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|Gas in early-type galaxies: cross-fuelling in late-type-early-type pairs?|
We present 12CO (J= 1-0) and 12CO (J= 2-1)observations of eight early-type galaxies, forming part of a sample ofinteracting galaxies, each consisting of one late- and one early-typesystem. All of the early-type galaxies observed are undetected in CO tolow levels, allowing us to place tight constraints on their moleculargas content. Additionally, we present HI absorption data for one system.The implications for possible gas transfer from the late- to theearly-type galaxy during the interaction are discussed.
|The structure of galactic disks. Studying late-type spiral galaxies using SDSS|
Using imaging data from the SDSS survey, we present the g' and r' radialstellar light distribution of a complete sample of ~90 face-on tointermediate inclined, nearby, late-type (Sb-Sdm) spiral galaxies. Thesurface brightness profiles are reliable (1 σ uncertainty lessthan 0.2 mag) down to μ27 mag/''. Only ~10% of all galaxies havea normal/standard purely exponential disk down to our noise limit. Thesurface brightness distribution of the rest of the galaxies is betterdescribed as a broken exponential. About 60% of the galaxies have abreak in the exponential profile between 1.5-4.5 times thescalelength followed by a downbending, steeper outer region. Another~30% shows also a clear break between 4.0-6.0 times thescalelength but followed by an upbending, shallower outer region. A fewgalaxies have even a more complex surface brightness distribution. Theshape of the profiles correlates with Hubble type. Downbending breaksare more frequent in later Hubble types while the fraction of upbendingbreaks rises towards earlier types. No clear relation is found betweenthe environment, as characterised by the number of neighbours, and theshape of the profiles of the galaxies.
|An IRAS High Resolution Image Restoration (HIRES) Atlas of All Interacting Galaxies in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample|
The importance of far-infrared observations for our understanding ofextreme activity in interacting and merging galaxies has beenillustrated by many studies. Even though two decades have passed sinceits launch, the most complete all-sky survey to date from which far-IRselected galaxy samples can be chosen is still that of the InfraredAstronomical Satellite (IRAS). However, the spatial resolution of theIRAS all-sky survey is insufficient to resolve the emission fromindividual galaxies in most interacting galaxy pairs, and hence previousstudies of their far-IR properties have had to concentrate either onglobal system properties or on the properties of very widely separatedand weakly interacting pairs. Using the HIRES image reconstructiontechnique, it is possible to achieve a spatial resolution ranging from30" to 1.5m (depending on wavelength and detector coverage), whichis a fourfold improvement over the normal resolution of IRAS. This issufficient to resolve the far-IR emission from the individual galaxiesin many interacting systems detected by IRAS, which is very importantfor meaningful comparisons with single, isolated galaxies. We presenthigh-resolution 12, 25, 60, and 100 μm images of 106 interactinggalaxy systems contained in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS,Sanders et al.), a complete sample of all galaxies having a 60 μmflux density greater than 5.24 Jy. These systems were selected to haveat least two distinguishable galaxies separated by less than threeaverage galactic diameters, and thus we have excluded very widelyseparated systems and very advanced mergers. Additionally, some systemshave been included that are more than three galactic diameters apart,yet have separations less than 4' and are thus likely to suffer fromconfusion in the RBGS. The new complete survey has the same propertiesas the prototype survey of Surace et al. We find no increased tendencyfor infrared-bright galaxies to be associated with other infrared-brightgalaxies among the widely separated pairs studied here. We find smallenhancements in far-IR activity in multiple galaxy systems relative toRBGS noninteracting galaxies with the same blue luminosity distribution.We also find no differences in infrared activity (as measured byinfrared color and luminosity) between late- and early-type spiralgalaxies.
|The PDS versus Markarian starburst galaxies: comparing strong and weak IRAS emitter at 12 and 25 μm in the nearby Universe|
The characteristics of the starburst galaxies from the Pico dos Diassurvey (PDS) are compared with those of the nearby ultraviolet (UV)bright Markarian starburst galaxies, having the same limit in redshift(vh < 7500 km s-1) and absolute B magnitude(MB < -18). An important difference is found: theMarkarian galaxies are generally undetected at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS.This is consistent with the UV excess shown by these galaxies andsuggests that the youngest star-forming regions dominating thesegalaxies are relatively free of dust.The far-infrared selection criteria for the PDS are shown to introduce astrong bias towards massive (luminous) and large size late-type spiralgalaxies. This is contrary to the Markarian galaxies, which are found tobe remarkably rich in smaller size early-type galaxies. These resultssuggest that only late-type spirals with a large and massive disc arestrong emitters at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS in the nearby Universe.The Markarian and PDS starburst galaxies are shown to share the sameenvironment. This rules out an explanation of the differences observedin terms of external parameters. These differences may be explained byassuming two different levels of evolution, the Markarian being lessevolved than the PDS galaxies. This interpretation is fully consistentwith the disc formation hypothesis proposed by Coziol et al. to explainthe special properties of the Markarian SBNG.
|Infrared Observations of Galaxies in the Local Universe. II. 391 Calibrated Images with Photometric and Structural Measurements|
This paper presents empirical results from a deep imaging survey ofgalaxies in the local universe at the J and Ks wavelengths.Three hundred ninety-one images have been obtained and calibrated usingthe same camera and filter set with the Steward Observatory 1.6 m KuiperTelescope on Mount Bigelow and the 2.3 m Bok Telescope on Kitt Peak. Thelimiting magnitude is typically 22 mag arcsec-1 at J and 21mag arcsec-1 at Ks. The central surfacebrightness, apparent magnitudes, sizes, scale lengths, and inclinationsare tabulated from measurements made using these data. The purpose ofthis paper is to provide basic near-infrared data on a variety of galaxytypes.
|An X-Ray Atlas of Groups of Galaxies|
A search was conducted for a hot intragroup medium in 109 low-redshiftgalaxy groups observed with the ROSAT PSPC. Evidence for diffuse,extended X-ray emission is found in at least 61 groups. Approximatelyone-third of these detections have not been previously reported in theliterature. Most of the groups are detected out to less than half of thevirial radius with ROSAT. Although some spiral-rich groups do contain anintragroup medium, diffuse emission is restricted to groups that containat least one early-type galaxy.
|The IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample|
IRAS flux densities, redshifts, and infrared luminosities are reportedfor all sources identified in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample(RBGS), a complete flux-limited survey of all extragalactic objects withtotal 60 μm flux density greater than 5.24 Jy, covering the entiresky surveyed by IRAS at Galactic latitudes |b|>5°. The RBGS includes629 objects, with median and mean sample redshifts of 0.0082 and 0.0126,respectively, and a maximum redshift of 0.0876. The RBGS supersedes theprevious two-part IRAS Bright Galaxy Samples(BGS1+BGS2), which were compiled before the final(Pass 3) calibration of the IRAS Level 1 Archive in 1990 May. The RBGSalso makes use of more accurate and consistent automated methods tomeasure the flux of objects with extended emission. The RBGS contains 39objects that were not present in the BGS1+BGS2,and 28 objects from the BGS1+BGS2 have beendropped from RBGS because their revised 60 μm flux densities are notgreater than 5.24 Jy. Comparison of revised flux measurements forsources in both surveys shows that most flux differences are in therange ~5%-25%, although some faint sources at 12 and 25 μm differ byas much as a factor of 2. Basic properties of the RBGS sources aresummarized, including estimated total infrared luminosities, as well asupdates to cross identifications with sources from optical galaxycatalogs established using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Inaddition, an atlas of images from the Digitized Sky Survey with overlaysof the IRAS position uncertainty ellipse and annotated scale bars isprovided for ease in visualizing the optical morphology in context withthe angular and metric size of each object. The revised bolometricinfrared luminosity function, φ(Lir), forinfrared-bright galaxies in the local universe remains best fit by adouble power law, φ(L)~Lα, withα=-0.6(+/-0.1) and α=-2.2(+/-0.1) below and above the``characteristic'' infrared luminosityL*ir~1010.5Lsolar,respectively. A companion paper provides IRAS High Resolution (HIRES)processing of over 100 RBGS sources where improved spatial resolutionoften provides better IRAS source positions or allows for deconvolutionof close galaxy pairs.
|Local velocity field from sosie galaxies. I. The Peebles' model|
Pratton et al. (1997) showed that the velocity field around clusterscould generate an apparent distortion that appears as tangentialstructures or radial filaments. In the present paper we determine theparameters of the Peebles' model (1976) describing infall of galaxiesonto clusters with the aim of testing quantitatively the amplitude ofthis distortion. The distances are determined from the concept of sosiegalaxies (Paturel 1984) using 21 calibrators for which the distanceswere recently calculated from two independent Cepheid calibrations. Weuse both B and I-band magnitudes. The Spaenhauer diagram method is usedto correct for the Malmquist bias. We give the equations for theconstruction of this diagram. We analyze the apparent Hubble constant indifferent regions around Virgo and obtain simultaneously the Local Groupinfall and the unperturbed Hubble constant. We found:[VLG-infall = 208 ± 9 km s-1] [\log H =1.82 ± 0.04 (H ≈ 66 ± 6 km s-1Mpc-1).] The front side and backside infalls can be seenaround Virgo and Fornax. In the direction of Virgo the comparison ismade with the Peebles' model. We obtain: [vinfall} =CVirgo/r0.9 ± 0.2] withCVirgo=2800 for Virgo and CFornax=1350 for Fornax,with the adopted units (km s-1 and Mpc). We obtain thefollowing mean distance moduli: [μVirgo=31.3 ± 0.2(r=18 Mpc )] [μFornax=31.7 ± 0.3 (r=22 Mpc). ] Allthese quantities form an accurate and coherent system. Full Table 2 isonly available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/57
|Supernovae in the nuclear regions of starburst galaxies|
The feasibility of using near-infrared observations to discoversupernovae in the nuclear and circumnuclear regions of nearby starburstgalaxies is investigated. We provide updated estimates of the intrinsiccore-collapse supernova rates in these regions. We discuss the problemof extinction, and present new estimates of the extinction towards 33supernova remnants in the starburst galaxy M 82. This is done using Hiand H2 column density measurements. We estimate the molecularto atomic hydrogen mass ratio to be 7.4+/-1.0 in M 82. We have assemblednear-infrared photometric data for a total of 13 core-collapsesupernovae, some unpublished hitherto. This constitutes the largestdatabase of infrared light curves for such events. We show that theinfrared light curves fall into two classes, `ordinary' and `slowlydeclining'. Template JHKL light curves are derived for both classes. Forordinary core-collapse supernovae, the average peak JHKL absolutemagnitudes are -18.4, -18.6, -18.6 and -19.0 respectively. The slowlydeclining core-collapse supernovae are found to be significantly moreluminous than the ordinary events, even at early times, having averagepeak JHKL absolute magnitudes of -19.9, -20.0, -20.0 and -20.4respectively. We investigate the efficiency of a computerized imagesubtraction method in supernova detection. We then carry out a MonteCarlo simulation of a supernova search using K-band images of NGC 5962.The effects of extinction and observing strategy are discussed. Weconclude that a modest observational programme will be able to discovera number of nuclear supernovae.
|Galaxies with Rows|
The results of a search for galaxies with straight structural elements,usually spiral-arm rows (“rows” in the terminology ofVorontsov-Vel'yaminov), are reported. The list of galaxies that possess(or probably possess) such rows includes about 200 objects, of whichabout 70% are brighter than 14m. On the whole, galaxies with rows makeup 6 8% of all spiral galaxies with well-developed spiral patterns. Mostgalaxies with rows are gas-rich Sbc-Scd spirals. The fraction ofinteracting galaxies among them is appreciably higher than amonggalaxies without rows. Earlier conclusions that, as a rule, the lengthsof rows are similar to their galactocentric distances and that theangles between adjacent rows are concentrated near 120° areconfirmed. It is concluded that the rows must be transient hydrodynamicstructures that develop in normal galaxies.
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|Lopsided Galaxies, Weak Interactions, and Boosting the Star Formation Rate|
To investigate the link between weak tidal interactions in disk galaxiesand the boosting of their recent star formation, we obtain images andspatially integrated spectra (3615 Å<=λ<=5315Å) for 40 late-type spiral galaxies (Sab-Sbc) with varying degreesof lopsidedness (a dynamical indicator of weak interactions). Wequantify lopsidedness as the amplitude of the m=1Fourier component of the azimuthal surface brightness distributionaveraged over a range of radii. The median spectrum of the most lopsidedgalaxies shows strong evidence for a more prominent young stellarpopulation (i.e., strong Balmer absorption, strong nebular emission, aweak 4000 Å break, and a blue continuum) when compared to themedian spectrum of the most symmetric galaxies. We compare the youngstellar content, quantified by EW(Hδabs) and thestrength of the 4000 Å break (D4000), with lopsidednessand find a 3-4 σ correlation between the two. We also find a 3.2σ correlation between EW(Hβemission) andlopsidedness. Using the evolutionary population synthesis code ofBruzual & Charlot we model the spectra as an ``underlyingpopulation'' and a superimposed ``boost population'' with the aim ofconstraining the fractional boost in the SFR averaged over the past 0.5Gyr (the characteristic lifetime of lopsidedness). From the differencein both EW(Hδabs) and the strength of the 4000 Åbreak (D4000) between the most and least symmetric thirds ofour sample, we infer that ~1×109 Msolar ofstars are formed over the duration of a lopsided event in addition tothe ``underlying'' star formation history (assuming a final galacticstellar mass of 1010 Msolar). This corresponds toa factor of 8 increase in the star formation rate over the past5×108 years. For the nuclear spectra, all of the abovecorrelations except D4000 versus areweaker than for the disk, indicating that in lopsided galaxies, the starformation boost is not dominated by the nucleus.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|Molecular Gas in Strongly Interacting Galaxies. I. CO (1-0) Observations|
We present observations of the CO (1-0) line in 80 interacting galaxiesas part of a program to study the role of interactions and mergers intriggering starbursts. The sample, which only includes obviouslyinteracting pairs of galaxies, is the largest such sample observed inCO. The observations were carried out at the NRAO 12 m and IRAM 30 mtelescopes. CO emission was detected in 56 galaxies (of which 32 are newdetections), corresponding to a detection rate of 70%. Because mostgalaxies are slightly larger than the telescope beam, correction factorswere applied to include CO emission outside the beam. The correctionfactors were derived by fitting a Gaussian function or an exponential CObrightness distribution to galaxies with multiple pointings and byassuming an exponential model for galaxies with single pointing. Wecompared the global CO fluxes of 10 galaxies observed by us at bothtelescopes. We also compared the measured fluxes for another 10 galaxiesobserved by us with those by other authors using the NRAO 12 m and FCRAO14 m telescopes. These comparisons provide an estimate of the accuracyof our derived global fluxes, which is ~40%. Mapping observations of twoclose pairs of galaxies, UGC 594 (NGC 317) and UGC 11175 (NGC 6621), arealso presented. In subsequent papers we will report the statisticalanalyses of the molecular properties in our sample galaxies and makecomparisons between isolated spirals and interacting galaxies.
|The Supernova Rate in Starburst Galaxies|
We conducted an optical CCD search for supernovae in a sample of 142bright [m(B) <= 16 mag], nearby (z<=0.03) starburst galaxies overthe period 1988 December to 1991 June, to a limiting R-band magnitude of18. Five supernovae were found, in all cases outside the host galaxy'snucleus. We determine supernova rates (in supernova units or SNU) in theextranuclear regions to be 0.7 h^2 SNU for Type Ia, 0.7 h^2 SNU for TypeIb/c, and ~0.6 h^2 SNU for Type II, with large uncertainties but upperlimits of 2.2 h^2, 2.5 h^2, and 1.7 h^2 SNU, respectively. These ratesare similar to those measured in ``normal'' galaxies. We found noevidence for a supernova-induced brightening in any galactic nucleusand, with a few reasonable assumptions, can place upper limits of 9 h^2,12 h^2, and 7 h^2 SNU on the rates of unobscured supernovae Types Ia,Ib/c, and II, respectively, inside the nuclei.
|The Pico DOS Dias Survey Starburst Galaxies|
We discuss the nature of the galaxies found in the Pico dos Dias Survey(PDS) for young stellar objects. The PDS galaxies were selected from theIRAS Point Source catalog. They have flux density of moderate or highquality at 12, 25, and 60 μm and spectral indices in the ranges -3.00<= alpha(25, 12) <= + 0.35 and -2.50 <= alpha(60, 25) <=+0.85. These criteria allowed the detection of 382 galaxies, which are amixture of starburst and Seyfert galaxies. Most of the PDS Seyfertgalaxies are included in the catalog of warm IRAS sources by de Grijp etal. The remaining galaxies constitute a homogeneous sample of luminous[log F (L_B/L_ȯ) = 9.9 +/- 0.4] starburst galaxies, 67% of whichwere not recognized as such before. The starburst nature of the PDSgalaxies is established by comparing their L_IR/L_B ratios and IRAScolors with a sample of emission-line galaxies from the literaturealready classified as starburst galaxies. The starburst galaxies show anexcess of FIR luminosity, and their IRAS colors are significantlydifferent from those of Seyfert galaxies-99% of the starburst galaxiesin our sample have a spectral index alpha(60, 25) < -1.9. As opposedto Seyfert galaxies, very few PDS starbursts are detected in X-rays. Inthe infrared, the starburst galaxies form a continuous sequence withnormal galaxies. But they generally can be distinguished from normalgalaxies by their spectral index alpha(60, 25) > -2.5. This colorcutoff also marks a change in the dominant morphologies of the galaxies:the normal IRAS galaxies are preferentially late-type spirals (Sb andlater), while the starbursts are more numerous among early-type spirals(earlier than Sbc). This preference of starbursts for early-type spiralsis not new, but a trait of the massive starburst nucleus galaxies(Coziol et al.). As in other starburst nucleus galaxy samples, the PDSstarbursts show no preference for barred galaxies. No difference isfound between the starbursts detected in the FIR and those detected onthe basis of UV excess. The PDS starburst galaxies represent the FIRluminous branch of the UV-bright starburst nucleus galaxies, with meanFIR luminosity log (L_IR/L_ȯ) = 10.3 +/- 0.5 and redshifts smallerthan 0.1. They form a complete sample limited in flux in the FIR at 2 x10^-10 ergs cm^-2 s^-1.
|Infrared Observations of Galaxies in the Local Universe. I. The Survey and Some Representative Results|
This paper introduces a continuing survey of galaxies in the localuniverse. Consistent deep images are being acquired for a representativesample of 321 galaxies in the Uppsala General Catalogue down to 21.7 magarcsec-2 at Ks (2.16 mu m) and 22.4 mag arcsec-2 at J (1.25 mu m) usinga NICMOS camera with a 3.'8 x 3.'8 field of view attached to the 61 inch(1.5 m) telescope on Mount Bigelow. We provide some examples of theresults being obtained by employing 64 deep images of a subset of 44galaxies. Bulge-to-disk ratios are tabulated for 30 galaxies. Thebrightness of the central region of 44 galaxies declines approximately 5mag from Hubble type S0 to Sm. An exponential vertical scale height atKs is found to be 500 pc for the disk of UGC 5173. Arm amplitudes offour nearly face-on spiral galaxies are found to range between 11% and88% compared to the interarm region. There is some evidence that the armamplitude is larger at Ks than it is at J. Color gradients are measuredfor 15 galaxies with only one showing a significant nonzero result. Ameasurement of galactic symmetry applied to 64 deep images reveals anaverage asymmetry of 7.6% ( sigma = 4.6%) for these galaxies.
|^13CO (J = 1-0) Depression in Luminous Starburst Mergers|
It is known that the class of luminous starburst galaxies tends to havehigher R=^12CO (J=1-0)/^13CO (J=1-0) integrated line intensity ratios(R>20) than normal spiral galaxies (R~10). Since most previousstudies investigated only R, it remains uncertain whether the luminousstarburst galaxies are overabundant in ^12CO or underabundant in ^13CO.Here we propose a new observational test to examine this problem. Ournew test is to compare far-infrared luminosities [L(FIR)] with those of^12CO and ^13CO [L(^12CO) and L(^13CO), respectively]. It is shown thatthere is a very tight correlation between L(^12CO) and L(FIR), as foundin many previous studies. However, we find that the ^13CO luminositiesof the high-R galaxies are lower by a factor of 3 on average than thoseexpected from the correlation for the remaining galaxies with ordinary Rvalues. Therefore, we conclude that the observed high R values for theluminous starburst galaxies are attributed to their lower ^13CO lineintensities.
|Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.|
|Kinematics of the local universe. VII. New 21-cm line measurements of 2112 galaxies|
This paper presents 2112 new 21-cm neutral hydrogen line measurementscarried out with the meridian transit Nan\c cay radiotelescope. Amongthese data we give also 213 new radial velocities which complement thoselisted in three previous papers of this series. These new measurements,together with the HI data collected in LEDA, put to 6 700 the number ofgalaxies with 21-cm line width, radial velocity, and apparent diameterin the so-called KLUN sample. Figure 5 and Appendices A and B forcorresponding comments are available in electronic form at thehttp://www.edpsciences.com
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|The Intragroup Medium in Poor Groups of Galaxies|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJ...456...80M&db_key=AST
|A CO survey of galaxies with the SEST and the 20-m Onsala telescope.|
A large survey of galaxies in the J=1-0 CO line, performed during1985-1988 using the 15-m SEST and the 20-m millimetre wave telescope ofOnsala Space Observatory, is presented. The HPBW of the telescopes are44" and 33" at 115GHz, respectively. The central positions of 168galaxies were observed and 101 of these were detected in the CO line.More than 20% of these are new detections. Maps of some of the galaxiesare also presented.
|The bar-enhanced star-formation activities in spiral galaxies.|
We use the ratio L_FIR_/L_B_ and the IRAS color index S_25_/S_12_ (bothwidely used as indices of relative star formation rates in galaxies) toanalyse subsets (containing no known AGNs or merging/interactinggalaxies) of: (a) the IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample, (b) galaxies from theoptically complete RSA sample which have IRAS detections in all fourbands, and (c) a volume-limited IR-unselected sample. We confirm thatIR-bright barred (SB) galaxies do, on average, have very significantlyhigher values of the FIR-optical and S_25_/S_12_ ratios (and presumably,higher relative star formation rates, SFR) than that do unbarred ones;the effect is most obvious in the IR colors. We also confirm that thesedifferences are confined to early-type (S0/a-Sbc) spirals and are notevident among late-type systems (Sc-Sdm). Unlike others, we see noenhancement of the SFR in weakly-barred (SAB) galaxies. We furtherconfirm that the effect of bars on the SFR is associated with therelative IR luminosity and show that it is detectable only in galaxieswith L_FIR_/L_B_>1/3, suggesting that as soon as they have anyeffect, bars translate their host galaxies into this relativelyIR-luminous group. Conversely, for galaxies with L_FIR_/L_B_ below ~0.1this luminosity ratio is lower among barred than unbarred systems, againconfirming and quantifying an earlier result. Although there is nosimple physical relation between H I content and star formation, astrong correlation of H I content with the presence of bars has beenfound for early-type spirals with L_FIR_/L_B_>1/3. This suggests thatthe availability of fuel is the factor determining just which galaxiesundergo bar-induced starbursts.
|Optical Spectroscopy of Luminous Infrared Galaxies. II. Analysis of the Nuclear and Long-Slit Data|
A spectroscopic survey of a sample of 200 luminous IRAS galaxies (LIGs:L_ir_^7^ > 3 x 10^10^ L_sun_; H_0_ = 75 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^) was carriedout using the Palomar 5 meter and University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescopes.Kim et al. (1995) described the data-taking and data-reductionprocedures and presented line and continuum measurements extracted fromthe nucleus of these objects. In this paper, the nuclear data arecombined with circumnuclear measurements on 23 of these galaxies toinvestigate the properties of the line-emitting gas and underlyingstellar population in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear spectra ofthese galaxies were classified as H II region-like" or "AGN-like" usinga large number of line-ratio diagnostics corrected for the underlyingstellar absorption features. This correction is an important source oferrors in some previous studies. The emission-line spectra of many AGNswere found to-be of relatively low ionization level and were thereforeclassified as LINER. We confirm that both the fraction of LIGs with AGNspectra and the fraction of Seyferts among the AGN increase withinfrared luminosity, reaching values of 62% and 54% at the highestobserved luminosities, respectively. The fraction of LINERs, on theother hand, is relatively constant at ~27%. The source of the ionizationof the emission-line gas often is a function of the distance from thenucleus. Based on the emission-line ratios and the strengths of thestellar absorption features, circumnuclear starburst activity is acommon feature of LIGs, regardless of their nuclear spectral types. Theemission-line, absorption-line, continuum, radio, and IRAS properties ofthe LINERs suggest that most of the LINER emission in theseinfrared-selected galaxies is produced through shock ionization ratherthan photoionization by a genuine active nucleus. The nuclear region ofSeyfert LIGs is found to be slightly less reddened than that of theLINERs and H II galaxies. The dust distribution generally isconcentrated toward the nucleus, in agreement with the often peakydistribution of the molecular gas observed in these galaxies. Inverteddust profiles in which the nucleus appears less dusty than thecircumnuclear region are observed in only three LIGs, all of which haveAGN emission-line characteristics (one Seyfert 2 galaxy and two LINERs).Low nuclear dust content appears to favor the detection of activenuclei. This may be due to selection effects or may reflect realphysical differences between these classes of objects: galaxies withSeyfert emission lines may be at a more advanced stage of dustdestruction/expulsion than H II LIGs. Complex optical depth effects mayalso explain these results without invoking a smaller amount of dust inthe nucleus. The Hβ and Mg I b absorption features are stronger inthe nuclei of AGNs (especially among the LINERs) than in H II LIGs,suggesting that AGN LIGs are at a more advanced stage of stellarevolution than H II LIGs. Further support for this scenario comes fromthe fact that AGNs are found more frequently in advanced mergers than HII galaxies (only two Seyfert galaxies are detected in systems withwell-separated nuclei). However, this last result may be a luminosityeffect rather than an effect related to the dominant nuclear source ofionization. Moreover, the absorption-line data may simply reflect thefact that galaxies with powerful H II regions show evidence for youngstars while galaxies with AGNs do not. The radial variations of theHβ and Mg I b absorption features indicate the presence of a strongsource of featureless continuum in the nucleus of nearly all LIGs,regardless of their nuclear spectral types. Contamination by thecircumnuclear starburst prevents us from determining the extent of thiscontinuum source. The [O III] profiles of both Seyfert and LINER LIGswere found to be broader on average than those of H II objects. Nearly20% of the LIGs in our sample have line widths larger than 600 km s^-1^.We find that most of the galaxies in which we could determine the radialvariations of the [O III] line width present broader profiles in thecircumnuclear region than at the nucleus. When combined with publisheddata on a few other well-studied LIGs, these results suggest thatlarge-scale nuclear winds are common in these objects and are anefficient way of getting rid of the obscuring material in the nuclearregion. The spatially extended LINER emission observed in many of theseobjects is probably due to shock ionization resulting from theinteraction of the wind-accelerated gas with the ambient material of thehost galaxy.
|Optical Spectroscopy of Luminous Infrared Galaxies. I. Nuclear Data|
A spectroscopic survey of a large sample of luminous infrared galaxies[log (L_ir_/L_sun_)^7^ ~ 10.5-12.5; H_0_ = 75 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^] has beencarried out using the Palomar 5 m telescope,, and the University ofHawaii 2.2 m telescope. Long-slit spectra covering 375o-8000 A at aresolution of ~10 A were obtained of 200 IRAS galaxies, including 114objects from the IRAS Bright Galaxy Survey, and 86 objects with fainterinfrared fluxes selected on the basis of their "warm" far-infrared(S_60_/S_100_) colors. The methods of observation and data reduction arediscussed. An atlas of the spectra extracted from the nuclear region ofthese objects is presented along with a large number of parametersdescribing the properties of the emission lines, the stellar absorptionlines, and the continuum emission that were measured from the spectra.An analysis of these data is presented in a companion paper (Veilleux etal. 1995) along with a discussion of the spatial variations of theseparameters in a subsample of twenty-three objects.
|Multiwavelength Energy Distributions and Bolometric Luminosities of the 12 Micron Galaxy Sample|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...453..616S&db_key=AST
|The Nuclear Energy Sources Powering Bright Infrared-selected Galaxies|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...447..545A&db_key=AST
|Molecular gas in starburst galaxies: line intensities and physical conditions|
In a study of molecular gas in IR-bright galaxies, we have observed thecentral position in ^12^CO J=1-0, J=2-1; ^13^CO J=1-0, J=2-1; C^18^OJ=1-0 and HCN J=1-0 line emission. The sample (in total 32 galaxies)consists of starburst galaxies, interacting galaxies and two quiescentsystems. We find a mean ^12^CO 2-1/1-0 line ratio of 0.93+/-0.22, and amean ^13^CO 2-1/1-0 line ratio of 1.3+/-0.66. The mean ^12^CO/^13^CO 1-0ratio (=R(1-0)) is =~13+/-6 and for ^12^CO/^13^CO 2-1 it is =~13+/-5.The mean ^12^CO/HCN 1-0 ratio is =~16. The ^12^CO/C^18^O 1-0 intensityratio ranges from 20 to 140 in 6 galaxies. These values of ratios referto central positions corrected for effects of beam-size and source-size.A considerable fraction of the ^13^CO emission may be saturated andoriginate in dense cores of smaller volume filling factor than thesurrounding ^12^CO-emitting gas. High gas temperatures and turbulencework against large optical depths in the ^12^CO 1-0 line of the envelopegas. In contrast to what is usually assumed for the ^12^CO 1-0 line, weinfer moderate optical depths, τ=~1, for the dominant^12^CO-emitting structure. We have found that galaxies with largeintensity ratios of [C II] 158 μm to ^12^CO 1-0 also have ^12^CO2-1/1-0 ratios >=0.8, implying that the ^12^CO-emitting gas may beboth dense and hot enough to excite the [C II] 158 μm line, acharacteristic of warm (T_k_ > 100K), photon-dominated regions. Wehave not found a correlation between the intensity ratio, I(CO)/I(HCN),and disturbed morphology, far-infrared emission, or measures ofstar-forming activity in our sample of galaxies, in contrast to thefindings of Solomon et al. (1992). The ^12^CO/HCN intensity ratio isquite uniform over a sample of 11 interacting galaxies and mergers. HCNis not detected in the one isolated spiral in the sample. Furthermore,we have observed R(1-0) in off-centre positions in 6 galaxies: NGC 1808,NGC 3256, NGC 4038/39, NGC 5055, NGC 6221 and NGC 7552. Offset positionsin the ^12^CO/^13^CO 2-1 intensity ratio have been observed in 3galaxies: NGC 660, NGC 2146 and Arp 299. We suggest that galaxies thatdisplay significant variation in the ratio, such as the merger NGC 3256,have at least two populations of molecular cloud ensembles:high-pressure clouds in the centre and an extended disk-component ofmore quiescent clouds. The molecular gas in the centres of luminousmergers with large gas surface densities (>10^4^Mȯ/pc^2^) willbe highly turbulent. In general, we suggest that R(1-0) is a measure ofthe cloud environment: the extreme values R(1-0)>20 originate inturbulent, high-pressure gas in the centres of luminous mergers;intermediate ratios 10<~R(1-0)<~15 originate in the inner kpc ofmore normal starburst galaxies; small ratios R(1-0)=~6 are a signatureof a disk population of clouds. We address the notion that abundanceanomalies cause the elevated values of R(1-0) in luminous merginggalaxies. To some extent, this notion rests on the assumption ofτ>>1 in the ^12^CO 1-0 line. We demonstrate how thisassumption may be flawed and conclude that in order to measureabundances in the molecular medium, one must carefully model thephysical properties of the molecular gas. Although abundances may beunusual in extreme mergers, they are only one aspect of the propertiesof the molecular gas in these regions.
|CO observations of Arp's interacting galaxies|
We performed a (C-12)O (J= 1-0) line survey involving fifty fourinteracting galaxies from the Arp's Catalogue of Peculiar Galaxies, andcompared our results with various other data. The far infraredluminosities, as normalized by the CO luminosities, are much greater forinteracting galaxies than for normal galaxies. From correlations withthe interaction class we found that the molecular gas concentration inthe central few kpc is not necessarily enhanced by interaction. However,the efficiency of star formation from the molecular gas increasessignificantly with the interaction class, which results in an apparentincrease in the star-formation rate with the interaction class.
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