Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

NGC 4996



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

Low Surface Brightness Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. Search Method and Test Sample
In this paper we present results of a pilot study to use imaging datafrom the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to search for low surfacebrightness (LSB) galaxies. For our pilot study we use a test sample of92 galaxies from the Impey et al. catalog distributed over 93 SDSSfields of the Early Data Release (EDR). Many galaxies from the testsample are either LSB or dwarf galaxies. To deal with the SDSS data mosteffectively, a new photometry software was created, which is describedin this paper. We present the results of the selection algorithmsapplied to these 93 EDR fields. Two galaxies from the Impey et al. testsample are very likely artifacts, as confirmed by follow-up imaging.With our algorithms we were able to recover 87 of the 90 remaining testsample galaxies, implying a detection rate of ~96.5%. The three missedgalaxies fall too close to very bright stars or galaxies. In addition,42 new galaxies with parameters similar to the test sample objects werefound in these EDR fields (i.e., ~47% additional galaxies). We presentthe main photometric parameters of all identified galaxies and carry outfirst statistical comparisons. We tested the quality of our photometryby comparing the magnitudes for our test sample galaxies and otherbright galaxies with values from the literature. All these tests yieldedconsistent results. We briefly discuss a few unusual galaxies found inour pilot study, including an LSB galaxy with a two-component disk and10 new giant LSB galaxies.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

A Complete Redshift Survey to the Zwicky Catalog Limit in a 2^h X 15 deg Region around 3C 273
We compile 1113 redshifts (648 new measurements, 465 from theliterature) for Zwicky catalog galaxies in the region (-3.5d <= delta<= 8.5d, 11h5 <= alpha <= 13h5). We include redshifts for 114component objects in 78 Zwicky catalog multiplets. The redshift surveyin this region is 99.5% complete to the Zwicky catalog limit, m_Zw =15.7. It is 99.9% complete to m_Zw = 15.5, the CfA Redshift Survey(CfA2) magnitude limit. The survey region is adjacent to the northernportion of CfA2, overlaps the northernmost slice of the Las CampanasRedshift Survey, includes the southern extent of the Virgo Cluster, andis roughly centered on the QSO 3C 273. As in other portions of theZwicky catalog, bright and faint galaxies trace the same large-scalestructure.

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

A comparative study of morphological classifications of APM galaxies
We investigate the consistency of visual morphological classificationsof galaxies by comparing classifications for 831 galaxies from sixindependent observers. The galaxies were classified on laser print copyimages or on computer screen using scans made with the Automated PlateMeasuring (APM) machine. Classifications are compared using the RevisedHubble numerical type index T. We find that individual observers agreewith one another with rms combined dispersions of between 1.3 and 2.3type units, typically about 1.8 units. The dispersions tend to decreaseslightly with increasing angular diameter and, in some cases, withincreasing axial ratio (b/a). The agreement between independentobservers is reasonably good but the scatter is non-negligible. In spiteof the scatter, the Revised Hubble T system can be used to train anautomated galaxy classifier, e.g. an artificial neural network, tohandle the large number of galaxy images that are being compiled in theAPM and other surveys.

Luminosity-line-width relations and the extragalactic distance scale. 2: A comparison with Types IA and II supernovae
We present a comparison of galaxy distances estimated via thelumosity-line-width or Tully-fisher relation and those estimated usingsupernovae. In the first cast, we compare to distances estimated byassuming Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are standard candles. The sample isrestricted to those late-type galaxies which have had both reasonablywell observed supernova events and which are also suitable for anapplication of the luminosity-line-width relation. Given this selectioncriteria, the resulting sample of 16 galaxies should be essentially freeof "Malmquist-like" effects. Consequently, the observed dispersionbetween the two methods should only reflect that intrinsic in the twotechniques and enable a fair assessment of the precision of the twomethods. The Hubble diagram for the sample has an rms dispersion of only0.4 mag, impplyig that both techniques are reasonably accurateindicators of extragalactic distances and have small intinsicdispersions (approximately 0.3 mag, or 15% in distance). The calibrationof the luminosity-line-width relations obtained in Paper I using Cepheidand RR Lyrae variables provides an absolute calibration for SNe Ia ofMB = -18.74 +/- 0.14. Existing data on more distant SNe Iaare used to derive a global estimate of the Hubble Constant, the resultbeing H0 = 86 +/- 7 km s-1 Mpc-1.Alternatively, if we force H0 is approximately 45 kms-1 Mpc-1, the luminosity-line-width relationswould still have a small rms dispersion but must then have adiscontinuous absolute calibration of Delta m = 1.4 mag over a smallrange in distance, namely 4.0 is less than DTF is less than6.5 Mpc. We also present a similar comparison using distances estimatedvia the method of modeling the expanding photospheres of Type IIsupernovae (SNe II). In this case, the mean distance ratio for 11 SNe IIand their parent galaxies is DTF/DSN II = 0.89 +/-0.05, with an rms dispersion of only 11% in distance, or equivalently0.22 mag. This implies that the SN II method is at least as reliable asassuming SNe Ia are standard candles, and that the luminosity-line-widthrelations produce accurate distance estimates as well (approxminately0.16 mag). That is, the distances estimated via these two methods arecompletely consistent within the stated internal errors. Consequetly,discrepancies in the calue of the Hubble Constant estimated using the SNII method and the TF relation are not significant.

CCD multi-object spectroscopy of galaxies at the UKST
A CCD detector system has been built for use with the FLAIR multi-objectspectrograph at the UKST. It is shown that using FLAIR, velocities canbe obtained for 80 percent of galaxies sampled uniformly to 16.75 mag.The velocity accuracy for absorption-line redshifts is typically +/-150km/s. These results apply to observations made in the blue (4000-5000 A)spectral range; the proportion of galaxies for which absorption-lineredshifts can be obtained is significantly higher than in initial testswhen only long wavelength (greater than 5000 A) observations werepossible. Using this observational configuration, a survey of galaxiesin nine UKST fields has been completed.

On some complexes of galactic clusters.
Not Available

A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.

Redshifts for 115 galaxies near the equator
New redshifts for 115 bright galaxies located near the celestial equatorare reported. The spectra were observed with a blue-sensitivephoton-counting Reticon on the 100-in. DuPont telescope, and theredshifts were derived using the data-analysis system developed for theCfA Redshift Survey. Comparisons with other measured redshifts suggestthat these data are similar in quality to the redshifts measured at Mt.Hopkins for the CfA Redshift Survey; the velocity zero point is good to10 or 15 km/s, with a typical error of 35 km/s for the individualmeasurements.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:13h09m31.90s
Aparent dimensions:1.82′ × 1.38′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 4996

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR