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A Kinematic Study of M51-Type Galaxies
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A Hubble Space Telescope Survey of the Mid-Ultraviolet Morphology of Nearby Galaxies
We present a systematic imaging survey of 37 nearby galaxies observedwith the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2(WFPC2) in the mid-UV F300W filter, centered at 2930 Å, as well asin the I-band (F814W) filter at 8230 Å. Eleven of these galaxieswere also imaged in the F255W filter, centered at 2550 Å. Oursample is carefully selected to include galaxies of sufficiently smallradius and high predicted mid-UV surface brightness to be detectablewith WFPC2 in one orbit and covers a wide range of Hubble types andinclinations. The mid-UV (2000-3200 Å) spans the gap betweenground-based UBVR(IJHK) images, which are available or were acquired forthe current study, and far-UV images available from the Astro/UITmissions for 15 galaxies in our sample. The first qualitative resultsfrom our study are as follows:1. Early-type galaxies show a significantdecrease in surface brightness going from the red to the mid-UV,reflecting the absence of a dominant young stellar population and insome cases the presence of significant (central) dust lanes. Galaxiesthat are early types in the optical show a variety of morphologies inthe mid-UV that can lead to a different morphological classification,although not necessarily as later type. Some early-type galaxies becomedominated by a blue nuclear feature or a point source in the mid-UV,e.g., as a result of the presence of a Seyfert nucleus or a LINER. Thisis in part due to our mid-UV surface brightness selection, but it alsosuggests that part of the strong apparent evolution of weak AGNs inearly-type galaxies may be due to surface brightness dimming of theirUV-faint stellar population, which renders the early-type host galaxiesinvisible at intermediate to higher redshifts.2. About half of themid-type spiral and star-forming galaxies appear as a latermorphological type in the mid-UV, as Astro/UIT also found primarily inthe far-UV. Sometimes these differences are dramatic (e.g., NGC 6782shows a spectacular ring of hot stars in the mid-UV). However, not allmid-type spiral galaxies look significantly different in the mid-UV.Their mid-UV images show a considerable range in the scale and surfacebrightness of individual star-forming regions. Almost without exception,the mid-type spirals in our sample have their small bulges bisected by adust lane, which often appears to be connected to the inner spiral armstructure.3. The majority of the heterogeneous subset of late-type,irregular, peculiar, and merging galaxies display F300W morphologiesthat are similar to those seen in F814W, but with important differencesdue to recognizable dust features absorbing the bluer light and to hotstars, star clusters, and star formation ``ridges'' that are bright inthe mid-UV. Less than one-third of the galaxies classified as late typein the optical appear sufficiently different in the mid-UV to result ina different classification.Our HST mid-UV survey of nearby galaxiesshows that, when observed in the rest-frame mid-UV, early- to mid-typegalaxies are more likely to be misclassified as later types thanlate-type galaxies are to be misclassified as earlier types. This isbecause the later type galaxies are dominated by the same young and hotstars in all filters from the mid-UV to the red and so have a smaller``morphological K-correction'' than true earlier type galaxies. Themorphological K-correction can thus explain part, but certainly not all,of the excess faint blue late-type galaxies seen in deep HST fields.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which isoperated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy(AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Also based in part onobservations made with the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope: theAlice P. Lennon Telescope and the Thomas J. Bannan AstrophysicsFacility.

Supernova 2001ai in NGC 5278
IAUC 7605 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

Statistical study of M 51-type galaxies
We present a statistical analysis of a new sample of M 51-type galaxies.Using the MCG and VV catalogues, we selected 32 such binary systems. Wefound that a typical M 51-type pair consists of a bright L*spiral galaxy and a satellite with blue luminosity 1/30-1/3 of theprimary one. The main galaxies in such pairs are often barred and havetwo well-defined spiral arms. M 51-type systems show an enhanced starformation rate (from FIR luminosities). We found a weak dependence ofthe star formation rate of the system on relative luminosity of thecompanion. M 51-type galaxies are relatively frequent: about 1/12 of allpairs are of M 51-type.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

A Spectrophotometric Survey of Merging Galaxies
We present long-slit spectrophotometry of 40 merging or stronglyinteracting galaxy systems in the wavelength range 3650-7100 A. Alongwith optically selected objects, the sample includes 10 ultraluminousIRAS galaxies with evidence of ongoing merger activity. The data show awide variety of phenomena, with spectra resembling those of isolatedelliptical galaxies, early and late-type spiral galaxies, activegalactic nuclei starbursts, and poststarburst systems.

Spectrophotometric Properties of Merging Galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...450..547L&db_key=AST

Do morphological properties of interacting galaxies indicate that the latter are topological Abelian Higgs vorto sources (vorto-sinks)?
We propose an Abelian Higgs model for spiral galaxies in which thelatter are treated as topologically stable magnetic vorto-sources(-sinks). The model is characterized by the minimum coupling between theelectromagnetic vector potential and a scalar, complex-valued Higgsfield that results - for an idealized cylindrically symmetric case - ina perpendicular to the galaxy's plane distribution of magnetic fieldstrength whose total flux is a discrete-valued quantity - an integermultiple of the elementary flux unit. Adopting the hypothesis thatspiral arms trace the curves of a constant phase of the Higgs field wedemonstrate that, for an 'almost-everywhere' divergence-free vectorpotential, the arms acquire the observationally well-established form oflogarithmic spirals whose woundness is here of an 'electromagnetic'origin in the sense that it depends on the ratio between the specificvolume-divergence of a galaxy and its total magnetic flux. Thehypothesis further implies that the number of spiral arms is just twiceas that of magnetic flux quanta a galaxy possesses; the observedpreponderance of two-armed spirals then simply reflects the fact thatmost galaxies carry single flux quantum which is energetically favorablefor the vorto-sources (-sinks) whose disk-to-bulge radius ratio mhogreater than 1. The latter property also leads to the process of galaxyfragmentation in the sense that a galaxy endowed with p magnetic fluxquanta should fission into the topologically equivalent configurationconsisting of p singly-quantized galaxies. A unique possibility to testour model is provided by physically paired galaxies. Finally, we addressthe question of the periodicity in the distribution of galaxy redshiftsand show that a discrete-valuedness of the mass of spiral galaxiesresulting from our model may serve as a starting point to solve thispuzzling effect.

Effects of Interactions on the Nuclear Near Infrared Properties of Spiral Galaxies
Using JHKL photometric measures available in the literature, we havecompared the near-infrared colour indices and central luminosities ofsamples of relatively isolated spiral galaxies with LINER and H IIregion-like nuclei (hereafter called L and H) with corresponding samplesof interacting galaxies, in order to explore the effects of interactionson their near-infrared properties. We have found that the L galaxies andthe isolated H galaxies have, in general, normal near-infrared colourswhich are fully explainable in terms of emission from late-type evolvedstars. On the other hand, the sample of interacting H galaxies displays,on average, somewhat peculiar near-infrared colours (specifically,normal J - H colours, but redward H - K and, especially, K - Lexcesses), which very probably indicate the presence of thermal emissionfrom hot dust, presumably related to intense star formation activityinduced by the interactions. Furthermore, for the same galaxy samplethere is some evidence that the emission at λ ~ 2.2 microns issomewhat more centrally concentrated than that at shorter wavelengths.Interestingly, the L galaxies appear to have greater centralnear-infrared luminosities than the H galaxies, for the samemorphological-type interval.

Effects of Interactions on the Radio Properties of Non-Seyfert Galaxies
On the basis of radio surveys published in the literature we havecompared the radio properties of samples of relatively isolated spiralgalaxies with LINER- and H II- region-like nuclei (hereafter called Land H galaxies) with corresponding samples of non-Seyfert interactinggalaxies, in order to explore the effects of interactions on their radioproperties. Basically, we have found enhanced total and central radioemission (per light unit) in interacting H galaxies (compared with theirrelatively isolated counterparts) and enhanced central radio emission(per light unit) in interacting L galaxies. Analogous enhancements inthe strength of the total and nuclear Hα emission lines areobserved in interacting galaxies. Furthermore, within a sample ofinteracting galaxies, there appears to be evidence of enhanced total andcentral radio emission (per light unit) in strongly interacting galaxieswhich are likely to have H II-region-like nuclei, compared withmoderately interacting objects of the same nuclear type. Interacting Hgalaxies contain more extended central radio sources than isolatedgalaxies, whereas no difference in this sense is observed in the case ofL galaxies. L galaxies which contain, on average, weaker total andcentral radio sources than the H galaxies have, on average, smallercentral radio sources (of greater radio surface brightness) than the Hgalaxies and follow a less-steep logarithmic radio power-radio sizerelation. As regards the Seyfert galaxies, which are known to becharacterized by powerful central radio emission, we have found thatthey contain, on average, central radio sources of intermediate size,which obey a power-size relation of intermediate steepness (with respectto the L and H galaxies). Thus our statistical study reveals basicstructural differences between the radio properties of the L, H andSeyfert galaxies, and between the effects of interactions on the radioproperties of the three classes of galaxies.

IRAS observations of an optically selected sample of interacting galaxies
IRAS observations of a large, morphologically selected sample ofstrongly interacting disk-type galaxies have demonstrated thatgalaxy-galaxy collisions can lead to enhanced infrared emission, but notin all cases. Infrared luminosities of the interacting galaxies span alarge range, but are about a factor of 2 higher, on average, than thoseof isolated disk galaxies. The data suggest the existence of a cutoff inblue luminosity, below which no galaxies show markedly enhanced infraredemission. Only the most strongly interacting systems in the sample showextreme values of infrared excess, suggesting that deep,interpenetrating collisions are necessary to drive infrared emission toextreme levels. Comparisons with optical indicators of star formationshow that infrared excess and color temperatures correlate with thelevel of star-formation activity in the interacting galaxies. Allinteracting galaxies in our sample that exhibit an infrared excess andhave higher than normal color temperatures also have optical indicatorsof high levels of star formation. It is not necessary to invokeprocesses other than star formation to account for the enhanced infraredluminosity in this sample of interacting galaxies.

Global properties of interacting disk-type galaxies
Optical, far-IR, and radio observations of global properties arepresented for a sample of strongly interacting disk-type galaxies.Global star formation rates (SFRs) for the galaxies span a large rangeand are, on average, a factor of 2.5 higher than similarly determinedglobal SFRs for isolated spiral galaxies. New star formation occurspreferentially in or near the nuclear regions. H I 21 cm emission-lineprofiles indicate the presence of anomalous velocity material andchaotic patterns of gas motion in many interacting systems. Few systemsshow evidence for the presence of a well-organized rotating H I disksuch as are seen in isolated spiral galaxies. Neutral hydrogen gasmass-to-blue luminosity ratios are not atypical when compared withisolated spirals. The evidence indicates that local rather than globalproperties of these galaxies govern the star-formation process. Theobservations generally support the notion that enhanced SFRs are causedby increased cloud collision rates and dissipative flows of gas to thenucleus.

The effects of interactions on spiral galaxies. III - A radio continuum survey of galactic nuclei at 1.49 GHz
The radio continuum emission from the central region of a sample ofinteracting spiral galaxies (92 galaxies of which 60 in a completesample) and of a control sample of more isolated spiral galaxies (94)was observed with the Very Large Array at 1.49 GHz. The angularresolution of the observations is about 1.3 arcsec, and the detectionlimits are about 0.6 and 1.5 mJy for point sources and extended sourceswith a half power size of 10 arcsec, respectively. This survey, incombination with published optical spectroscopy, provides the data for adetailed comparison of the central region in interacting and moreisolated spiral galaxies.

A statistical study of the relationship between galaxy interactions and nuclear activity
Small-aperture near- and mid-infrared photometry of a complete sample ofinteracting galaxies has been obtained. Statistical comparison of thenuclear properties of these galaxies with samples of noninteractinggalaxies shows that signs of abnormal nuclear activity are much morecommon in interacting systems. In particular, a population of nucleiwith extremely luminous 10 micron emission is unique to the interactingsample. Roughly half of the interacting galaxies with nuclear 10 micronsources also exhibit evidence of extended 10 micron emission usingmeasurements from IRAS. The far-infrared luminosities of the interactingsample are also greater than those of representative selections ofnormal galaxies. The identification of extraluminous infrared emissionin a significant number of the surveyed galaxies suggests thatinteractions may in some way be associated with other high-luminosityphenomena such as Seyfert nuclei and QSOs.

Recent star formation in interacting galaxies. I - Evidence from JHKL photometry
A survey has been carried out using JHKL photometry to investigaterecent star formation in interacting galaxies. The objective was to lookfor a K-L excess produced by 'warm' dust heated by a putative burst ofstar formation. K-L excesses are found suggesting that interactionsinduce starbursts with an efficiency approaching 100 percent. Theappearance of these inferred starbursts in interacting systems ofdifferent morphological types is qualitatively consistent with dynamicalstudies of galaxy interactions. However, the common occurrence of suchstarbursts shows that interactions have implications for theastrophysics of galaxies well beyond purely morphological effects.

A 21 centimeter line survey of a complete sample of interacting and isolated galaxies
The paper presents 21 cm line observations of a complete sample ofinteracting and isolated galaxies made with the National Radio AstronomyObservatory 91 and 43 m telescopes and the Arecibo 3035 m telescope. The21 cm line data are combined with a homogeneous set of optical data onangular diameters, axial ratios, magnitudes, and colors, and integralproperties are calculated for the galaxies in both samples. In thispaper, the sample selection procedures, the method of observation, thedata reduction, and the observational errors are described. Thedetection percentages are presented for both samples.

Enhanced radio emission in merging galaxies
The list of examples selected by Toomre (1977) is supplemented withmorphologically similar systems from the Arp Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies(1966). This sample of mergers is compared with two samples of spiralgalaxies in terms of radio power. The first comparison sample comprisesgalaxies with the same optical luminosities as the mergers. The secondis that subset of the first sample in which the galaxy forms part of adouble or multiple system. The mergers are found to be approximatelyeight times more likely to be radio-loud (radio power greater than orequal to 10 to the 22nd W/Hz at 1.4 GHz) than the members of the firstsample and two to three times more likely to be radio-loud than those ofthe second sample. The merger either involves a unique mechanism forstimulating radio emission or makes more extensive use of the samemechanism that enhances radio emission in galaxies in double or multiplesystems.

Flocculent and grand design spiral structure in field, binary and group galaxies
A 12-division morphological system emphasizing arm continuity, lengthand symmetry has been developed for the classification of all spiralgalaxies according to the regularity of their spiral arm structure. Armclassifications were tabulated for 305 barred and nonbarred spiralgalaxies; of these, 79 are isolated, 52 are binary and 174 are ingroups. Among the isolated SA galaxies, 68 + or - 10% have irregular andfragmented, or 'flocculent', spiral structures. Only 32 + or - 10% havesymmetric spiral arms in the classic grand design pattern. Flocculentspirals are the most common structures of galaxies without companions orbars. Since flocculent galaxies may have bars and companions, and granddesign galaxies may have neither bars nor companions, such perturbationsare neither perfectly effective nor always necessary in the driving ofgrand design patterns.

Binary galaxie. I. A well-defined statistical sample.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1976ApJ...208...20T&db_key=AST

Galaxies of the M 51 type.
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The Morphology of Galaxies. III. Diffuse Matter in Spherical Stellar Systems
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Photographs of nebulae with the 60-inch reflector, 1917-1919.
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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Ursa Major
Right ascension:13h41m44.00s
Aparent dimensions:0.692′ × 0.427′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 5279

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