Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

NGC 5229



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

The Local Group and Other Neighboring Galaxy Groups
Over the last few years, rapid progress has been made in distancemeasurements for nearby galaxies based on the magnitude of stars on thetip of the red giant branch. Current CCD surveys with the Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST) and large ground-based telescopes bring ~10% accuratedistances for roughly a hundred galaxies within 5 Mpc. The new data ondistances to galaxies situated in (and around) the nearest groups-theLocal Group, M81 Group, Cen A/M83 Group, IC 342/Maffei Group, Sculptorfilament, and Canes Venatici cloud-allowed us to determine their totalmass from the radius of the zero-velocity surface, R0, whichseparates a group as bound against the homogeneous cosmic expansion. Thevalues of R0 for the virialized groups turn out to be closeeach other, in the range of 0.9-1.3 Mpc. As a result, the total massesof the groups are close to each other, as well, yielding total mass toblue luminosity ratios of 10-40 MsolarL-1solar. The new total mass estimates are 3-5times lower than old virial mass estimates of these groups. Becauseabout half of galaxies in the Local volume belong to such loose groups,the revision of the amount of dark matter (DM) leads to a low localdensity of matter, Ωm~=0.04, which is comparable withthe global baryonic fraction Ωb but much lower than theglobal density of matter, Ωm=0.27. To remove thediscrepancy between the global and local quantities ofΩm, we assume the existence of two different DMcomponents: (1) compact dark halos around individual galaxies and (2) anonbaryonic dark matter ``ocean'' with ΩDM1~=0.07 andΩDM2~=0.20, respectively.Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble SpaceTelescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which isoperated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

A Catalog of Neighboring Galaxies
We present an all-sky catalog of 451 nearby galaxies, each having anindividual distance estimate D<~10 Mpc or a radial velocityVLG<550 km s-1. The catalog contains data onbasic optical and H I properties of the galaxies, in particular, theirdiameters, absolute magnitudes, morphological types, circumnuclearregion types, optical and H I surface brightnesses, rotationalvelocities, and indicative mass-to-luminosity and H I mass-to-luminosityratios, as well as a so-called tidal index, which quantifies the galaxyenvironment. We expect the catalog completeness to be roughly 70%-80%within 8 Mpc. About 85% of the Local Volume population are dwarf (dIr,dIm, and dSph) galaxies with MB>-17.0, which contributeabout 4% to the local luminosity density, and roughly 10%-15% to thelocal H I mass density. The H I mass-to-luminosity and the H Imass-to-total (indicative) mass ratios increase systematically fromgiant galaxies toward dwarfs, reaching maximum values about 5 in solarunits for the most tiny objects. For the Local Volume disklike galaxies,their H I masses and angular momentum follow Zasov's linear relation,expected for rotating gaseous disks being near the threshold ofgravitational instability, favorable for active star formation. We foundthat the mean local luminosity density exceeds 1.7-2.0 times the globaldensity, in spite of the presence of the Tully void and the absence ofrich clusters in the Local Volume. The mean local H I density is 1.4times its ``global'' value derived from the H I Parkes Sky Survey.However, the mean local baryon densityΩb(<8Mpc)=2.3% consists of only a half of the globalbaryon density, Ωb=(4.7+/-0.6)% (Spergel et al.,published in 2003). The mean-square pairwise difference of radialvelocities is about 100 km s-1 for spatial separations within1 Mpc, increasing to ~300 km s-1 on a scale of ~3 Mpc. alsoWe calculated the integral area of the sky occupied by the neighboringgalaxies. Assuming the H I size of spiral and irregular galaxies to be2.5 times their standard optical diameter and ignoring any evolutioneffect, we obtain the expected number of the line-of-sight intersectionswith the H I galaxy images to be dn/dz~0.4, which does not contradictthe observed number of absorptions in QSO spectra.

A search for Low Surface Brightness galaxies in the near-infrared. I. Selection of the sample
A sample of about 3800 Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies wasselected using the all-sky near-infrared (J, H and Ks-band)2MASS survey. The selected objects have a mean central surfacebrightness within a 5'' radius around their centre fainter than 18 magarcsec-2 in the Ks band, making them the lowestsurface brightness galaxies detected by 2MASS. A description is given ofthe relevant properties of the 2MASS survey and the LSB galaxy selectionprocedure, as well as of basic photometric properties of the selectedobjects. The latter properties are compared to those of other samples ofgalaxies, of both LSBs and ``classical'' high surface brightness (HSB)objects, which were selected in the optical. The 2MASS LSBs have aBT_c-KT colour which is on average 0.9 mag bluerthan that of HSBs from the NGC. The 2MASS sample does not appear tocontain a significant population of red objects.All tables and Figs. 2a-c are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Distribution of star-forming complexes in dwarf irregular galaxies
We study the distribution of bright star-forming complexes in ahomogeneous sample of 72 late-type (``irregular'') dwarf galaxieslocated within the 10 Mpc volume. Star-forming complexes are identifiedas bright lumps in B-band galaxy images and isolated by means of theunsharp-masking method. For the sample as a whole the radial numberdistribution of bright lumps largely traces the underlyingexponential-disk light profiles, but peaks at a 10 percent smaller scalelength. Moreover, the presence of a tail of star forming regions out toat least six optical scale lengths provides evidence against asystematic star formation truncation within that galaxy extension.Considering these findings, we apply a scale length-independentconcentration index, taking into account the implied non-uniform randomspread of star formation regions throughout the disk. The numberprofiles frequently manifest a second, minor peak at about two scalelengths. Relying on a two-dimensional stochastic self-propagating starformation model, we show these secondary peaks to be consistent withtriggered star formation; for a few of the brighter galaxies a peculiarpeak distribution is observed that is conceivably due to the onset ofshear provided by differential rotation. On scales between 100 and 1000pc, and by taking into account exponential-disk structure, bright lumpsreveal cluster dimensions between 1.3 and 2, with a weak trend to higherdimensions for brighter galaxies. Cluster dimension weaklyanticorrelates with the lumpiness index (the fraction of the totalgalaxy light due to the light contributed by the lumps), the latterindex showing no dependence on luminosity. Lump spreading within thedisk, as measured by the concentration index, and lump clustering, asgiven by the cluster dimension, are not linked to each other.Interpreting cluster dimension in terms of porosity of a self-similarintragalactic medium, we derive a relation between current starformation rate, scale length, and porosity.

Local galaxy flows within 5 Mpc
We present Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 images of sixteen dwarf galaxiesas part of our snapshot survey of nearby galaxy candidates. We derivetheir distances from the luminosity of the tip of the red giant branchstars with a typical accuracy of ~ 12%. The resulting distances are4.26 Mpc (KKH 5), 4.74 Mpc (KK 16), 4.72 Mpc (KK 17), 4.66 Mpc (ESO115-021), 4.43 Mpc (KKH 18), 3.98 Mpc (KK 27), 4.61 Mpc (KKH 34), 4.99Mpc (KK 54), 4.23 Mpc (ESO 490-017), 4.90 Mpc (FG 202), 5.22 Mpc (UGC3755), 5.18 Mpc (UGC 3974), 4.51 Mpc (KK 65), 5.49 Mpc (UGC 4115), 3.78Mpc (NGC 2915), and 5.27 Mpc (NGC 6503). Based on distances and radialvelocities of 156 nearby galaxies, we plot the local velocity-distancerelation, which has a slope of H0 = 73 km s-1Mpc-1 and a radial velocity dispersion of 85 kms-1. When members of the M81 and Cen A groups are removed,and distance errors are taken into account, the radial velocitydispersion drops to sigmav = 41 km s-1. The localHubble flow within 5 Mpc exhibits a significant anisotropy, with twoinfall peculiar velocity regions directed towards the Supergalacticpoles. However, two observed regions of outflow peculiar velocity,situated on the Supergalactic equator, are far away ( ~ 50degr ) fromthe Virgo/anti-Virgo direction, which disagrees with a sphericallysymmetric Virgo-centric flow. About 63% of galaxies within 5 Mpc belongto known compact and loose groups. Apart from them, we found six newprobable groups, consisting entirely of dwarf galaxies.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. TheSpace Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association ofUniversities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555.}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 2, and Figs. 1 and 2, are only availablein electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Galaxy flow in the Canes Venatici I cloud
We present an analysis of Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 images ofeighteen galaxies in the Canes Venatici I cloud. We derive theirdistances from the luminosity of the tip of the red giant branch starswith a typical accuracy of ~ 12%. The resulting distances are 3.9 Mpc(UGC 6541), 4.9 Mpc (NGC 3738), 3.0 Mpc (NGC 3741), 4.5 Mpc (KK 109),>6.3 Mpc (NGC 4150), 4.2 Mpc (UGC 7298), 4.5 Mpc (NGC 4244), 4.6 Mpc(NGC 4395), 4.9 Mpc (UGC 7559), 4.2 Mpc (NGC 4449), 4.4 Mpc (UGC 7605),4.6 Mpc (IC 3687), 4.7 Mpc (KK 166), 4.7 Mpc (NGC 4736), 4.2 Mpc (UGC8308), 4.3 Mpc (UGC 8320), 4.6 Mpc (NGC 5204), and 3.2 Mpc (UGC 8833).The CVn I cloud has a mean radial velocity of 286 +/- 9 kms-1, a mean distance of 4.1 +/- 0.2 Mpc, a radial velocitydispersion of 50 km s-1, a mean projected radius of 760 kpc,and a total blue luminosity of 2.2 x 1010 Lsun .Assuming virial or closed orbital motions for the galaxies, we estimatedtheir virial and their orbital mass-to-luminosity ratio to be 176 and 88Msun /Lsun , respectively. However, the CVn Icloud is characterized by a crossing time of 15 Gyr, and is thus farfrom a state of dynamical equilibrium. The large crossing time for thecloud, its low content of dSph galaxies (<6%), and the almost``primordial'' shape of its luminosity function show that the CVn Icomplex is in a transient dynamical state, driven rather by the freeHubble expansion than by galaxy interactions.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. TheSpace Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association ofUniversities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555.Figures 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Neutral hydrogen and optical observations of edge-on galaxies: Hunting for warps
We present 21-cm HI line and optical R-band observations for a sample of26 edge-on galaxies. The HI observations were obtained with theWesterbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, and are part of the WHISP database(Westerbork HI Survey of Spiral and Irregular Galaxies). We present HImaps, optical images, and radial HI density profiles. We have alsoderived the rotation curves and studied the warping and lopsidedness ofthe HI disks. 20 out of the 26 galaxies of our sample are warped,confirming that warping of the HI disks is a very common phenomenon indisk galaxies. Indeed, we find that all galaxies that have an extendedHI disk with respect to the optical are warped. The warping usuallystarts around the edge of the optical disk. The degree of warping variesconsiderably from galaxy to galaxy. Furthermore, many warps areasymmetric, as they show up in only one side of the disk or exhibitlarge differences in amplitude in the approaching and receding sides ofthe galaxy. These asymmetries are more pronounced in rich environments,which may indicate that tidal interactions are a source of warpasymmetry. A rich environment tends to produce larger warps as well. Thepresence of lopsidedness seems to be related to the presence of nearbycompanions. Full Fig. 13 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Warps and correlations with intrinsic parameters of galaxies in the visible and radio
From a comparison of the different parameters of warped galaxies in theradio, and especially in the visible, we find that: a) No large galaxy(large mass or radius) has been found to have high amplitude in thewarp, and there is no correlation of size/mass with the degree ofasymmetry of the warp. b) The disc density and the ratio of dark toluminous mass show an opposing trend: smaller values give moreasymmetric warps in the inner radii (optical warps) but show nocorrelation with the amplitude of the warp; however, in the externalradii is there no correlation with asymmetry. c) A third anticorrelationappears in a comparison of the amplitude and degree of asymmetry in thewarped galaxies. Hence, it seems that very massive dark matter haloeshave nothing to do with the formation of warps but only with the degreeof symmetry in the inner radii, and are unrelated to the warp shape forthe outermost radii. Denser discs show the same dependence.

The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies. II. R-band surface photometry of late-type dwarf galaxies
R-band surface photometry is presented for 171 late-type dwarf andirregular galaxies. For a subsample of 46 galaxies B-band photometry ispresented as well. We present surface brightness profiles as well asisophotal and photometric parameters including magnitudes, diameters andcentral surface brightnesses. Absolute photometry is accurate to 0.1 magor better for 77% of the sample. For over 85% of the galaxies the radialsurface brightness profiles are consistent with published data withinthe measured photometric uncertainty. For most of the galaxies in thesample H I data have been obtained with the Westerbork Synthesis RadioTelescope. The galaxies in our sample are part of the WHISP project(Westerbork H I Survey of Spiral and Irregular Galaxies), which aims atmapping about 500 nearby spiral and irregular galaxies in H I. Theavailability of H I data makes this data set useful for a wide range ofstudies of the structure, dark matter content and kinematics oflate-type dwarf galaxies. Based on observations made with INT operatedon the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisicade Canarias. The tables in Appendix A are only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/390/863. Thefigures in Appendix B are only available in electronic formhttp://www.edpsciences.org

The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies. I. HI imaging of late-type dwarf galaxies
Neutral hydrogen observations with the Westerbork Synthesis RadioTelescope are presented for a sample of 73 late-type dwarf galaxies.These observations are part of the WHISP project (Westerbork H I Surveyof Spiral and Irregular Galaxies). Here we present H I maps, velocityfields, global profiles and radial surface density profiles of H I, aswell as H I masses, H I radii and line widths. For the late-typegalaxies in our sample, we find that the ratio of H I extent to opticaldiameter, defined as 6.4 disk scale lengths, is on average 1.8 +/- 0.8,similar to that seen in spiral galaxies. Most of the dwarf galaxies inthis sample are rich in H I, with a typical Mion {Hi}/L_B of1.5. The relative H I content M_ion {HI}/L_R increases towards fainterabsolute magnitudes and towards fainter surface brightnesses. Dwarfgalaxies with lower average H I column densities also have lower averageoptical surface brightnesses. We find that lopsidedness is as commonamong dwarf galaxies as it is in spiral galaxies. About half of thedwarf galaxies in our sample have asymmetric global profiles, a thirdhas a lopsided H I distribution, and about half shows signs of kinematiclopsidedness.

Structure and stellar content of dwarf galaxies. VII. B and R photometry of 25 southern field dwarfs and a disk parameter analysis of the complete sample of nearby irregulars
We present B and R band surface photometry of 25 Southern field dwarfgalaxies within a distance of 10 Mpc. For each galaxy we give theessential model-free photometric parameters and, by fitting exponentialsto the surface brightness profiles, the central extrapolated surfacebrightness and the exponential scale length, in both colour bands.Surface brightness and colour profiles are shown. One of the objects, avery faint dwarf elliptical in the vicinity of NGC 2784, has beendiscovered in the course of this work. Drawing on the data from this andall previous papers of this series, we construct a complete sample of 72late-type (``irregular'') dwarf galaxies in nearby groups and the fieldwithin the 10 Mpc volume, to study the exponential-disk parameterrelations of these galaxies with respect to galaxy environment. Weconfirm our previous finding of statistically lower scale lengths/highercentral surface brightnesses for field and group galaxies as compared tocluster galaxies. However, using a clear-cut definition of ``group''versus ``field'' environment, we find no significant difference in thephotometric structure of group and field irregulars. A difference in thestar formation history may partly account for this structure-environmentrelation: for a given luminosity cluster dwarfs are on average redderthan field and group galaxies. We also report evidence for the colourgradients of dwarf irregulars being roughly inversely proportional tothe disk scale lengths. Supplementing our photometric data withkinematic data from the literature, we study possible relations withkinematic properties of the inner disk. Applying the dark matter scalingrelations for a Burkert halo we show that for field and group galaxiesof a given luminosity faster-than-mean disk rotational velocities at aradius of about two scale lengths are correlated with larger-than-meandisk scale lengths. Based on observations collected at the EuropeanSouthern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Table 3 containing ``BRphotometry and kinematic data for the 72 irregular dwarf galaxies of ourcomplete sample'' is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/388/29

A list of peculiar velocities of RFGC galaxies
A list of radial velocities, HI line widths and peculiar velocities of1327 galaxies from the RFGC catalogue has been compiled using actualobservations and literature data. The list can be used for studying bulkmotions of galaxies, construction of the field of peculiar velocitiesand other tasks.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The Revised Flat Galaxy Catalogue.
We present a new improved and completed version of the Flat GalaxyCatalogue (FGC) named the Revised Flat Galaxy Catalogue (RFGC)containing 4236 thin edge-on spiral galaxies and covering the whole sky.The Catalogue is intended to study large-scale cosmic streamings as wellas other problems of observational cosmology. The dipole moment ofdistribution of the RFGC galaxies (l = 273 degr; b =+19 degr) lieswithin statistical errors (+/-10 degr) in the direction of the LocalGroup motion towards the Microwave Background Radiation (MBR).

Distances to eight nearby isolated low-luminosity galaxies
Eight isolated dwarf galaxies with radial velocities between 350 and 500km/s have been resolved into stars for the first time. Based onphotometry of the brightest blue and red stars, we obtained thefollowing distance estimates (in Mpc) for these galaxies: 6.5 (UGC2684), 6.9 (NGC 2537), 6.8 (UGC 5288), 5.3 (UGC 5423), 6.2 (UGC 5672),7.4 (UGC 5918), 5.4 (NGC 5023), and 5.1 (NGC 5229). A wide variety ofmorphological features is noted in the isolated galaxies underconsideration, which is clearly attributable to a difference in theirstar-formation activity. The median value of individual estimates of theHubble parameter H = V_0/D for these galaxies is 68 km/s per Mpc.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Multi-colour photometry of nearby dwarf galaxies
Observations of 39 nearby, mostly dwarf galaxies are presented. Theobservations were carried out at the 1.2-m telescope of Observatoire deHaute-Provence (France) with B, V and I Cousins filters. Based onsurface and integrated photometry of the obtained images we derivedtotal B, V and I magnitudes and integrated B-V, V-I colours as well asradii and magnitudes at the 25 m isophotal level. Azimuthally averagedsurface brightness profiles were derived for 33 galaxies in eachphotometric band. Most of the profiles can be well fitted by anexponential intensity law of brightness distribution. The best-fittingexponential parameters are also given for the galaxies. Based onobservations made at Observatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France.Table 3 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

HI properties of nearby galaxies from a volume-limited sample
We consider global HI and optical properties of about three hundrednearby galaxies with V_0 < 500 km s(-1) . The majority of them haveindividual photometric distance estimates. The galaxy sample parametersshow some known and some new correlations implying a meaningful dynamicexplanation: 1) In the whole range of diameters, 1 - 40 Kpc, the galaxystandard diameter and rotational velocity follows a nearly linearTully-Fisher relation, lg A25~(0.99+/-0.06)lg V_m. 2) The HImass-to-luminosity ratio and the HI mass-to-``total" mass (inside thestandard optical diameter) ratio increase systematically from giantgalaxies towards dwarfs, reaching maximum values 5 ;M_ȯ/L_ȯand 3, respectively. 3) For all the Local Volume galaxies their totalmass-to-luminosity ratio lies within a range of [0.2-16]M_ȯ/L_ȯ with a median of 3.0 ;M_ȯ/L_ȯ. TheM25/L ratio decreases slightly from giant towards dwarfgalaxies. 4) The M_HI/L and M25/L ratios for the samplegalaxies correlate with their mean optical surface brightness, which maybe caused by star formation activity in the galaxies. 5) The M_HI/L andM25/L ratios are practically independent of the local massdensity of surrounding galaxies within the range of densities of aboutsix orders of magnitude. 6) For the LV galaxies their HI mass andangular momentum follow a nearly linear relation: lgM_HI~(0.99+/-0.04)lg (V_m* A25), expected for rotatinggaseous disks being near the threshold of gravitational instability,favourable for active star formation. Table in the Appendix is availableonly in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp orhttp//cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Structure and stellar content of dwarf galaxies. III. B and R photometry of dwarf galaxies in the M 101 group and the nearby field
We have carried out CCD photometry in the Cousins B and R bands of 21dwarf galaxies in and around the M 101 group. Elevenare members and suspected members of the group and ten are fieldgalaxies in the projected vicinity of the group. We have derived totalmagnitudes, effective radii, effective surface brightnesses, as well asgalaxy diameters at various isophotal levels in both colours.Best-fitting exponential parameters and colour gradients are also givenfor these galaxies. Some of the galaxies show a pronounced luminosityexcess above the best-fitting exponential at large radii, or surfacebrightnesses fainter than ~ 26 mag/sq arcsec in R. This feature, whilenon-significant for a single case and technically difficult tointerpret, might be an indication of the existence of an extended oldstellar halo in dwarf irregulars. The photometric parameters of thegalaxies presented here will be combined with previously published datafor nearby dwarf galaxies and statistically analysed in a forthcomingpaper. Based on observations made at Observatoire de Haute Provence(CNRS), France.}

Detailed images and distance measurements for eighteen dwarf irregular galaxies in the Canes Venatici cloud
In the Canes Venatici cloud, eighteen dwarf irregular galaxies wereobserved in B, V bands at the Nordic Optical Telescope under a seeing ofone arcsec. Most of the galaxies having radial velocities V_0 < 500km/s have been resolved into stars for the first time. The galaxydistances were derived based on photometry of their brightest bluestars. Distances to some of the galaxies: UGC 6782, UGC 7131 and,probably, K 215, which are located at the CVn southern edge, wereestimated to be about 15 Mpc, which is typical of the Virgo clusteroutskirts. For two LSB galaxies, K 200 and K 215, the distances may beoverestimated, probably because of a lack of young massive stars. Forthe remaining galaxies: UGC 7559, UGC 7599, UGC 7605, UGC 7639, UGC7698, UGCA 290, UGCA 292, UGC 7866, UGC 8024, UGC 8638, UGC 8651, UGC8760, and UGC 8833 the estimated distances range from 2.3 to 8.0 Mpc,indicating their actual membership in the CVn cloud. Several objectsstudied here (UGC 7605, UGC 7639, UGC 8638, UGC 8833) have awell-resolved bluish core and regular yellow outer parts, which maypoint to composite (new and old) populations. The galaxy UGCA 292 = CVndwA has unusual global parameters: (B-V)_T=+0.08, M_T=-11.4, M(HI)/L_B =6\ M_sun/L_sun and M(HI)/M_T =0.7, being, perhaps, one of the youngestknown objects in the Local Universe. Table 2 to 19 are only available atthe CDS via anonymous ftp or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Redshift periodicity in the Local Supercluster.
Persistent claims have been made over the last ~15yr that extragalacticredshifts, when corrected for the Sun's motion around the Galacticcentre, occur in multiples of ~24 or ~36km/s. A recent investigation byus of 40 spiral galaxies out to 1000km/s, with accurately measuredredshifts, gave evidence of a periodicity ~37.2-37.7km/s. Here we extendour enquiry out to the edge of the Local Supercluster (~2600km/s),applying a simple and robust procedure to a total of 97 accuratelydetermined redshifts. We find that, when corrected for related vectorsclose to recent estimates of the Sun's galactocentric motion, theredshifts of spirals are strongly periodic (P~37.6km/s). The formalconfidence level of the result is extremely high, and the signal is seenindependently with different radio telescopes. We also examine a furthersample of 117 spirals observed with the 300-foot Green Bank telescopealone. The periodicity phenomenon appears strongest for the galaxieslinked by group membership, but phase coherence probably holds overlarge regions of the Local Supercluster.

Statistical correlations between basic parameters of disk galaxies
Statistical relationships between principal galaxy parameters andsurface densities of these parameters are analyzed for a sample of 63disk galaxies. These parameters include the radius, the mass of theentire galaxy and its various components (H2, HI, total gas, dust,etc.), and blue and FIR luminosity. Of all possible two- andthree-parameter linear relations between the galaxy parameterlogarithms, we choose those that have high correlation coefficients andproceed to derive their coefficients. Some of these relations arecompared with the corresponding predictions of the single-zone model ofthe disk galaxy evolution. Other relations are considered from theviewpoint of interstellar medium properties in galaxies. We find thetheory to agree satisfactorily with observations and suggest ways ofimproving evolutionary models. The method of linear orthogonalregression used in the statistical analysis is described.

The orientation of spin vectors of galaxies in the Ursa Major filament
Spin vectors of 60 galaxies in the 'Ursa Major filament' are obtainedfrom CCD images and spectroscopic determinations of the directions ofrotation. These data are used to remove the fourfold degeneracyintroduced by the projected images of galaxies, making possible thecomplete reconstruction of the galaxy spin vectors. Several possibleorganizations of spin vectors are investigated by means of statisticalanalyses of the three-dimensional spin vector maps. The results indicatethat there exists no significant alignment of galaxy spin vectors withrespect to the supergalactic plane, the supergalactic axis, or thecylindrical axis of the filament itself. No tendency for linearalignment of spin vectors toward any specific direction was detected. Wealso obtain a statistically negative result for azimuthal, radial, andcircular-helical orientation of spin vectors.

Arm structure in normal spiral galaxies, 1: Multivariate data for 492 galaxies
Multivariate data have been collected as part of an effort to develop anew classification system for spiral galaxies, one which is notnecessarily based on subjective morphological properties. A sample of492 moderately bright northern Sa and Sc spirals was chosen for futurestatistical analysis. New observations were made at 20 and 21 cm; thelatter data are described in detail here. Infrared Astronomy Satellite(IRAS) fluxes were obtained from archival data. Finally, new estimatesof arm pattern radomness and of local environmental harshness werecompiled for most sample objects.

Flat galaxy catalogue
A systematic search for disklike edge-on-galaxies with a diameter largerthan a = 40 arcsec and a major-to-minor axis ratio a/b greater than 7was carried out by means of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey and theESO/SERC survey. As a result, we present a new catalog of flat galaxies(FGC) containing 4455 objects and covering about 56 percent of the wholesky for the first time. The catalogue is assigned to study large-scalecosmic streamings and other problems of observational cosmology.

Molecular gas in nearby galaxies. II - The data
The study reports observations of (C-12)O J = 1-0 emission from 50nearby spiral galaxies. This is part of a distance-limited survey ofnearby systems which are not strongly interacting with their neighbors.The observations were performed during December 1988 and March 1990using the NRAO 12-m telescope at Kitt Peak with the 3-mm SIS receiversand the 256-channel x 2-MHz spectrometers.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Canes Venatici
Right ascension:13h34m03.00s
Aparent dimensions:2.754′ × 0.661′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 5229

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR