NGC 5534.|
|Supernova 2001bq in NGC 5534|
IAUC 7630 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.
|Supernova 2001bq in NGC 5534.|
|Spectroscopic Observations of the Star Formation Activities in the Central Regions of Early-Type Spiral Galaxies|
We study the characteristics of central star-forming regions ofearly-type spiral galaxies by optical spectroscopic observations. Thesample consists of 13 galaxies which have ratios of far-infrared (FIR)to optical B-band luminosity, log(LFIR/LB), largerthan the average of this type, -0.5. Strong line emissions are detectedaround the nucleus, and the line ratios of most regions are H IIregion-like, except for a few shocked regions. There is nolow-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER). The [N II] and [SII] lines are somewhat enhanced, compared to the disk H II regions, butthe enhancements cannot be attributed to hidden active galactic nuclei(AGNs) and the shock excitation. The median extinction derived from theHα/Hβ intensity ratio is 1.0 mag in AV, and themedian SFR of our sample galaxies, corrected for extinction, isestimated to be 2 Msolar yr-1. Both values arecomparable to those of late-type spiral galaxies. We find a correlationthat the radii of the central star-forming regions tend to become largerwith the turn-over radii of the rotation curves.
|Photometric studies of starburst galaxies|
We present the results of a detailed morphological analysis of a sampleof Markarian starburst galaxies. CCD surface photometry of thosegalaxies was carried out based on observations made in U BV RI and H?.The morphology of the sample objects was studied using isophotalcontours and colour images. The radial variations of the surfacebrightness, ellipticity, position angle and the colour profiles wereconstructed using ellipse fitting techniques. We find that the starformation activity is not confined to the central region alone, but italso occurs at various other locations like the ends of bars, alongcircum-nuclear rings or even globally in a few cases. The luminosityprofiles show an exponential nature in the outer region. Strongisophotal twisting is observed in almost all the S0 galaxies in oursample. In a few cases, this is accompanied by boxiness, indicating astrong interaction or merger. Blue light is more centrally concentratedas compared to red light in early type galaxies while the reverse holdsfor spirals. The scale lengths in B and R are comparable. Compositemodels were constructed and ages between 106 and 107 years and burststrength between 1% to 5% were able to explain the observed colours.
|A Subarcsecond Resolution Near-Infrared Study of Seyfert and ``Normal'' Galaxies. II. Morphology|
We present a detailed study of the bar fraction in the CfA sample ofSeyfert galaxies and in a carefully selected control sample of nonactivegalaxies to investigate the relation between the presence of bars and ofnuclear activity. To avoid the problems related to bar classification inthe Third Reference Catalogue (RC3), e.g., subjectivity, low resolution,and contamination by dust, we have developed an objective barclassification method, which we conservatively apply to our newsubarcsecond resolution near-infrared (NIR) imaging data set discussedin the first paper in this series. We are able to use stringent criteriabased on radial profiles of ellipticity and major axis position angle todetermine the presence of a bar and its axial ratio. Concentrating onnoninteracting galaxies in our sample for which morphologicalinformation can be obtained, we find that Seyfert hosts are barred moreoften (79%+/-7.5%) than the nonactive galaxies in our control sample(59%+/-9%), a result which is at the ~2.5 σ significance level.The fraction of nonaxisymmetric hosts becomes even larger wheninteracting galaxies are taken into account. We discuss the implicationsof this result for the fueling of central activity by large-scale bars.This paper improves on previous work by means of imaging at higherspatial resolution and by the use of a set of stringent criteria for barpresence and confirms that the use of NIR is superior to optical imagingfor detection of bars in disk galaxies.
|Star Formation Efficiency in the Central 1 Kiloparsec Region of Early-Type Spiral Galaxies|
It has been reported recently that there are some early-type spiral(Sa-Sab) galaxies with evident star-forming regions that concentrate intheir own central 1 kpc. In such central region, is the mechanism of thestar formation distinct from that in disks of spiral galaxies? Todiscover this, we estimate the star formation efficiency (SFE) in thiscentral 1 kpc star-forming region of some early-type spiral galaxies,taking account of the condition required for this 1 kpc region to beself-gravitating. Using two indicators of the present star formationrate (Hα and infrared luminosity), we estimate the SFE to a fewpercent. This is equivalent to the observational SFE in the disks oflate-type spiral (Sb-) galaxies. This coincidence may support theuniversality of the mean SFE of spiral galaxies reported in the recentstudies, that is, we find no evidence of a distinct mechanism of thestar formation in the central 1 kpc region of early-type galaxies. Also,we examine the structure of the central star-forming region and discussa method for estimating the mass of star-forming regions.
|Optical Spectroscopy of the Central Regions of Bright Barred Spiral Galaxies|
Optical red spectra of a set of 18 bright barred spiral galaxies arepresented. The study is aimed at determining the local kinematics, andthe physical conditions of ionized gas in the compact nucleus (inside adiameter of 5") and in the circumnuclear regions (inside a diameter of20"). Only 8 galaxies showed bright emission from their east and westside of the nucleus. The spectrum of each region was analizedseparately. In other 10 galaxies the line emission was so weak that wewere only able to obtain an average spectrum of the central emission. Noemission was detected in the remaining 8 galaxies. An estimate of thedynamical mass is presented based on the observed velocities in thecircumnuclear regions. In NGC 4314 and NGC 6951, that show H_alphaemission distributed in circumnuclear ring structures, we determine the[NII]/H_alpha and [SII]/H_alpha ratios for the eastern and westernregions of the rings. The velocity difference for the two sides is usedto derive the rotation velocity of the gas around the compact nucleus.The ratio [NII]6583/H_alpha is a factor of 2 larger in the compactnucleus of NGC 6951 than in its western side. The electron gas densitieshave been estimated from the [SII] lines ratio.
|A Subarcsecond-Resolution Near-Infrared Study of Seyfert and ``Normal'' Galaxies. I. Imaging Data|
We present new high-resolution near-infrared observations in the J, H,and K bands, obtained to study the properties of Seyfert host galaxies.The data set consists of images in the three bands of practically theentire CfA sample of Seyfert galaxies, and K-band images of a controlsample of nonactive, ``normal,'' galaxies, matched to the Seyfert samplein the distribution of type and inclination. The spatial resolution andsampling of the new images is a factor of 2 better than previouslypublished K-band data. In this paper, we present the data in the form ofprofiles of surface brightness and color, ellipticity and major axisposition angle, as well as gray-scale maps of surface brightness in H orK and both J-H and H-K colors. We compare our surface brightness andcolor profiles with the literature and find good agreement. Our data arediscussed in detail in three subsequent publications, where we analyzethe morphologies of Seyfert and normal hosts, quantify the strength ofnonaxisymmetric features in disks and their relationship to nuclearactivity, address the question of bar fraction in Seyferts and normalgalaxies, and analyze the color information in the framework of emissionmechanisms in Seyfert 1's and 2's and in nonactive galaxies.
|Photometric studies of some starburst galaxies|
We present the results of a detailed morphological analysis of tenstarburst galaxies selected from the Markarian catalog of uv-excessobjects. CCD surface photometry of these galaxies was carried out basedon observations made in B, V (Johnson) and R, I (Kron-Cousins) bandpasses. We present the radial variations of surface brightness,ellipticity, position angle and the colour indices for each galaxyobtained using ellipse fitting isophotal analysis. The residual imagesconstructed for extracting the fine structure are also presented. Avariety of morphological types are found to host the starburstphenomenon. The star formation activity is not confined to the nuclearregion alone, but it also occurs at various locations in the galaxy andis seen as clumpy regions. The colour index and the residual images areused for deriving information about the sites of enhanced star formationactivity and the triggers of the starburst. The luminosity profiles showan exponential behaviour in the outer region. The disk scale lengths andthe half-light radii are derived. The contribution of the burstcomponent has been estimated and the colours of the burst component arepresented. Strong isophotal twisting is detected in all the S0 and Egalaxies: Mrk 1002, Mrk 1308 and Mrk 14, in the sample. This isaccompanied by boxiness in some cases, suggesting that a merger isresponsible for the starburst activity in these galaxies. In case ofisolated spirals, a bar or a central oval distortion appear to be thelikely trigger for the starburst.
|Photometric Observations of Star Formation Activity in Early-Type Spiral Galaxies|
We observationally study the current star formation activities ofearly-type spiral galaxies. We construct a complete sample of 15early-type spiral galaxies having ratios of far-infrared (FIR) tooptical B-band luminosity, log (L_FIR/L_B), larger than average for thistype and present CCD imaging of the R and Hα bands. The equivalentwidths of Hα emission increase with increasing L_FIR/L_B,indicating that log (L_FIR/L_B) can be an indicator of star formationfor such early-type spiral galaxies with star formation activitieshigher than average. For all of the observed early-type spiral galaxies,the extended H II regions exist at the central regions with someasymmetric features. Hα emission is more concentrated to thegalactic center than the R-band light, and the degree of theconcentration increases with the star formation activity. We alsoanalyze the relation between the star formation activities and theexistence of companion galaxies in the sample galaxies and other brightearly-type spiral galaxies. No correlation is found; this suggests thatthe interaction is not responsible for all of the star formationactivities of early-type spiral galaxies.
|Bulge-Disk Decomposition of 659 Spiral and Lenticular Galaxy Brightness Profiles|
We present one of the largest homogeneous sets of spiral and lenticulargalaxy brightness profile decompositions completed to date. The 659galaxies in our sample have been fitted with a de Vaucouleurs law forthe bulge component and an inner-truncated exponential for the diskcomponent. Of the 659 galaxies in the sample, 620 were successfullyfitted with the chosen fitting functions. The fits are generally welldefined, with more than 90% having rms deviations from the observedprofile of less than 0.35 mag. We find no correlations of fittingquality, as measured by these rms residuals, with either morphologicaltype or inclination. Similarly, the estimated errors of the fittedcoefficients show no significant trends with type or inclination. Thesedecompositions form a useful basis for the study of the lightdistributions of spiral and lenticular galaxies. The object base issufficiently large that well-defined samples of galaxies can be selectedfrom it.
|The Southern Sky Redshift Survey|
We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory.
|Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. III. Definition of a homogeneous sample of starburst nucleus galaxies|
This paper presents optical long-slit spectroscopic observations of 105barred Markarian IRAS galaxies. These observations are used to determinethe spectral type (starburst or Seyfert) of emission-line regions in thenucleus and along the bar of the galaxies, in order to define ahomogeneous sample of Starburst Nucleus Galaxies (SBNGs). Our selectioncriteria (ultraviolet excess, far infrared emission and barredmorphology) have been very efficient for selecting star-forminggalaxies, since our sample of 221 emission-line regions includes 82%nuclear or extranuclear starbursts. The contamination by Seyferts is low(9%). The remaining galaxies (9%) are objects with ambiguousclassification (Hii or LINER). The dust content and Hα luminosityincrease towards the nuclei of the galaxies. No significant variation ofthe electron density is found between nuclear and bar Hii regions.However, the mean Hα luminosity and electron density in the barare higher than in typical disk Hii regions. We investigate differentmechanisms for explaining the excess of nitrogen emission observed inour starburst nuclei. There is no evidence for the presence of a weakhidden active galactic nucleus in our starburst galaxies. The cause ofthis excess is probably a selective enrichment of nitrogen in the nucleiof the galaxies, following a succession of short and intense bursts ofstar formation. Our sample of SBNGs, located at a mean redshift of ~0.015, has moderate Hα ( ~ 10(41) erg s(-1) ) and far infrared ( ~10(10) Lsun) luminosities. The types are distributed equallyamong early- and late-type giant spirals with a slight preference forSbc/Sc types because of their barred morphology. The majority (62%) ofSBNGs are isolated with no sign of gravitational interaction. In termsof distance, luminosity and level of interaction, SBNGs are intermediatebetween Hii galaxies and luminous infrared galaxies. Based onobservations obtained at the 1.93 meter telescope of Observatoire deHaute-Provence operated by INSU (CNRS). Tables 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|A correlation between CO linewidth and starburst age in barred spiral galaxies.|
New CO(1->0) and CO(2->1) profiles complemented by data from theliterature are used to obtain CO linewidths for 29 barred spiralgalaxies with young nuclear starbursts. The ages of the starbursts wereestimated from optical spectroscopy and recent evolutionary synthesismodels. The CO linewidths and the starburst ages are correlated:galaxies with young (4-6Myr) starbursts display narrow (<~100km/s) COline while those with older starbursts show broader CO lines. We discussseveral scenarios of the gas dynamics during the nuclear starbursts'evolution to interpret the correlation.
|Spatial Distribution of Ionized Gas in Bright Barred Spiral Galaxies: H(alpha) Images|
Charged Coupled Detector (CCD) images of a set of 52 bright barredspiral galaxies in the narrow band filter H(alpha) and in the broadbandI filter are presented. The sample was selected from the Shapley AmesCatalog, with IRAS fluxes characteristic of star formation and a dusttemperature above Td greater than or equal to 25 K. The study is aimedat identifying the global distribution and the underlying symmetries ofthe structures of ionized gas in barred galaxies. Thirty-two galaxiespresent H(alpha) emission from the innermost central regions, but theemission from nuclear rings is observed only in ten galaxies. About halfof the observed galaxies show H(alpha) emission from several regions inthe disk, and 18 galaxies display emission from along the bar. TheH(alpha) emission from inner and outer rings are easily identified insome galaxies. Some other galaxies present more complicated spatialdistributions, probably due to tidal or direct encounters withneighboring galaxies.
|A multifrequency radio continuum and IRAS faint source survey of markarian galaxies|
Results are presented from a multifrequency radio continumm survey ofMarkarian galaxies (MRKs) and are supplemented by IRAS infrared datafrom the Faint Source Survey. Radio data are presented for 899 MRKsobserved at nu = 4.755 GHz with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory(NRAO)-Green Bank 300 foot (91 m) telescope, including nearly 88% ofthose objects in Markarian lists VI-XIV. In addition, 1.415 GHzmeasurements of 258 MRKs, over 30% of the MRKs accessible from theNational Aeronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC)-Arecibo, are reported.Radio continuum observations of smaller numbers of MRKs were made at10.63 GHz and at 23.1 GHz and are also presented. Infrared data from theIRAS Faint Source Survey (Ver. 2) are presented for 944 MRKs, withreasonably secure identifications extracted from the NASA/IPACExtragalactic Database. MRKs exhibit the same canonical infraredcharacteristics as those reported for various other galaxy samples, thatis well-known enhancement of the 25 micrometer/60 micrometer color ratioamong Seyfert MRKs, and a clear tendency for MRKs with warmer 60micrometer/100 micrometer colors to also possess cooler 12 micrometer/25micrometer colors. In addition, non-Seyfert are found to obey thewell-documented infrared/radio luminosity correlation, with the tightestcorrelation seen for starburst MRKs.
|Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system|
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.
|CCD calibration of the magnitude scale for the SSRS2 sample: The equatorial region|
In this paper we continue our investigation on the isophotal nature,accuracy, and uniformity of the magnitude system adopted in the SouthernSky Redshift Survey extension (SSRS2). Extending our earlier work, weexamine galaxies in the equatorial region, primarily in the declinationrange delta greater than or equal to -17.5 deg and less than or equal to0 deg, over a large range of right ascension, covering the southern andnorthern Galactic caps. For this purpose, we have obtained CCD isophotalmagnitudes in the B and R bands for 265 galaxies of differentmorphological types. Using the larger sample we confirm our earlierclaim that the mSSRS2 magnitudes are very nearly themagnitude measured within the isophote muB = 26 mag/sqarcsec, with a dispersion of about 0.30 mag. The relative zero-pointoffset between our mSSRS2 magnitudes and the CCD photometryis -0.02 mag from all data we have obtained. However, we detect avariation of the zero-point across different regions of the sky of +/-0.10 mag for regions at large angular separations. We also estimate thatthe zero-point offset between the mSSRS2 and Zwicky systemsis relatively small (approximately 0.10 mag), which should allow us tocombine the data from the SSRS2 and the CfA2 Redshift Survey.
|The extended 12 micron galaxy sample|
We have selected an all-sky (absolute value of b greater than or equalto 25 deg) 12 micron flux-limited sample of 893 galaxies from the IRASFaint Source Catalog, Version 2 (FSC-2). We have obtained accurate totalfluxes in the IRAS wavebands by using the ADDSCAN procedure for allobjects with FSC-2 12 micron fluxes greater than 0.15 Jy and increasingflux densities from 12 to 60 microns, and defined the sample by imposinga survey limit of 0.22 Jy on the total 12 micron flux. Its completenessis verified, by means of the classical log N - log S andV/Vmax tests, down to 0.30 Jy, below which we have measuredthe incompleteness down to the survey limit, using the log N - log Splot, for our statistical analysis. We have obtained redshifts (mostlyfrom catalogs) for virtually all (98.4%) the galaxies in the sample.Using existing catalogs of active galaxies, we defined a subsample of118 objects consisting of 53 Seyfert 1s and quasars, 63 Seyfert 2s, andtwo blazars (approximately 13% of the full sample), which is the largestunbiased sample of Seyfert galaxies ever assembled. Since the 12 micronflux has been shown to be about one-fifth of the bolometric flux forSeyfert galaxies and quasars, the subsample of Seyferts (includingquasars and blazars) is complete not only to 0.30 Jy at 12 microns butalso with respect to a bolometric flux limit of approximately 2.0 x10-10 ergs/s/sq cm. The average value of V/Vmaxfor the full sample, corrected for incompleteness at low fluxes, is 0.51+/- 0.04, expected for a complete sample of uniformly distributedgalaxies, while the value for the Seyfert galaxy subsample is 0.46 +/-0.10. We have derived 12 microns and far-infrared luminosity functionsfor the AGNs, as well as for the entire sample. We extracted from oursample a complete subsample of 235 galaxies flux-limited (8.3 Jy) at 60microns. The 60 micron luminosity function computed for this subsampleis in satisfactory agreement with the ones derived from the brightgalaxy sample (BGS) and the deep high-galactic latitude sample, bothselected at 60 microns.
|Radio and infrared emission from Markarian starburst galaxies|
Radio and infrared emission were compared for a sample of 58 Markarianstarburst galaxies, chosen to cover a wide range of 60-micron luminositydensity. New radio observations were from the VLA at 6 and 20 cm in theB and A configurations. IRAS data were reanalyzed for 25 of thestarbursts that were previously undetected at either 25 or 100 microns.The correlation between the global radio and IR emission for thestarbursts in the sample is strongest at 25 and 60 microns, wavelengthsin which the warm dust dominates. The radio spectral index steepens awayfrom the center. This indicates that nonthermal emission leaks out ofthe starburst region. The change in the spectral index implies thatwhile nonthermal sources dominate in the entire region, the bulk of theinterior emission at 6 cm is thermal. The radio spectral index does notappear to vary as a function of the infrared luminosity or the infraredcolors, which indicates that the slope of the initial mass function doesnot appear to be a function of either the mass or temperature of thestarburst.
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