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Mapping the Instability Domains of GW Vir Stars in the Effective Temperature-Surface Gravity Diagram
We present the results of a detailed stability study of models of GW Virpulsators. These are extremely hot, evolved, and compact stars that areon their way to the white dwarf cooling phase and that showmultiperiodic luminosity variations due to gravity-mode pulsationalinstabilities. Our nonadiabatic survey confirms that cyclic ionizationof carbon and oxygen is at the origin of the GW Vir phenomenon. We findthat the extent of the instability domain in the logg-Teffplane is a strong function of the C and O content in the envelopes ofthese stars. Given that GW Vir stars show important variations inatmospheric composition from one object to another, this implies thatthe notion of a blue edge for the GW Vir instability domain isnecessarily a ``fuzzy'' concept. We investigate the effects of varyingthe total mass, of adding hydrogen, and of changing the metallicity. Wesummarize our results in the form of extensive stability maps in thelogg-Teff diagram and produce tables and graphs showing theexpected ranges of excited periods under various conditions.

Chemical compositions and plasma parameters of planetary nebulae with Wolf-Rayet and wels type central stars
Aims.Chemical compositions and other properties of planetary nebulaearound central stars of spectral types [WC], [WO], and wels are comparedwith those of “normal” central stars, in order to clarifythe evolutionary status of each type and their interrelation. Methods:We use plasma diagnostics to derive from optical spectra the plasmaparameters and chemical compositions of 48 planetary nebulae. We alsoreanalyze the published spectra of a sample of 167 non-WR PN. Theresults as well as the observational data are compared in detail withthose from other studies of the objects in common. Results: We confirmthat [WC], [WO] and wels nebulae are very similar to those“normal” PN: the relation between [N II] and [O III]electron temperatures, abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S and Ar, and thenumber of ionizing photons show no significant differences. However,some differences are observed in their infrared (IRAS) properties. welsnebulae appear bluer than [WR] PN. The central star's spectral type isclearly correlated with electron density, temperature and excitationclass of the nebula, [WC] nebulae tend to be smaller than the othertypes. All this corroborates the view of an evolutionary sequence fromcool [WC 11] central stars inside dense, low excitation nebulae towardshot [WO 1] stars with low density, high excitation nebulae. The wels PN,however, appear to be a separate class of objects, not linked to WRPN byevolution: nebular excitation, electron temperature and density, and thenumber of ionizing photons all cover the whole range found in the othertypes. Their lower mean N/O ratio and slightlylower He/H suggestprogenitor stars less massive than for the other PN types. Furthermore,the differences between results of different works are dominated by thedifferences in observational data rather than differences in theanalysis methods.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory(ESO), La Silla, Chile. Table 3 and Appendices are only available inelectronic form at http://www.aanda.org Table with fluxes andintensities is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/463/265

A search for photometric variability of hydrogen-deficient planetary-nebula nuclei
Aims.We searched for photometric variability in a sample of hot,hydrogen-deficient planetary nebula nuclei (PNNi) with "PG 1159" or "OVI" spectral type, most of them embedded in a bipolar or ellipticalplanetary nebula envelope (PNe). These characteristics may indicate thepresence of a hidden close companion and an evolution affected byepisodes of interaction between them. Methods: .We obtainedtime-series photometry from a sample of 11 candidates using the NordicOptical Telescope (NOT) with the Andalucía Faint ObjectSpectrograph and Camera (ALFOSC), modified with our own control softwareto be able to observe in a high-speed multi-windowing mode. The datawere reduced on-line with the real time photometry (RTP) code, whichallowed us to detect periodic variable stars with small amplitudes fromCCD data in real time. We studied the properties of the observedmodulation frequencies to investigate their nature. Results: .Wereport the first detection of low-amplitude pulsations in the PNNiVV 47, NGC 6852, and Jn1. In addition, we investigated the photometric variability ofNGC 246. Time-series analysis shows that the powerspectra of VV 47, NGC 6852, andNGC 246 are variable on time scales of hours. Powerspectra from consecutive nights of VV 47 andNGC 6852 show significant peaks in differentfrequency regions. The same type of variability is present in NGC 246 in2 observing runs separated by 3 days. Changes are also found in thepower spectra of VV 47 and NGC 246during the same night. The VV 47 power spectra arepeculiar since they present modulation frequencies in a wide range from175 to 7600 μHz. This is different from the previously knownpulsating PNNi where no frequencies are found above ~3000 μHz. Thehigh-frequency modulation observed in VV 47 may bedue to g-modes triggered by the ɛ-mechanism, observed for thefirst time.

Musca - the heavenly fly.
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission bands in selected planetary nebulae: a study of the behaviour with gas phase C/O ratio
Airborne and space-based low-resolution spectroscopy in the 1980sdiscovered tantalizing quantitative relationships between the gas phaseC/O abundance ratio in planetary nebulae (PNe) and the fractions oftotal far-infrared (FIR) luminosity radiated by the 7.7- and 11.3-μmbands (the C = C stretch and C-H bend, respectively), of polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Only a very small sample of nebulae wasstudied in this context, limited by airborne observations of the7.7-μm band, or the existence of adequate IRAS Low ResolutionSpectrometer data for the 11.3-μm band. To investigate these trendsfurther, we have expanded the sample of planetaries available for thisstudy using Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) low-resolution spectrasecured with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer and the Long WavelengthSpectrometer. The new sample of 43 PNe, of which 17 are detected in PAHemission, addresses the range from C/O = 0.2-13 with the objective oftrying to delineate the pathways by which carbon dust grains might haveformed in planetaries. For the 7.7-μm and 11.3-μm bands, weconfirm that the ratio of band strength to total infrared (IR)luminosity is correlated with the nebular C/O ratio. Expressed inequivalent width terms, the cut-on C/O ratio for the 7.7-μm band isfound to be 0.6+0.2-0.4, in good accord with thatfound from sensitive ground-based measurements of the 3.3-μ band.

The mean properties of planetary nebulae as a function of Peimbert class
Planetary nebulae are known to possess a broad range of abundances, andthese (with other characteristics) have been used to define five classesof outflow. Peimbert Type I sources, for instance, possess high N and Heabundances, filamentary structures, and low mean scaleheights above theGalactic plane, whilst those of Type III have much lower abundances,high peculiar velocities, and belong to the Galactic thick disc. Apartfrom some rather ill-defined indications, however, very little is knownconcerning their mean physical, spatial, structural, kinematic andthermal characteristics.We have performed a comprehensive study of all of these properties, andfind evidence for strong variations between the various Peimbertclasses. Certain of these differences are consistent with Type I sourceshaving the highest progenitor masses, although it seems that thesenebulae also possess the lowest rms densities and 5-GHz brightnesstemperatures. The latter results are in conflict with a range of recentmodelling.

Some implications of the introduction of scattered starlight in the spectrum of reddened stars
This paper presents new investigations on coherent scattering in theforward direction (orders of magnitude; conservation of energy;dependence of scattered light on geometry and wavelength), and on howscattered light contamination in the spectrum of reddened stars ispossibly related to as yet unexplained observations (the diminution ofthe 2200 Å bump when the obscuring material is close to the star,the difference between Hipparcos and photometric distances). This paperthen goes on to discuss the fit of the extinction curve, a possible roleof extinction by the gas in the far-UV, and the reasons of theinadequacy of the Fitzpatrick and Massa [ApJSS, 72 (1990) 163] fit.

Detection of non-radial g-mode pulsations in the newly discovered PG 1159 star HE 1429-1209
We performed time-series photometry of the PG 1159-type star HE1429-1209, which was recently discovered in the ESO SPYsurvey. We show that the star is a low-amplitude (≈0.05 mag)non-radial g-mode pulsator with a period of 919 s. HE1429-1209 is among the hottest known post-AGB stars(Teff = 160 000 K) and, together with the known pulsatorRX J2117.1+3412, it defines empirically the blue edgeof the GW Vir instability strip in the HRD at high luminosities.

The Use of Line Excitation Mapping to Investigate Planetary Nebula Morphologies
It is now well established that circular, elliptical, and bipolarplanetary nebulae (PNe) possess differing physical and spatialcharacteristics. Not only are their structures quite distinct, but theyalso appear to possess differing Zanstra temperatures, abundances,expansion velocities, brightness temperatures, and scale heights abovethe Galactic plane. We report here a further sensitive way in which thedifferences between these outflows may be illustrated. We shall notethat the nebulae posses varying ranges of emission line ratio, and thatthis is likely to arise as a consequence of their differing progenitormasses. Similarly, we point out the potential of line-ratio mapping foranalyzing other morphological classes, as well as for establishing theuniqueness of their populations, and their relative progenitor masses.Thus we find that sources containing jets often possess low lineemission intensities relative to hydrogen, suggesting that theirprogenitors may have low overall masses. This conclusion is supported bya variety of independent observational evidence. We also show thatirregular sources appear to represent a distinct class of outflows. Itis likely that their mean progenitor masses are greater than those ofelliptical PNe, but less than thoseof the bipolar outflows.

Planetary nebula distances re-examined: an improved statistical scale
The distances of planetary nebulae (PNe) are still quite uncertain.Although observational estimates are available for a small proportion ofPNe, based on statistical parallax and the like, such distances are verypoorly determined for the majority of galactic PNe. In particular,estimates of so-called `statistical' distance appear to differ byfactors of ~2.7.We point out that there is a well-defined correlation between the 5-GHzluminosity of the sources, L5, and their brightnesstemperatures, TB. This represents a different trend to thoseinvestigated in previous statistical analyses, and permits us todetermine independent distances to a further 449 outflows. Thesedistances are shown to be closely comparable to those determined using aTB-R correlation, providing that the latter trend is taken tobe non-linear.This non-linearity in the TB-R plane has not been noted inprevious analyses, and is likely responsible for the broad (andconflicting) ranges of distance that have previously been published.Finally, we point out that there is a close accord between observedtrends within the L5-TB and TB-Rplanes, and the variation predicted through nebular evolutionarymodelling. This is used to suggest that observational biases areprobably modest, and that our revised distance scale is reasonablytrustworthy.

The distances of Type I planetary nebulae
The distances D of planetary nebulae (PNe) are still extremelyuncertain. Although a variety of methods have been used to evaluate thisparameter, these are often in conflict, and subject to large random andsystematic errors. It is therefore important to evaluate D using as manyindependent procedures as possible. We outline here one further way inwhich this parameter may be assessed. It is noted that where the nebularmass range is narrow, then one might expect observed PNe radii to beroughly similar. This, where it occurs, would also result in acorrelation between their angular diameters Θ, and distances D.We find that just such a trend occurs for Type I nebulae, and we employthis to determine distances to a further 44 such outflows. Our meanvalues of D appear similar to those of Zhang [ApJS 98 (1995) 659],implying a relatively long PNe distance scale.

Flux Ratio [Nev] 14.3/24.3 as a Test of Collision Strengths
From ISO [Nev] 14.3/24.3 μm line flux ratios, we find that 10 out of20 planetary nebulae (PNs) have measured ratios below the low-electrondensity (Ne) theoretical predicted limit. Such astronomicaldata serve to provide important tests of atomic data, collisionstrengths in this case. In principle, well-calibrated measurements ofthe [Nev] 14.3/24.3 flux ratio could improve upon the existing atomicdata.

12C/13C Ratio in Planetary Nebulae from the IUE Archives
We investigated the abundance ratio of 12C/13C inplanetary nebulae by examining emission lines arising from C III2s2p3Po2,1,0-->2s21S0.Spectra were retrieved from the International Ultraviolet Explorerarchives, and multiple spectra of the same object were co-added toachieve improved signal-to-noise ratio. The 13C hyperfinestructure line at 1909.6 Å was detected in NGC 2440. The12C/13C ratio was found to be ~4.4+/-1.2. In allother objects, we provide an upper limit for the flux of the 1910Å line. For 23 of these sources, a lower limit for the12C/13C ratio was established. The impact on ourcurrent understanding of stellar evolution is discussed. The resultinghigh-signal-to-noise ratio C III spectrum helps constrain the atomicphysics of the line formation process. Some objects have the measured1907/1909 Å flux ratio outside the low-electron densitytheoretical limit for 12C. A mixture of 13C with12C helps to close the gap somewhat. Nevertheless, someobserved 1907/1909 Å flux ratios still appear too high to conformto the currently predicted limits. It is shown that this limit, as wellas the 1910/1909 Å flux ratio, are predominantly influenced byusing the standard partitioning among the collision strengths for themultiplet1S0-3PoJaccording to the statistical weights. A detailed calculation for thefine-structure collision strengths between these individual levels wouldbe valuable.

The relation between Zanstra temperature and morphology in planetary nebulae
We have created a master list of Zanstra temperatures for 373 galacticplanetary nebulae based upon a compilation of 1575 values taken from thepublished literature. These are used to evaluate mean trends intemperature for differing nebular morphologies. Among the most prominentresults of this analysis is the tendency forη=TZ(HeII)/TZ(HeI) to increase with nebularradius, a trend which is taken to arise from the evolution of shelloptical depths. We find that as many as 87 per cent of nebulae may beoptically thin to H ionizing radiation where radii exceed ~0.16 pc. Wealso note that the distributions of values η and TZ(HeII)are quite different for circular, elliptical and bipolar nebulae. Acomparison of observed temperatures with theoretical H-burning trackssuggests that elliptical and circular sources arise from progenitorswith mean mass ≅ 1 Msolar(although the elliptical progenitors are probably more massive).Higher-temperature elliptical sources are likely to derive fromprogenitors with mass ≅2 Msolar, however, implying thatthese nebulae (at least) are associated with a broad swathe ofprogenitor masses. Such a conclusion is also supported by trends in meangalactic latitude. It is found that higher-temperature ellipticalsources have much lower mean latitudes than those with smallerTZ(HeII), a trend which is explicable where there is anincrease in with increasing TZ(HeII).This latitude-temperature variation also applies for most other sources.Bipolar nebulae appear to have mean progenitor masses ≅2.5Msolar, whilst jets, Brets and other highly collimatedoutflows are associated with progenitors at the other end of the massrange (~ 1 Msolar). Indeed it ispossible, given their large mean latitudes and low peak temperatures,that the latter nebulae are associated with the lowest-mass progenitorsof all.The present results appear fully consistent with earlier analyses basedupon nebular scale heights, shell abundances and the relativeproportions of differing morphologies, and offer further evidence for alink between progenitor mass and morphology.

Galactic Planetary Nebulae and their central stars. I. An accurate and homogeneous set of coordinates
We have used the 2nd generation of the Guide Star Catalogue (GSC-II) asa reference astrometric catalogue to compile the positions of 1086Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe) listed in the Strasbourg ESO Catalogue(SEC), its supplement and the version 2000 of the Catalogue of PlanetaryNebulae. This constitutes about 75% of all known PNe. For these PNe, theones with a known central star (CS) or with a small diameter, we havederived coordinates with an absolute accuracy of ~0\farcs35 in eachcoordinate, which is the intrinsic astrometric precision of the GSC-II.For another 226, mostly extended, objects without a GSC-II counterpartwe give coordinates based on the second epoch Digital Sky Survey(DSS-II). While these coordinates may have systematic offsets relativeto the GSC-II of up to 5 arcsecs, our new coordinates usually representa significant improvement over the previous catalogue values for theselarge objects. This is the first truly homogeneous compilation of PNepositions over the whole sky and the most accurate one available so far.The complete Table \ref{tab2} is only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/1029}

Angular dimensions of planetary nebulae
We have measured angular dimensions of 312 planetary nebulae from theirimages obtained in Hα (or Hα + [NII]). We have appliedthree methods of measurements: direct measurements at the 10% level ofthe peak surface brightness, Gaussian deconvolution and second-momentdeconvolution. The results from the three methods are compared andanalysed. We propose a simple deconvolution of the 10% levelmeasurements which significantly improves the reliability of thesemeasurements for compact and partially resolved nebulae. Gaussiandeconvolution gives consistent but somewhat underestimated diameterscompared to the 10% measurements. Second-moment deconvolution givesresults in poor agreement with those from the other two methods,especially for poorly resolved nebulae. From the results of measurementsand using the conclusions of our analysis we derive the final nebulardiameters which should be free from systematic differences between small(partially resolved) and extended (well resolved) objects in our sample.Table 1 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Quantitative classification of WR nuclei of planetary nebulae
We analyse 42 emission-line nuclei of Planetary Nebulae (PNe), in theframework of a large spectrophotometric survey of [WC] nuclei of PNeconducted since 1994, using low/medium resolution spectra obtained atESO and at OHP. We construct a grid of selected line-intensities(normalized to C Iv-5806 Å= 100) ordered by decreasing ionisationpotential going from 871 to 24 eV. In this grid, the stars appear tobelong clearly to prominent O (hot [WO1-4] types) or C (cooler [WC4-11]types) line-sequences, in agreement with the classification of massiveWR stars applied to Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae (CSPNe) byCrowther et al. \cite{crowther98} (CMB98). We propose 20 selected lineratios and the FWHM of C Iv and C Iii lines as classificationdiagnostics, which agree well with the 7 line ratios and the FWHMproposed by CMB98. This classification based on ionisation is related tothe evolution of the temperature and of the stellar wind, reflecting themass-loss history. In particular, inside the hot [WO4]-class, wediscover four stars showing very broad lines over the whole spectralrange. These stars possibly mark the transition from the initialmomentum-driven phase to the later energy-driven phase of the CSPNealong their evolution from the post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB)phase through [WC] late, [WC4] and [WO]-types. The HR diagram and thediagram linking the terminal velocity and the temperature indicatehighly dispersed values of the stellar mass for our sample, around amean mass higher than for normal CSPNe. The distribution of the 42 starsalong the ionisation sequence shows 24% of [WO1-3], 21% of [WO4], 17% of[WC4] hot stars, and 26% of [WC9-11] cool stars. The [WC5-8] classesremain poorly represented (12%). This distribution is confirmed on thebasis of a large compilation of the 127 known emission-lines CSPNe,which represent about 5% of the known PNe.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory(ESO), La Silla (Chile), and at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP,France).Table \ref{liste} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

ISO-SWS spectra of [WR] planetary nebulae
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Abundances of [WC] Central Stars of PN and the Double Dust Chemistry Problem (invited review)
Not Available

WR Central Stars (invited review)
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Gas temperature and excitation classes in planetary nebulae
Empirical methods to estimate the elemental abundances in planetarynebulae usually use the temperatures derived from the [O III] and [N II]emission-line ratios, respectively, for the high- and low-ionizationzones. However, for a large number of objects these values may not beavailable. In order to overcome this difficulty and allow a betterdetermination of abundances, we discuss the relationship between thesetwo temperatures. Although a correlation is not easily seen when asample of different PNe types is used, the situation is improved whenthey are gathered into excitation classes. From [OII]/[OIII] andHeII/HeI line ratios, we define four excitation classes. Then, usingstandard photoionization models which fit most of the data, a linearrelation between the two temperatures is obtained for each of the fourexcitation classes. The method is applied to several objects for whichonly one temperature can be obtained from the observed emission linesand is tested by recalculation of the radial abundance gradient of theGalaxy using a larger number of PNe. We verified that our previousgradient results, obtained with a smaller sample of planetary nebulae,are not changed, indicating that the temperature relation obtained fromthe photoionization models are a good approximation, and thecorresponding statistical error decreases as expected. Tables 3-5, 7 and9 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Infrared properties of planetary nebulae with [WR] central stars
We have gathered from the literature near and mid infrared (photometricand spectroscopic) data for Galactic planetary nebulae, with specialattention to planetary nebulae surrounding Wolf-Rayet type central stars([WR] PN). These data have been analyzed to obtain insight into thedust-properties of [WR] PN and their evolutionary status. We have foundthat a sizeable fraction of [WR] PN seems to contain hot dust (1000-2000K), probably located in the winds of the central stars. The mean dusttemperature is shown to decrease with decreasing [WC] spectral type.This is in line with suggestions that the [WC] sequence is anevolutionary sequence from late to early types. [WR] PN in differentdiagrams, when compared to those of non-[WR] PN, suggest that [WR] PNform a homogeneous class of planetary nebulae. There is an unusuallylarge proportion of [WR] PN showing PAH features in their spectra.

The distance scale of planetary nebulae
By collecting distances from the literature, a set of 73 planetarynebulae with mean distances of high accuracy is derived. This sample isused for recalibration of the mass-radius relationship, used by manystatistical distance methods. An attempt to correct for a statisticalpeculiarity, where errors in the distances influences the mass-radiusrelationship by increasing its slope, has been made for the first time.Distances to PNe in the Galactic Bulge, derived by this new method aswell as other statistical methods from the last decade, are then usedfor the evaluation of these methods as distance indicators. In order ofachieving a Bulge sample that is free from outliers we derive newcriteria for Bulge membership. These criteria are much more stringentthan those used hitherto, in the sense that they also discriminateagainst background objects. By splitting our Bulge sample in two, onewith optically thick (small) PNe and one with optically thin (large)PNe, we find that our calibration is of higher accuracy than most othercalibrations. Differences between the two subsamples, we believe, aredue to the incompleteness of the Bulge sample, as well as the dominanceof optical diameters in the ``thin'' sample and radio diameters in the``thick'' sample. Our final conclusion is that statistical methods givedistances that are at least as accurate as the ones obtained from manyindividual methods. Also, the ``long'' distance scale of Galactic PNe isconfirmed.

ISO LWS observations of planetary nebula fine-structure lines
We have obtained 43-198μm far-infrared (IR) spectra for a sample of51 Galactic planetary nebulae (PN) and protoplanetary nebulae (PPN),using the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) on board the Infrared SpaceObservatory (ISO). Spectra were also obtained of the former PN candidateLo 14. The spectra yield fluxes for the fine-structure lines [Nii]122μm, [Niii] 57μm and [Oiii] 52 and 88μm emitted in theionized regions and the [Oi] 63- and 146-μm and [Cii] 158-μm linesfrom the photodissociation regions (PDRs), which have been used todetermine electron densities and ionic abundances for the ionizedregions and densities, temperatures and gas masses for the PDRs. Thestrong [Niii] and [Oiii] emission lines detected in the LWS spectrumtaken centred on Lo 14 could be associated with the nearby strong radioand infrared source G 331.5-0.1. We find that the electron densitiesyielded by the [Oiii] 88μm/52μm doublet ratio are systematicallylower than those derived from the optical [Ariv]λ4740/λ4711 and [Cliii] λ5537/λ5517 doubletratios, which have much higher critical densities than the 52- and88-μm lines, suggesting the presence of density inhomogeneities inthe nebulae. Ionic abundances, N+/H+,N2+/H+ and O2+/H+, as wellas the N2+/O2+ abundance ratio, which provides agood approximation to the N/O elemental abundance ratio, are derived.Although ionic abundances relative to H+ deduced from thefar-IR fine-structure lines are sensitive to the adopted electrondensity and the presence of density inhomogeneities, the strongdependence on the nebular physical conditions is largely cancelled outwhen N2+/O2+ is calculated from the57μm/(52μm+88μm) flux ratio, owing to the similarity of thecritical densities of the lines involved. The temperatures and densitiesof the PDRs around 24 PN have been determined from the observed [Oi] and[Cii] line intensity ratios. Except for a few objects, the deducedtemperatures fall between 200 and 500K, peaking around 250K. Thedensities of the PDRs vary from104-105cm-3, reaching3×105cm-3 in some young compact PN. With aderived temperature of 1600K and a density of105cm-3, the PDR of NGC 7027 is one of the warmestand at the same time one of the densest amongst the nebulae studied. Formost of the PN studied, the [Cii]-emitting regions contain only modestamounts of material, with gas masses <~0.1Msolar.Exceptional large PDR masses are found for a few nebulae, including NGC7027, the bipolar nebulae M2-9 and NGC 6302, the young dense planetarynebulae BD+30°3639, IC 418 and NGC 5315, and the old, probablyrecombining, nebulae IC 4406 and NGC 6072.

Low-Ionization Structures in Planetary Nebulae: Confronting Models with Observations
Around 50 planetary nebulae (PNs) are presently known to possess``small-scale'' low-ionization structures (LISs) located inside oroutside their main nebular bodies. We consider here the different kindsof LISs (jets, jetlike systems, symmetrical and nonsymmetrical knots)and present a detailed comparison of the existing model predictions withthe observational morphological and kinematical properties. We find thatnebulae with LISs appear indistinctly spread among all morphologicalclasses of PNs, indicating that the processes leading to the formationof LISs are not necessarily related to those responsible for theasphericity of the large-scale morphological components of PNs. We showthat both the observed velocities and locations of most nonsymmetricalsystems of LISs can be reasonably well reproduced assuming either fossilcondensations originated in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) wind or insitu instabilities. The jet models proposed to date (hydrodynamical andmagnetohydrodynamical interacting winds or accretion disk collimatedwinds) appear unable to account simultaneously for several keycharacteristics of the observed high-velocity jets, such as theirkinematical ages and the angle between the jet and the symmetry axes ofthe nebulae. The linear increase in velocity observed in several jetsfavors magnetohydrodynamical confinement compared to pure hydrodynamicalinteracting wind models. On the other hand, we find that the formationof jetlike systems characterized by relatively low expansion velocities(similar to those of the main shells of PNs) cannot be explained by anyof the existing models. Finally, the knots that appear in symmetricaland opposite pairs of low velocity could be understood as the survivalof fossil (symmetrical) condensations formed during the AGB phase or asstructures that have experienced substantial slowing down by the ambientmedium.

PAH features in the ISO SWS01 spectra of [WR] planetary nebulae
We present Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) Short WavelengthSpectrometer (SWS) observations for 16 Wolf-Rayet ([WR]) planetarynebulae (PNe) in the range from 2.4 to 16.5 μm with the aim ofanalyzing the dust features present in this group of objects. We havefound that Policyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecular bands arepresent in most of the observed [WR] planetary nebulae with clearexception for K 2-16 among late type [WC] stars.

Statistics of planetary nebulae with [WR] central stars
The status of planetary nebulae with Wolf-Rayet type central stars ([WR]PN) remains one of the most important problems in the investigation ofplanetary nebulae. We cannot claim to understand the evolution of lowand intermediate-mass stars without answering the question how [WR] PNare created. Analyzing the statistical properties of the wholepopulation of [WR] PN and comparing them to other planetary nebulae(non-[WR] PN) brings important information on their origin andevolutionary status. In this article I will summarize our results ofthis type of studies and show what limits they put on the possibleevolutionary routes of [WR] PN creation.

Abundances of [WC] central stars and their planetary nebulaee
We review elemental abundances derived for planetary nebula (PN) WCcentral stars and for their nebulae. Uncertainties in the abundances of[WC] stars are still too large to enable an abundance sequence to beconstructed. In particular it is not clear why the hotter [WCE] starshave C and O abundances which are systematically lower than those oftheir supposed precursors, the [WCL] stars. This abundance differencecould be real or it may be due to unaccounted-for systematic effects inthe analyses. Hydrogen might not be present in [WC] star winds asoriginally suggested, since broad pedestals observed at the base ofnebular lines can plausibly be attributed to high velocity nebularcomponents. It is recommended that stellar abundance analyses should becarried out with non-LTE model codes, although recombination lineanalyses can provide useful insights. In particular, C II dielectronicrecombination lines provide a unique means to determine electrontemperatures in cool [WC] star winds. We then compare the abundancesfound for PNe which have [WC] central stars with those that do not.Numerous abundance analyses of PNe have been published, but comparisonsbased on non-uniform samples and methods are likely to lack reliability.Nebular C/H ratios, which might be expected to distinguish between PNearound H-poor and H-rich stars, are rather similar for the two groups,with only a small tendency towards larger values for nebulae aroundH-deficient stars. Nebular abundances should be obtained withphotoionization models using the best-fitting non-LTE model atmospherefor the central star as the input. Heavy-metal line blanketing stillneeds to be taken into consideration when modeling the central star, asits omission can significantly affect the ionizing fluxes as well as theabundance determinations. We discuss the discrepancies between nebularabundances derived from collisionally excited lines and those derivedfrom optical recombination lines, a phenomenon that may have links withthe presence of H-deficient central stars.

Spectral analyses of WR-type central stars of planetary nebulae
So far, the evolution of post-AGB stars is not fully understood. Inparticular the formation of hydrogen-deficient and hydrogen-free CentralStars of Planetary Nebulae (CSPN) is unsettled. New evolution models,which allow for the consistent treatment of the physics of late thermalpulses, promise new insights to the formation of these stars. In thispaper we summarize the results of non-LTE analyses of CSPN with wind. Bycomparing these results with the predictions of the new evolutionmodels, open questions concerning the evolution of the stars might beanswered. In addition we discuss the driving mechanism of the winds ofWolf-Rayet CSPN. New models, which account for millions of iron lines,support the assumptions that these winds are driven by radiation.

Les nebuleuses planetaires et leurs etoiles centrales.
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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:13h33m32.97s
Apparent magnitude:10

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NGC 2000.0NGC 5189

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