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Hubble Space Telescope STIS Spectra of Nuclear Star Clusters in Spiral Galaxies: Dependence of Age and Mass on Hubble Type
We study the nuclear star clusters (NCs) in spiral galaxies of variousHubble types using spectra obtained with the STIS on board the HubbleSpace Telescope (HST). We observed the nuclear clusters in 40 galaxies,selected from two previous HST WFPC2 imaging surveys. At a spatialresolution of ~0.2" the spectra provide a better separation of clusterlight from underlying galaxy light than is possible with ground-basedspectra. Approximately half of the spectra have a sufficiently highsignal-to-noise ratio for detailed stellar population analysis. For theother half we only measure the continuum slope, as quantified by the B-Vcolor. To infer the star formation history, metallicity, and dustextinction, we fit weighted superpositions of single-age stellarpopulation templates to the high signal-to-noise ratio spectra. We usethe results to determine the luminosity-weighted age, mass-to-lightratio, and masses of the clusters. Approximately half of the sampleclusters contain a population younger than 1 Gyr. Theluminosity-weighted ages range from 10 Myr to 10 Gyr. The stellarpopulations of NCs are generally best fit as a mixture of populations ofdifferent ages. This indicates that NCs did not form in a single event,but that instead they had additional star formation long after theoldest stars formed. On average, the sample clusters in late-typespirals have a younger luminosity-weighted mean age than those inearly-type spirals (L=8.37+/-0.25 vs.9.23+/-0.21). The average mass-weighted ages are older by ~0.7 dex,indicating that there often is an underlying older population that doesnot contribute much light but does contain most of the mass. The averagecluster masses are smaller in late-type spirals than in early-typespirals (logM=6.25+/-0.21 vs. 7.63+/-0.24) and exceed the masses typicalof globular clusters. The cluster mass correlates loosely with totalgalaxy luminosity. It correlates more strongly with both the Hubble typeof the host galaxy and the luminosity of its bulge. The lattercorrelation has the same slope as the well-known correlation betweensupermassive black hole mass and bulge luminosity. The properties ofboth nuclear clusters and black holes in the centers of spiral galaxiesare therefore intimately connected to the properties of the host galaxy,and in particular its bulge component. Plausible formation scenarioshave to account for this. We discuss various possible selection biasesin our results, but conclude that none of them can explain thedifferences seen between clusters in early- and late-type spirals. Theinability to infer spectroscopically the populations of faint clustersdoes introduce a bias toward younger ages, but not necessarily towardhigher masses.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations areassociated with proposals 9070 and 9783.

FLASH redshift survey - I. Observations and catalogue
The FLAIR Shapley-Hydra (FLASH) redshift survey catalogue consists of4613 galaxies brighter than bJ= 16.7 (corrected for Galacticextinction) over a 700-deg2 region of sky in the generaldirection of the Local Group motion. The survey region is a70°× 10° strip spanning the sky from the ShapleySupercluster to the Hydra cluster, and contains 3141 galaxies withmeasured redshifts. Designed to explore the effect of the galaxyconcentrations in this direction (in particular the Supergalactic planeand the Shapley Supercluster) upon the Local Group motion, the 68 percent completeness allows us to sample the large-scale structure betterthan similar sparsely-sampled surveys. The survey region does notoverlap with the areas covered by ongoing wide-angle (Sloan or 2dF)complete redshift surveys. In this paper, the first in a series, wedescribe the observation and data reduction procedures, the analysis forthe redshift errors and survey completeness, and present the surveydata.

Spiral Galaxies with HST/NICMOS. I. Nuclear Morphologies, Color Maps, and Distinct Nuclei
This is the first of two papers where we present the analysis of anHST/NICMOS2 near-infrared (NIR) snapshot survey in the F160W (H) filterfor a sample of 78 spiral galaxies selected from the UGC and ESOLVcatalogs. For 69 of these objects we provide nuclear color informationderived by combining the H data either with additional NICMOS F110W (J)images or with V WFPC2/HST data. Here we present the NIR images and theoptical-NIR color maps. We focus our attention on the properties of thephotometrically distinct ``nuclei'' which are found embedded in most ofthe galaxies and provide measurements of their half-light radii andmagnitudes in the H (and when available in the J) band. We find that (1)in the NIR the nuclei embedded in the bright early- to intermediate-typegalaxies span a much larger range in brightness than the nuclei whichare typically found embedded in bulgeless late-type disks: the nucleiembedded in the early- to intermediate-type galaxies reach, on thebright end, values up to HAB~-17.7 mag; (2) nuclei are foundin both nonbarred and barred hosts, in large-scale (>~1 kpc) as wellas in nuclear (up to a few 100 pc) bars; (3) there is a significantincrease in half-light radius with increasing luminosity of the nucleusin the early/intermediate types (a decade in radius for ~8 magbrightening), a correlation which was found in the V band and which isalso seen in the NIR data; (4) the nuclei of early/intermediate-typespirals cover a large range of optical-NIR colors, from V-H~-0.5 to 3.Some nuclei are bluer and others redder than the surroundinggalaxy,indicating the presence of activity or reddening by dust in many ofthese systems; (5) someearly/intermediate nuclei are elongated and/orslightly offset from the isophotal center of the host galaxy. Onaverage, however, these nuclei appear as centered, star-cluster-likestructures similar to those whichare found in the late-type disks. Basedon observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained atthe Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by Associationof Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Luminosity profiles of advanced mergers of galaxies using 2MASS data
A sample of 27 disturbed galaxies that show signs of interaction buthave a single nucleus were selected from the Arp and the Arp-Madorecatalogues. For these, the Ks band images from the Two MicronAll Sky Survey (2MASS) are analysed to obtain their radial luminosityprofiles and other structural parameters. We find that in spite of theirsimilar optical appearance, the sample galaxies vary in their dynamicalproperties, and fall into two distinct classes. The first class consistsof galaxies which can be described by a single r1/4 law andthe second class consists of galaxies that show an outer exponentialdisk. A few galaxies that have disturbed profiles cannot be fit intoeither of the above classes. However, all the galaxies are similar inall other parameters such as the far-infrared colours, the molecularhydrogen content and the central velocity dispersion. Thus, thedynamical parameters of these sets seem to be determined by the ratio ofthe initial masses of the colliding galaxies. We propose that thegalaxies in the first class result from a merger of spiral galaxies ofequal masses whereas the second class of galaxies results from a mergerof unequal mass galaxies. The few objects that do not fall into eithercategory show a disturbed luminosity profile and a wandering centre,which is indicative of these being unrelaxed mergers. Of the 27 galaxiesin our sample, 9 show elliptical-like profiles and 13 show an outerexponential. Interestingly, Arp 224, the second oldest merger remnant ofthe Toomre sequence shows an exponential disk in the outer parts.

Hubble Space Telescope Optical-Near-Infrared Colors of Nearby R1/4 and Exponential Bulges
We have analyzed V, H, and J Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images for asample of early- to late-type spiral galaxies and have reportedelsewhere the statistical frequency of R1/4-law andexponential bulges in our sample as a function of Hubble type and thefrequency of occurrence and structural properties of the resolvedcentral nuclei hosted by intermediate- to late-type bulges and disks(see references in the text). Here we use these data to show thefollowing:1.The V-H color distribution of the R1/4 bulge peaksaround ~1.3, with a sigma Δ(V-H)~0.1 mag. Assuming asolar metallicity, these values correspond to stellar ages of ~6+/-3Gyr. In contrast, the V-H color distribution of the exponential bulgespeaks at and has a sigma Δ(V-H)~0.4 mag. Thislikely implies significantly smaller ages and/or lower metallicities for(a significant fraction of the stars in) the exponential bulges comparedto the R1/4-law spheroids. 2.Most of the central nuclei hosted by the exponential bulges haveV-H and J-H colors that are compatible with relatively unobscuredstellar populations. Assuming no or little dust effects, ages >~1 Gyrare suggested for these nuclei, which in turn imply masses of about afew 106 to a few 107 Msolar, i.e.,sufficient to dissolve progenitor bars with masses consistent with thoseinferred for the exponential bulges by their luminosities.3. While different bulge-nucleus pairscover a large range of V-H colors, each bulge-nucleus pair has quitesimilar V-H colors and thus possibly similar stellar populations.The HST photometric analysis suggests thatexponential-type bulge formation is taking place in the local universeand that this process is consistent with being the outcome of secularevolution processes within the disks. The structures that are currentlyformed inside the disks are quite dissimilar from the oldelliptical-like spheroids that are hosted by the early-type disks. Basedon observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained atthe Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by Associationof Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

The Centers of Early- to Intermediate-Type Spiral Galaxies: A Structural Analysis
A recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFPC2 visual survey of early- andintermediate-type spiral galaxies has unveiled a great complexity in theinner regions of these systems, which include a high fraction ofphotometrically distinct compact sources sitting at the galactic centers(``nuclei''). The faint nuclei (M_V>~-12) are typically hosted byrather amorphous, quiescent, bulgelike structures with an exponential(rather than the classical R^1/4) light profile. These ``exponentialbulges'' are commonly found inside the intermediate-type disks,consistent with previous studies. Brighter nuclei (M_V<~-12) aretypically found instead in the centers of galaxies with circumnuclearrings/arms of star formation or dust and an active, i.e., H II- orAGN-type, central spectrum at ground-based resolution. On the structuralplane of half-light radius (R_e) versus mean surface brightness withinthe half-light radius (mu_e), faint and bright nuclei overlap with, andfill the region of parameter space between, the old Milky Way globularclusters and the young star clusters, respectively, with typical R_e ofabout a few up to ~20 pc. On the same plane, the exponential bulges havesignificantly fainter mu_e than R^1/4 bulges for any given radius andfollow a mu_e-R_e relation typical of disks, which strengthens thesuggestion that the exponential bulges grow inside the disks as a resultof the secular evolution of the latter. Under the likely assumption thatthe visual light from the faint nuclei embedded in the quiescentexponential bulges is of stellar origin and of a similar (>~1 Gyr)age for the central star clusters and their host bulges, the massesinferred for the former agree with those required to disrupt barscomparable in size to the latter. This offers support to scenarios inwhich the exponential bulges grow inside the disks owing to the orbitaldisruption of progenitor bars caused by the growth of a centralconcentration of mass and suggests that this specific mode of bulgeformation is (still) active in the present-day universe. On the otherhand, the presence of the massive clusters at the very center of thelow-density exponential bulges should prevent any other ``nuclear'' barfrom forming, thereby preventing further infall of dissipative fuel tothe nuclear regions. This may argue against the possibility of evolvingthe exponential bulges into denser, R^1/4 bulges by a simple looping forseveral cycles of the bar formation/disruption mechanism.

Galaxy coordinates. II. Accurate equatorial coordinates for 17298 galaxies
Using images of the Digitized Sky Survey we measured coodinates for17298 galaxies having poorly defined coordinates. As a control, wemeasured with the same method 1522 galaxies having accurate coordinates.The comparison with our own measurements shows that the accuracy of themethod is about 6 arcsec on each axis (RA and DEC).

Spiral Galaxies with WFPC2. II. The Nuclear Properties of 40 Objects
We report the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field PlanetaryCamera 2 F606W images of 40 spiral galaxies belonging to the sampleintroduced in Paper I, where 35 other targets were discussed. Wedescribe the optical morphological properties of the new 40 galaxies,derive the surface brightness profiles for 25 of them, and present theresults of photometric decompositions of these profiles into a ``bulge''(R^1/4 or exponential) and a disk component. The analysis of theenlarged sample of 75 galaxies puts on a statistically more solid groundthe main results presented in Paper I: (1) In ~30% of the galaxies, theinner, morphologically distinct structures have an irregular appearance.Some of these ``irregular bulges'' are likely to be currently formingstars. (2) Resolved, central compact sources are detected in about 50%of the galaxies. (3) The central compact sources in galaxies withnuclear star formation are brighter, for similar sizes, than those innon-star-forming galaxies. (4) The luminosity of the compact sourcescorrelates with the total galactic luminosity. Furthermore, the analysisof the enlarged sample of 75 objects shows the following: (a) Several ofthe nonclassical inner structures are well fitted by an exponentialprofile. These ``exponential bulges'' are typically fainter than R^1/4bulges, for a given total galaxy luminosity and (catalog) Hubble typelater than Sab. (b) Irregular/exponential bulges typically host centralcompact sources. (c) The central sources are present in all types ofdisk galaxies, starting with systems as early as S0a. About 60% of Sb toSc galaxies host a central compact source. Many of the galaxies thathost compact sources contain a barred structure. (d) Galaxies withapparent nuclear star formation, which also host the brightest compactsources, are preferentially the early- and intermediate-type (S0a-Sb)systems. (e) None of the features depend on environment: isolated andnonisolated galaxies show indistinguishable properties. Independent ofthe physical nature of the nonclassical inner structures, our mainconclusion is that a significant fraction of galaxies classified fromthe ground as relatively early-type spirals show a rich variety ofcentral properties and little or no morphological/photometric evidencefor a smooth, R^1/4 law bulge. Based on observations with the NASA/ESAHubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope ScienceInstitute, which is operated by the Association of Universities forResearch in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Spiral Galaxies with WFPC2. III. Nuclear Cusp Slopes
In this paper, the third of a series dedicated to the investigation ofthe nuclear properties of spiral galaxies, we (1) model the Wide FieldPlanetary Camera 2 F606W nuclear surface brightness profiles of 41spiral galaxies presented in Papers I and II with the analytic lawintroduced by Lauer et al. and (2) deconvolve these surface brightnessprofiles and their analytic fits, so as to estimate the nuclear stellardensities of bulges of spiral galaxies. We find that the nuclear stellarcusps (quantified by the average logarithmic slope of the surfacebrightness profiles within 0.1"-0.5") are significantly different forR^1/4 law and exponential bulges. The former have nuclear propertiessimilar to those of early-type galaxies, i.e., similar values of nuclearcusps for comparable luminosities, and increasingly steeper stellarcusps with decreasing luminosity. By contrast, exponential bulges have(underlying the light contribution from photometrically distinct,central compact sources) comparatively shallower stellar cusps, andlikely lower nuclear densities, than R^1/4 law bulges. Based onobservations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at theSpace Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Associationof Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Kinematics of the local universe. VII. New 21-cm line measurements of 2112 galaxies
This paper presents 2112 new 21-cm neutral hydrogen line measurementscarried out with the meridian transit Nan\c cay radiotelescope. Amongthese data we give also 213 new radial velocities which complement thoselisted in three previous papers of this series. These new measurements,together with the HI data collected in LEDA, put to 6 700 the number ofgalaxies with 21-cm line width, radial velocity, and apparent diameterin the so-called KLUN sample. Figure 5 and Appendices A and B forcorresponding comments are available in electronic form at thehttp://www.edpsciences.com

Discovery of Numerous Dwarf Galaxies in the Two Nearest Groups of Galaxies.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.1313C&db_key=AST

The Shapley Supercluster. I. Spectroscopic Observations in the Central Region
We present a new analysis of the kinematics of the Shapley superclusterbased on radial velocities for 1087 galaxies in the clusters A3558(Shapley 8), A3528 (Klemola 21), A3532 (Klemola 22), A3530, A3556 (SC1321-314), A3559 (CE 1327-292), A3560, A3562, SC 1329-314 and in theintercluster region of the core of the supercluster, of which 367 arenew measurements. We also present accurate positions from APM and MAMAscans of the ESO/SERC Southern Sky Survey photographic plates. We obtainnew velocity dispersions and estimate the masses of the member clusters,evaluating dynamical models of the supercluster. The supercluster isfound to be significantly flattened. We find that for {OMEGA}_0_ = 0.3,H_0_= 75 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^, the gravitational pull of the superclustermay account for up to 25% of the peculiar velocity of the Local Grouprequired to explain the dipole anisotropy of the Cosmic MicrowaveBackground radiation, in which case the mass of the supercluster wouldbe dominated by intercluster dark matter. This fractional contributionwould be considerably higher for combinations of significantly lowervalues of {OMEGA}_0_ and higher values of H_0_.

I-band CCD surface photometry of spiral galaxies in 16 nearby clusters
Results of I-band CCD surface photometry for 284 spiral galaxies in 16clusters in the redshift range from 3000 to 11,000 km/s are presented.Various effects on surface photometry are discussed, and the relevantcorrections are outlined.

The supergalactic plane redshift survey
Redshift measurements, about 1000 of which are new, are presented for1314 galaxies in a survey toward the apex of the large-scale streamingflow for ellipticals. The velocity histogram shows that the excess ingalaxy number counts in this area is due to a substantial concentrationof galaxies with discrete peaks at V about 3000 km/s and V about 4500km/s. After correction for the sampling function, the centroid of thedensity distribution is found to be near V about 4500 km/s.Normalization to the more extensive SSRS survey, which was selected bythe same criteria, shows that the region studied contains a considerableoverdensity of galaxies from 2000 to 6000 km/s. This result is in goodagreement with the 'great attractor' model suggested by Lynden-Bell etal. (1988) which attributes the peculiar motions of elliptical galaxiesover a large region of space to an extensive mass overdensity whichincludes the Hydra-Centaurus and Pavo-Indus superclusters. The centroidof the density enhancement is also consistent with new data by Dresslerand Faber (1990) of peculiar motions of elliptical and spiral galaxies,both of which show a zero crossing of the Hubble line at approximately4500-5000 km/s.

A wide angle redshift survey of the Hydra-Centaurus region
Spectroscopic observations of 266 galaxies in the Hya-Cen region arereported. Redshift data obtained at 350-700 nm with dispersion 21 nm/mmusing the UNIT spectrograph and RPCS detector on the 1.9-m RadcliffeReflector telescope at SAO during March 1985, May 1986, and March 1987are presented in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. It isshown that the Hya supercluster is separated from the Cen superclusterby a large void at right ascension 11 h 40 min, declination -35 deg, andradial velocity 5200 km/sec; a bridge of galaxies at velocity about 3200km/sec connects the two superclusters.

The Centaurus-Hydra supercluster region. II
In this paper, 139 redshifts obtained in the region of theCentaurus-Hydra supercluster are presented. These data, combined withthe radial velocities reported in an earlier paper, are used in apreliminary investigation of the spatial distribution of galaxies in thesurroundings of the Centaurus cluster. Attention is focused on twoparticular regions of the sky for which we have nearly complete redshiftsamples of galaxies brighter than blue magnitude 15.0. From the analysisof the spatial distribution of galaxies in these two regions, it isfound that the system of galaxies associated with the Centaurus clusterextends northeastward, and that the complexes of Centaurus and Hydra maywell be considered as separate superclusters.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:13h09m10.30s
Aparent dimensions:1.778′ × 0.776′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 4980

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