Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

NGC 5477



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

Late-type galaxies observed with SAURON: two-dimensional stellar and emission-line kinematics of 18 spirals
We present the stellar and gas kinematics of a sample of 18 nearbylate-type spiral galaxies (Hubble types ranging from Sb to Sd), observedwith the integral-field spectrograph SAURON at the 4.2-m WilliamHerschel Telescope. SAURON covers the spectral range 4800-5380Å,allowing us to measure the Hβ, Fe, Mgb absorption features and theemission in the Hβ line and the [OIII]λλ4959,5007Å and [NI]λλ5198, 5200Å doublets over a 33× 41-arcsec2 field of view. The maps cover the nuclearregion of these late-type galaxies and in all cases include the entirebulge. In many cases the stellar kinematics suggests the presence of acold inner region, as visible from a central drop in the stellarvelocity dispersion. The ionized gas is almost ubiquitous and behaves ina complicated fashion: the gas velocity fields often display morefeatures than the stellar ones, including wiggles in the zero-velocitylines, irregular distributions, ring-like structures. The line ratio[OIII]/Hβ often takes on low values over most of the field,probably indicating a wide-spread star formation.

The Molecular Interstellar Medium of Dwarf Galaxies on Kiloparsec Scales: A New Survey for CO in Northern, IRAS-detected Dwarf Galaxies
We present a new survey for CO in dwarf galaxies using the ARO Kitt Peak12 m telescope. This survey consists of observations of the centralregions of 121 northern dwarfs with IRAS detections and no known COemission. We detect CO in 28 of these galaxies and marginally detectanother 16, increasing by about 50% the number of such galaxies known tohave significant CO emission. The galaxies we detect are comparable instellar and dynamical mass to the Large Magellanic Cloud, althoughsomewhat brighter in CO and fainter in the far-IR. Within dwarfs, wefind that the CO luminosity LCO is most strongly correlatedwith the K-band and the far-infrared luminosities. There are also strongcorrelations with the radio continuum (RC) and B-band luminosities andlinear diameter. Conversely, we find that far-IR dust temperature is apoor predictor of CO emission within the dwarfs alone, although a goodpredictor of normalized CO content among a larger sample of galaxies. Wesuggest that LCO and LK correlate well because thestellar component of a galaxy dominates the midplane gravitational fieldand thus sets the pressure and density of the atomic gas, which controlthe formation of H2 from H I. We compare our sample with moremassive galaxies and find that dwarfs and large galaxies obey the samerelationship between CO and the 1.4 GHz RC surface brightness. Thisrelationship is well described by a Schmidt law withΣRC~Σ1.3CO. Therefore,dwarf galaxies and large spirals exhibit the same relationship betweenmolecular gas and star formation rate (SFR). We find that this result isrobust to moderate changes in the RC-to-SFR and CO-to-H2conversion factors. Our data appear to be inconsistent with large (orderof magnitude) variations in the CO-to-H2 conversion factor inthe star-forming molecular gas.

Dwarf and Normal Spiral Galaxies: are they Self-Similar?
The investigation presented here was focused on clarifying the existenceof dwarf spiral galaxies as a separate group from classical spirals.First, a list of spiral galaxies with small sizes was obtained.Information on colors, luminosities, morphologies and chemical contentwas searched for in the literature for these galaxies. Using thisinformation, it can be concluded that dwarf spirals are not likely to bethe tail of the distribution of classical galaxies. On the contrary,significant differences in some of the most important properties ofspiral galaxies, such as the metallicity gradient and the bar frecuency,were found. In any case, further and more accurate observations areneeded for a definitive answer.

A Catalog of Neighboring Galaxies
We present an all-sky catalog of 451 nearby galaxies, each having anindividual distance estimate D<~10 Mpc or a radial velocityVLG<550 km s-1. The catalog contains data onbasic optical and H I properties of the galaxies, in particular, theirdiameters, absolute magnitudes, morphological types, circumnuclearregion types, optical and H I surface brightnesses, rotationalvelocities, and indicative mass-to-luminosity and H I mass-to-luminosityratios, as well as a so-called tidal index, which quantifies the galaxyenvironment. We expect the catalog completeness to be roughly 70%-80%within 8 Mpc. About 85% of the Local Volume population are dwarf (dIr,dIm, and dSph) galaxies with MB>-17.0, which contributeabout 4% to the local luminosity density, and roughly 10%-15% to thelocal H I mass density. The H I mass-to-luminosity and the H Imass-to-total (indicative) mass ratios increase systematically fromgiant galaxies toward dwarfs, reaching maximum values about 5 in solarunits for the most tiny objects. For the Local Volume disklike galaxies,their H I masses and angular momentum follow Zasov's linear relation,expected for rotating gaseous disks being near the threshold ofgravitational instability, favorable for active star formation. We foundthat the mean local luminosity density exceeds 1.7-2.0 times the globaldensity, in spite of the presence of the Tully void and the absence ofrich clusters in the Local Volume. The mean local H I density is 1.4times its ``global'' value derived from the H I Parkes Sky Survey.However, the mean local baryon densityΩb(<8Mpc)=2.3% consists of only a half of the globalbaryon density, Ωb=(4.7+/-0.6)% (Spergel et al.,published in 2003). The mean-square pairwise difference of radialvelocities is about 100 km s-1 for spatial separations within1 Mpc, increasing to ~300 km s-1 on a scale of ~3 Mpc. alsoWe calculated the integral area of the sky occupied by the neighboringgalaxies. Assuming the H I size of spiral and irregular galaxies to be2.5 times their standard optical diameter and ignoring any evolutioneffect, we obtain the expected number of the line-of-sight intersectionswith the H I galaxy images to be dn/dz~0.4, which does not contradictthe observed number of absorptions in QSO spectra.

The Hα galaxy survey. I. The galaxy sample, Hα narrow-band observations and star formation parameters for 334 galaxies
We discuss the selection and observations of a large sample of nearbygalaxies, which we are using to quantify the star formation activity inthe local Universe. The sample consists of 334 galaxies across allHubble types from S0/a to Im and with recession velocities of between 0and 3000 km s-1. The basic data for each galaxy are narrowband H\alpha +[NII] and R-band imaging, from which we derive starformation rates, H\alpha +[NII] equivalent widths and surfacebrightnesses, and R-band total magnitudes. A strong correlation is foundbetween total star formation rate and Hubble type, with the strongeststar formation in isolated galaxies occurring in Sc and Sbc types. Moresurprisingly, no significant trend is found between H\alpha +[NII]equivalent width and galaxy R-band luminosity. More detailed analyses ofthe data set presented here will be described in subsequent papers.Based on observations made with the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope operatedon the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto deAstrofísica de Canarias.The full version of Table \ref{tab3} is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/414/23 Reduced image datafor this survey can be downloaded fromhttp://www.astro.livjm.ac.uk/HaGS/

The Kinematic State of the Local Volume
The kinematics of galaxies within 10 Mpc of the Milky Way isinvestigated using published distances and radial velocities. Withrespect to the average Hubble flow (isotropic or simple anisotropic),there is no systematic relation between peculiar velocity dispersion andabsolute magnitude over a range of 10 mag; neither is there any apparentvariation with galaxy type or between field and cluster members. Thereare several possible explanations for the lack of variation, though allhave difficulties: either there is no relationship between light andmass on these scales, the peculiar velocities are not produced bygravitational interaction, or the background dynamical picture is wrongin some systematic way. The extremely cold local flow of 40-60 kms-1 dispersion reported by some authors is shown to be anartifact of sparse data, a velocity dispersion of over 100 kms-1 being closer to the actual value. Galaxies with a high(positive) radial velocity have been selected against in studies of thisvolume, biasing numerical results.

Molecular gas in the central regions of the latest-type spiral galaxies
Using the IRAM 30 >m telescope, we have surveyed an unbiased sampleof 47 nearby spiral galaxies of very late (Scd-Sm) Hubble-type foremission in the 12CO(1-0) and (2-1) lines. The sensitivity ofour data (a few mK) allows detection of about 60% of our sample in atleast one of the CO lines. The median detected H2 mass is1.4x 107 >msun within the central few kpc, assuming astandard conversion factor. We use the measured line intensities tocomplement existing studies of the molecular gas content of spiralgalaxies as a function of Hubble-type and to significantly improve thestatistical significance of such studies at the late end of the spiralsequence. We find that the latest-type spirals closely follow thecorrelation between molecular gas content and galaxy luminosityestablished for earlier Hubble types. The molecular gas in late-typegalaxies seems to be less centrally concentrated than in earlier types.We use Hubble Space Telescope optical images to correlate the moleculargas mass to the properties of the central galaxy disk and the compactstar cluster that occupies the nucleus of most late-type spirals. Thereis no clear correlation between the luminosity of the nuclear starcluster and the molecular gas mass, although the CO detection rate ishighest for the brightest clusters. It appears that the central surfacebrightness of the stellar disk is an important parameter for the amountof molecular gas at the galaxy center. Whether stellar bars play acritical role for the gas dynamics remains unclear, in part because ofuncertainties in the morphological classifications of our sample.

Distribution of star-forming complexes in dwarf irregular galaxies
We study the distribution of bright star-forming complexes in ahomogeneous sample of 72 late-type (``irregular'') dwarf galaxieslocated within the 10 Mpc volume. Star-forming complexes are identifiedas bright lumps in B-band galaxy images and isolated by means of theunsharp-masking method. For the sample as a whole the radial numberdistribution of bright lumps largely traces the underlyingexponential-disk light profiles, but peaks at a 10 percent smaller scalelength. Moreover, the presence of a tail of star forming regions out toat least six optical scale lengths provides evidence against asystematic star formation truncation within that galaxy extension.Considering these findings, we apply a scale length-independentconcentration index, taking into account the implied non-uniform randomspread of star formation regions throughout the disk. The numberprofiles frequently manifest a second, minor peak at about two scalelengths. Relying on a two-dimensional stochastic self-propagating starformation model, we show these secondary peaks to be consistent withtriggered star formation; for a few of the brighter galaxies a peculiarpeak distribution is observed that is conceivably due to the onset ofshear provided by differential rotation. On scales between 100 and 1000pc, and by taking into account exponential-disk structure, bright lumpsreveal cluster dimensions between 1.3 and 2, with a weak trend to higherdimensions for brighter galaxies. Cluster dimension weaklyanticorrelates with the lumpiness index (the fraction of the totalgalaxy light due to the light contributed by the lumps), the latterindex showing no dependence on luminosity. Lump spreading within thedisk, as measured by the concentration index, and lump clustering, asgiven by the cluster dimension, are not linked to each other.Interpreting cluster dimension in terms of porosity of a self-similarintragalactic medium, we derive a relation between current starformation rate, scale length, and porosity.

A Hubble Space Telescope Census of Nuclear Star Clusters in Late-Type Spiral Galaxies. I. Observations and Image Analysis
We present new Hubble Space Telescope I-band images of a sample of 77nearby late-type spiral galaxies with low inclination. The main purposeof this catalog is to study the frequency and properties of nuclear starclusters. In 59 galaxies of our sample, we have identified a distinct,compact (but resolved), and dominant source at or very close to thephotocenter. In many cases, these clusters are the only prominent sourcewithin a few kiloparsecs from the galaxy nucleus. We present surfacebrightness profiles, derived from elliptical isophote fits, of allgalaxies for which the fit was successful. We use the fitted isophotesat radii larger than 2" to check whether the location of the clustercoincides with the photocenter of the galaxy and confirm that in nearlyall cases, we are truly dealing with ``nuclear'' star clusters. Fromanalytical fits to the surface brightness profiles, we derive thecluster luminosities after subtraction of the light contribution fromthe underlying galaxy disk and/or bulge. Based on observations made withthe NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space TelescopeScience Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universitiesfor Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Theseobservations are associated with proposal 8599.

The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies. II. R-band surface photometry of late-type dwarf galaxies
R-band surface photometry is presented for 171 late-type dwarf andirregular galaxies. For a subsample of 46 galaxies B-band photometry ispresented as well. We present surface brightness profiles as well asisophotal and photometric parameters including magnitudes, diameters andcentral surface brightnesses. Absolute photometry is accurate to 0.1 magor better for 77% of the sample. For over 85% of the galaxies the radialsurface brightness profiles are consistent with published data withinthe measured photometric uncertainty. For most of the galaxies in thesample H I data have been obtained with the Westerbork Synthesis RadioTelescope. The galaxies in our sample are part of the WHISP project(Westerbork H I Survey of Spiral and Irregular Galaxies), which aims atmapping about 500 nearby spiral and irregular galaxies in H I. Theavailability of H I data makes this data set useful for a wide range ofstudies of the structure, dark matter content and kinematics oflate-type dwarf galaxies. Based on observations made with INT operatedon the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisicade Canarias. The tables in Appendix A are only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/390/863. Thefigures in Appendix B are only available in electronic formhttp://www.edpsciences.org

Structure and stellar content of dwarf galaxies. VII. B and R photometry of 25 southern field dwarfs and a disk parameter analysis of the complete sample of nearby irregulars
We present B and R band surface photometry of 25 Southern field dwarfgalaxies within a distance of 10 Mpc. For each galaxy we give theessential model-free photometric parameters and, by fitting exponentialsto the surface brightness profiles, the central extrapolated surfacebrightness and the exponential scale length, in both colour bands.Surface brightness and colour profiles are shown. One of the objects, avery faint dwarf elliptical in the vicinity of NGC 2784, has beendiscovered in the course of this work. Drawing on the data from this andall previous papers of this series, we construct a complete sample of 72late-type (``irregular'') dwarf galaxies in nearby groups and the fieldwithin the 10 Mpc volume, to study the exponential-disk parameterrelations of these galaxies with respect to galaxy environment. Weconfirm our previous finding of statistically lower scale lengths/highercentral surface brightnesses for field and group galaxies as compared tocluster galaxies. However, using a clear-cut definition of ``group''versus ``field'' environment, we find no significant difference in thephotometric structure of group and field irregulars. A difference in thestar formation history may partly account for this structure-environmentrelation: for a given luminosity cluster dwarfs are on average redderthan field and group galaxies. We also report evidence for the colourgradients of dwarf irregulars being roughly inversely proportional tothe disk scale lengths. Supplementing our photometric data withkinematic data from the literature, we study possible relations withkinematic properties of the inner disk. Applying the dark matter scalingrelations for a Burkert halo we show that for field and group galaxiesof a given luminosity faster-than-mean disk rotational velocities at aradius of about two scale lengths are correlated with larger-than-meandisk scale lengths. Based on observations collected at the EuropeanSouthern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Table 3 containing ``BRphotometry and kinematic data for the 72 irregular dwarf galaxies of ourcomplete sample'' is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/388/29

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

The Early Palomar Program (1950-1955) for the Discovery of Classical Novae in M81: Analysis of the Spatial Distribution, Magnitude Distribution, and Distance Suggestion
Data obtained in the 1950-1955 Palomar campaign for the discovery ofclassical novae in M81 are set out in detail. Positions and apparent Bmagnitudes are listed for the 23 novae that were found. There is modestevidence that the spatial distribution of the novae does not track the Bbrightness distribution of either the total light or the light beyond anisophotal radius that is 70" from the center of M81. The novadistribution is more extended than the aforementioned light, with asignificant fraction of the sample appearing in the outer disk/spiralarm region. We suggest that many (perhaps a majority) of the M81 novaethat are observed at any given epoch (compared with, say,1010 years ago) are daughters of Population I interactingbinaries. The conclusion that the present-day novae are drawn from twopopulation groups-one from low-mass white dwarf secondaries of closebinaries identified with the bulge/thick disk population, and the otherfrom massive white dwarf secondaries identified with the outer thindisk/spiral arm population-is discussed. We conclude that the M81 dataare consistent with the two population division as argued previouslyfrom (1) observational studies on other grounds of nearby galaxies, (2)Monte Carlo simulations of novae in M31 and in the Galaxy, and (3)population synthesis modeling of nova binaries. Two different methods ofusing M81 novae as distance indicators give a nova distance modulus forM81 as (m-M)0=27.75, consistent with the Cepheid modulus thatis the same value.

Galaxy Interactions in the Local Volume
We consider a sample of 240 galaxies with V0 < 500 km/s.At the present its completness is expected to be about 60%. Being almostdistance limited, the sample ( = Local Volume = VL) has the mean numberdensity ~0.25 gal/Mpc3. According to Vorontsov-Velyaminov andArp a fraction of interacting galaxies in the LV consists of 7%, butdrops to 2% when confusions with isolated irregular galaxies are takeninto account. A relative number of apparent mergers in the LV sampleseems to be ~3%. We use a quantitative approach, where each of the LVgalaxies has a "tidal index" TI = MAX Mi /Ri3, i = 1,... N expressed via masses andseparations of the galaxy neighbours. We present a total list of the LVgalaxies with their "Main Disturbers" ( = MD) and give properties of theLV sample: * Being ranked according to their MDs the LV galaxies form"nests" with a population "k" from 1 to 22 members. The quantity "k"plotted against the MD mass shows a relation: k propto M1/2.* The whole sample contains 64 MDs, but only 7 the most massive of themcontrol 51% of the LV population. * There is no clear evidence for masssegregation on a scale of [0.3 -- 3] Mpc. * Almost all of the galaxieshaving high TI lie within 0.5 Mpc respect to the Supergalactic plane,while isolated objects are distributed over the whole LV. * About 35% ofthe galaxies have so low TI, their crossing time with respect to theirMDs exceeds the cosmological time, 1/H.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

HI properties of nearby galaxies from a volume-limited sample
We consider global HI and optical properties of about three hundrednearby galaxies with V_0 < 500 km s(-1) . The majority of them haveindividual photometric distance estimates. The galaxy sample parametersshow some known and some new correlations implying a meaningful dynamicexplanation: 1) In the whole range of diameters, 1 - 40 Kpc, the galaxystandard diameter and rotational velocity follows a nearly linearTully-Fisher relation, lg A25~(0.99+/-0.06)lg V_m. 2) The HImass-to-luminosity ratio and the HI mass-to-``total" mass (inside thestandard optical diameter) ratio increase systematically from giantgalaxies towards dwarfs, reaching maximum values 5 ;M_ȯ/L_ȯand 3, respectively. 3) For all the Local Volume galaxies their totalmass-to-luminosity ratio lies within a range of [0.2-16]M_ȯ/L_ȯ with a median of 3.0 ;M_ȯ/L_ȯ. TheM25/L ratio decreases slightly from giant towards dwarfgalaxies. 4) The M_HI/L and M25/L ratios for the samplegalaxies correlate with their mean optical surface brightness, which maybe caused by star formation activity in the galaxies. 5) The M_HI/L andM25/L ratios are practically independent of the local massdensity of surrounding galaxies within the range of densities of aboutsix orders of magnitude. 6) For the LV galaxies their HI mass andangular momentum follow a nearly linear relation: lgM_HI~(0.99+/-0.04)lg (V_m* A25), expected for rotatinggaseous disks being near the threshold of gravitational instability,favourable for active star formation. Table in the Appendix is availableonly in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp orhttp//cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Structure and stellar content of dwarf galaxies. III. B and R photometry of dwarf galaxies in the M 101 group and the nearby field
We have carried out CCD photometry in the Cousins B and R bands of 21dwarf galaxies in and around the M 101 group. Elevenare members and suspected members of the group and ten are fieldgalaxies in the projected vicinity of the group. We have derived totalmagnitudes, effective radii, effective surface brightnesses, as well asgalaxy diameters at various isophotal levels in both colours.Best-fitting exponential parameters and colour gradients are also givenfor these galaxies. Some of the galaxies show a pronounced luminosityexcess above the best-fitting exponential at large radii, or surfacebrightnesses fainter than ~ 26 mag/sq arcsec in R. This feature, whilenon-significant for a single case and technically difficult tointerpret, might be an indication of the existence of an extended oldstellar halo in dwarf irregulars. The photometric parameters of thegalaxies presented here will be combined with previously published datafor nearby dwarf galaxies and statistically analysed in a forthcomingpaper. Based on observations made at Observatoire de Haute Provence(CNRS), France.}

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.
A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Detailed images and distance measurements for eighteen dwarf irregular galaxies in the Canes Venatici cloud
In the Canes Venatici cloud, eighteen dwarf irregular galaxies wereobserved in B, V bands at the Nordic Optical Telescope under a seeing ofone arcsec. Most of the galaxies having radial velocities V_0 < 500km/s have been resolved into stars for the first time. The galaxydistances were derived based on photometry of their brightest bluestars. Distances to some of the galaxies: UGC 6782, UGC 7131 and,probably, K 215, which are located at the CVn southern edge, wereestimated to be about 15 Mpc, which is typical of the Virgo clusteroutskirts. For two LSB galaxies, K 200 and K 215, the distances may beoverestimated, probably because of a lack of young massive stars. Forthe remaining galaxies: UGC 7559, UGC 7599, UGC 7605, UGC 7639, UGC7698, UGCA 290, UGCA 292, UGC 7866, UGC 8024, UGC 8638, UGC 8651, UGC8760, and UGC 8833 the estimated distances range from 2.3 to 8.0 Mpc,indicating their actual membership in the CVn cloud. Several objectsstudied here (UGC 7605, UGC 7639, UGC 8638, UGC 8833) have awell-resolved bluish core and regular yellow outer parts, which maypoint to composite (new and old) populations. The galaxy UGCA 292 = CVndwA has unusual global parameters: (B-V)_T=+0.08, M_T=-11.4, M(HI)/L_B =6\ M_sun/L_sun and M(HI)/M_T =0.7, being, perhaps, one of the youngestknown objects in the Local Universe. Table 2 to 19 are only available atthe CDS via anonymous ftp or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

The observation of the nearby universe in UV and in FIR: an evidence for a moderate extinction in present day star forming galaxies
We study the FIR and UV-visible properties of star forming galaxies inthe nearby Universe. This comparison is performed using the localluminosity functions at UV and FIR wavelengths and on individualstarburst galaxies for which photometric data from UV to NIR and FIR areavailable. The FIR and UV luminosity functions have quite differentshapes : the UV function exhibits a strong increase for low luminositygalaxies whereas the FIR tail towards ultra luminous galaxies (L >10(11) Lsun) is not detected in UV. The comparison of the FIR and UVlocal luminosity densities argues for a rather moderate extinction innearby disk galaxies. The galaxies selected to be detected in FIR and UVare found to be located in the medium range of both luminosityfunctions. An emphasis is made on starburst galaxies. For a sample of 22of these objects, it is found that the UV (912-3650 Angstroms), thevisible (3600-12500 Angstroms) and the NIR (12500-22000 Angstroms)wavelength range contribute ~ 30%, ~ 50% and ~ 20% respectively to thetotal emerging stellar emission (for a subsample of 12 galaxies for theNIR and visible light). The mean ratio of the dust to bolometricluminosity of these galaxies is 0.37+/-0.22 similar to the ratio foundfor normal spiral galaxies. Only 4 out of the 22 galaxies exhibit a verylarge extinction with more than 60% of their energy emitted in theFIR-submm range. The mean extinction at 2000Angstroms is found to be ~1.2 mag although with a large dispersion. The UV, visible and NIRemissions of our sample galaxies are consistent with a burst lastingover ~ 1 Gyr. The conversion factor of the stellar emission into dustemission is found to correlate with the luminosity of the galaxies,brighter galaxies having a higher conversion factor. Since our sampleappears to be representative of the mean properties of the galaxypopulation in FIR and UV, a very large conversion of the stellar lightinto dust emission can no longer be assumed as a general property ofstarburst galaxies at least in the local Universe. Instead a largeramount of energy emerging from the present starburst galaxies seems tocome from the stars rather than from the dust. We compare the UVproperties of our local starburst galaxies to those of recently detectedhigh redshift galaxies. The larger extinction found in the distantgalaxies is consistent with the trend we find for the nearby starburstgalaxies namely the brighter the galaxies the lower the escape fractionof stellar light.

Study of the Virgo Cluster Using the B-Band Tully-Fisher Relation
The distances to spiral galaxies of the Virgo cluster are estimatedusing the B-band Tully-Fisher (TF) relation, and the three-dimensionalstructure of the cluster is studied. The analysis is made for a completespiral sample taken from the Virgo Cluster catalog of Binggeli, Sandage,& Tammann. The sample contains virtually all spiral galaxies down toM_{BT}=-15 mag at 40 Mpc. A careful examination is made ofthe selection effect and errors of the data. We estimate distance to 181galaxies, among which distances to 89 galaxies are reasonably accurate.We compare these distances to those obtained by other authors on agalaxy-by-galaxy basis. We find reasonable consistency of theTully-Fisher distance among various authors. In particular, it is foundthat the discrepancy in the distance among the different analyses withdifferent data is about 15%, when good H I and photometric data areavailable. We clarify that the different results on the Virgo distanceamong authors arise from the choice of the sample and interpretation ofthe data. We confirm that the Tully-Fisher relation for the Virgocluster shows an unusually large scatter sigma = 0.67 mag, compared tothat for other clusters. We conclude that this scatter is not due to theintrinsic dispersion of the Tully-Fisher relation, but due to a largedepth effect of the Virgo cluster, which we estimate to be extended from12 Mpc to 30 Mpc. The distribution of H I--deficient galaxies isconcentrated at around 14--20 Mpc, indicating the presence of a core atthis distance, and this agrees with the distance estimated for M87 andother elliptical galaxies with other methods. We show also that thespatial number density of spiral galaxies takes a peak at this distance,while a simple average of all spiral galaxy distances gives 20 Mpc. Thefact that the velocity dispersion of galaxies takes a maximum at 14--18Mpc lends an additional support for the distance to the core. Thesefeatures cannot be understood if the large scatter of the TF relation ismerely due to the intrinsic dispersion. The structure of the VirgoCluster we infer from the Tully-Fisher analysis looks like a filamentwhich is familiar to us in a late phase of structure formation in thepancake collapse in hierarchical clustering simulations. This Virgofilament lies almost along the line of sight, and this is the originthat has led a number of authors to much confusion in the Virgo distancedeterminations. We show that the M87 subcluster is located around 15--18Mpc, and it consists mainly of early-type type spiral galaxies inaddition to elliptical and S0 galaxies. There are very few late-typespiral galaxies in this subcluster. The spiral rich M49 subclusterconsists of a mixture of all types of spiral galaxies and is located atabout 22 Mpc. The two other known clouds, W and M, are located at about30--40 Mpc and undergo infall toward the core. The M cloud contains fewearly type spirals. We cannot discriminate, however, whether thesesubclusters or clouds are isolated aggregates or merely parts offilamentary structure. Finally, we infer the Hubble constant to be 82+/- 10 km s-1 Mpc-1.

Ultraviolet Signatures of Tidal Interaction in the Giant Spiral Galaxy M101
We present new evidence for the occurrence of tidal interactions in thedisk of M101 during the last 108--109 yr. Recent imaging of thefar-ultraviolet emission from M101 by the shuttle-borne UltravioletImaging Telescope (UIT) reveals with unprecedented clarity a disk-widepattern of multiple linear arm segments ("crooked arms"). The deepfar-ultraviolet (FUV) image also shows a faint outer spiral arm with a("curly tail") feature that appears to loop around the supergiant H IIregion NGC 5471, linking this outlying starburst with the rest of thegalaxy. These FUV-bright features most likely trace hot O- and B-typestars along with scattered light from associated nebular dust.Counterparts of the outermost "crooked arms" are evident in maps atvisible wavelengths and in the 21 cm line of H I. The inner-disk FUVarms are most closely associated with H alpha knots and the outer(downstream) sides of CO arms. Comparisons of the "crooked arm" and"curly tail" morphologies with dynamical simulations yield the greatestsimilitude, when the nonaxisymmetric forcing comes from a combination ofexternal interactions with one or more companion galaxies and internalperturbations from massive objects orbiting within the disk. Wespeculate that NGC 5471 represents one of these "massive disturbers"within the disk, whose formation followed from a tidal interactionbetween M101 and a smaller galaxy.

Kinematics of the Local Universe. V. The value of H_0_ from the Tully-Fisher B and logD_25_ relations for field galaxies.
We have studied the value of the Hubble constant using the KLUN(Kinematics of the Local Universe) sample of 5171 spiral galaxies havingisophotal diameters D_25_ (and partially B-magnitudes), Hi line widths,and radial velocities. The sample is diameter-limited, complete down toD_25_=1.6arcmin. As in the first similar study, where a much smallermagnitude-limited sample was used (Bottinelli et al. 1986), we payspecial attention to the problem of Malmquist bias when photometricdistances are derived by the Tully-Fisher diameter or magnituderelations. The bias is revealed and overcome by a more advanced versionof the method of normalized distances, now taking into account, inaddition to diameter and magnitude limits, also Hubble type effect,inclination effect, and variable galactic extinction. Calibration of theTully-Fisher relations is primarily performed using a sample of 15galaxies with available Cepheid distances, mostly from the HSTprogrammes. This sample does not show significant trends with distanceand is concluded to be closely distance-limited. Analysis of the logH_0_vs. d_normalized_ diagrams allows us to identify the "unbiased plateaus"for both the diameter and magnitude TF distances. A useful tool hereintroduced is the theoretical expectation of the bias in cumulative as a function of the fraction of the sample accepted forthe plateau. An iterative approach is utilized for determining the TFrelations, the plateau, and the value of H_0_ therefrom. Using thePeebles linear velocity field model with Virgo and our infall velocitiesequal to 980km/s and 150km/s, respectively, we derived the followingvalues of H_0_: H_0_=53.4+/-5.0km/s/Mpc (N_gal_=415) from the magnituderelation, and H_0_=56.7+/-4.9km/s/Mpc (N_gal_=403) from the diameterrelation. The given 1σ-errors refer to the statistical scatteraround the adopted calibration, and the dispersion of the calibratorsample itself. These H_0_ values are not sensitive to reasonable changesin the kinematical parameters of the velocity field model, up to theextreme ones found in literature. This insensitivity is also expectedfrom our numerical experiments. In the radial velocity space, theunbiased plateau extends up to about 6000km/s and the value of H_0_ isin good agreement with the SNIa results by Sandage et al. (1996, inpress) which extend to still larger velocities. At present, thesupernovae method and the KLUN TF-sample, both calibrated with Cepheiddistances, provide complementary approaches to H_0_ in different, thoughoverlapping, redshift ranges. As an additional result, the normalizeddistance method provides a natural way to estimate the Local Groupinfall velocity by minimizing the logH_0_ dispersion in the unbiasedplateau. Using the diameter and the magnitude TF relations respectively,we obtained, as preliminary results, the following values:v_0_=225+/-45km/s, and v_0_=185+/-40km/s. These values are compatiblewith our standard value within 2 σ and agree particulary well withSandage's preferred value v_0_=220km/s.

On the Size and Formation Mechanism of Star Complexes in Sm, Im, and BCD Galaxies
The diameters D_c_ of the largest star-forming complexes in 67Magellanic spiral and irregular galaxies and 16 blue compact dwarf (BCD)galaxies are found to scale approximately with the square root of thegalaxy luminosity for each type, i.e., smaller galaxies haveproportionately smaller star-forming regions. This is the same relationas for the largest complexes in bright spiral galaxies found previously,although Sm/Im galaxies have complexes that, on average, are a factor of2 larger than the extrapolation for spiral galaxies at the same absolutemagnitude, and the BCD galaxies have complexes that are ~2 times largerthan those typical of the Sm/Im galaxies at the same absolute magnitude.These results are consistent with the interpretation that the largestcomplexes form at the gravitational length scale in a marginally stableinterstellar medium with a nearly constant velocity dispersion c ~ 5-10km s^-1^. The luminosity scaling is then the result of higher averagetotal densities in smaller galaxies compared with the outer regions ofgiant spirals. This total density correlation is shown using published HI line widths and optical galaxy sizes. The implication of these resultsis that star formation begins when the ratio of the gas density ρ tothe total density (gas + stars + dark matter) exceeds several tenths. Ifstar formation lasts for a time scaling with (Grho_)^-1/2^ ~D_c_/c, then the main morphological differences between star formationin galaxies of various sizes can be explained: large galaxies have largestar complexes that form groups of OB associations slowly for up to 50Myr; small galaxies have small complexes (in terms of absolute size)that form dense associations quickly, in bursts spanning less than 5Myr.

The Composition Gradient in M101 Revisited. I. H II Region Spectra and Excitation Properties
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJ...456..504K&db_key=AST

Nearby galaxies. IV. The global Hubble parameter and the dispersion of the Hubble relation
Using a spherically symmetric model of the Virgo flow the global Hubbleparameter has been estimated from the observed radial velocities and thephotometrically measured distances of nearby galaxies. Adopting theobserved recession velocity of the Virgo Cluster to about 1000 km s(-1)and the infall velocity of the Local Group to 350 km s(-1) the globalHubble constant results to 73 +/- 10 km s(-1) Mpc(-) -1. This valuecorresponds with the distance of the Virgo Cluster of 18 +/- 2 Mpc. Thecosmic dispersion of the galaxies around the Hubble relation is of orderof 35 km s(-1) .

The Galaxy Motion Relative to Nearby Galaxies and the Local Velocity Field
We consider a sample of 103 galaxies with radial velocities V_0_ <500 km s^-1^ and distances obtained by means of photometric distanceindicators: Cepheids (n = 17), brightest stars (n = 69), and galaxymembership in the nearby bound groups (n = 17). Ranking the galaxieswith their distance R we determine a running apex for the Sun, theGalaxy, and the Local Group as a function of R. For the solar apex withrespect to the LG galaxies we obtain the parameters: {l_sun_ =93^deg^+/-2^deg^, b_sun_ = -4^deg^+/- 2^deg^, V_sun_ = 316+/-5 kms^-1^}. That corresponds to a Galaxy center apex {l = 107^deg^, b =-18^deg^, v = 90 km s^-1^}, pointing at ~14^deg^ from M31. When theconsidered volume depth increases from 1.0-1.5 Mpc up to 4-8 Mpc, thesolar apex drifts to {l_sun_ = 91^deg^, b_sun_ = 0^deg^, V_sun_ = 334 kms^-1^}, while the LG centroid apex shows a complicate wandering in aregion {l = [40^deg^, 100^deg^], b = [0^deg^, +60^deg^]) with velocityincreasing from 0 up to 40 km s^-1^, The running value for the localHubble parameter, H(R), reaches the maximum (90+/-5) km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^ atR ~ 2 Mpc, and then decreases down to (70-65) km s^-1^ Mpc^- 1^. Whenboth the Hubble component and the apex velocity are removed, theresidual velocity field shows clear signs of anisotropy. Within theLocal Supergalactic plane there is a prevalence of negative peculiarvelocities towards the "+SGY" direction. This feature perhaps has thesame origin as the "Local Velocity Anomaly" (LVA) known to exist over ascale of 10-30 Mpc. Besides the LVA, an excess of negative peculiarvelocities is seen also along the SGZ axis and can be interpreted as ifthe expansion of the local pancake proceeds about 30% slower in thedirection perpendicular to the symmetry plane than in the plane itself.Inside the Local Volume, galaxies possess a peculiar velocity dispersionof (72+/-2) km s^-1^ independent on the assumed volume depth. This valueis almost the same for dwarf and giant galaxies: a behavior which has nosimple explanations. The use of more precise solar apex parameters andthe correction for the local anisotropy improves the use of radialvelocities of nearby galaxies as distance indicators and allows to builda more accurate 3D map of the LV which reveals more "fine grain"structure details than Tully's catalog data.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Ursa Major
Right ascension:14h05m33.10s
Aparent dimensions:1.259′ × 0.912′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 5477

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR