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Star Formation Properties of a Large Sample of Irregular Galaxies
We present the results of Hα imaging of a large sample ofirregular galaxies. Our sample includes 94 galaxies with morphologicalclassifications of Im, 26 blue compact dwarfs (BCDs), and 20 Sm systems.The sample spans a large range in galactic parameters, includingintegrated absolute magnitude (MV of -9 to -19), averagesurface brightness (20-27 mag arcsec-2), current starformation activity (0-1.3 Msolar yr-1kpc-2), and relative gas content(0.02-5Msolar/LB). The Hα images were usedto measure the integrated star formation rates, determine the extents ofstar formation in the disks, and compare azimuthally averaged radialprofiles of current star formation to older starlight. The integratedstar formation rates of Im galaxies normalized to the physical size ofthe galaxy span a range of a factor of 104 with 10% Imgalaxies and one Sm system having no measurable star formation at thepresent time. The BCDs fall, on average, at the high star formation rateend of the range. We find no correlation between star formation activityand proximity to other cataloged galaxies. Two galaxies located in voidsare similar in properties to the Sm group in our sample. The H IIregions in these galaxies are most often found within the Holmbergradius RH, although in a few systems H II regions are tracedas far as 1.7RH. Similarly, most of the star formation isfound within three disk scale lengths RD, but in somegalaxies H II regions are traced as far as 6RD. A comparisonof Hα surface photometry with V-band surface photometry shows thatthe two approximately follow each other with radius in Sm galaxies, butin most BCDs there is an excess of Hα emission in the centers thatdrops with radius. In approximately half of the Im galaxies Hα andV correspond well, and in the rest there are small to large differencesin the relative rate of falloff with radius. The cases with stronggradients in the LHα/LV ratios and with highcentral star formation rate densities, which include most of the BCDs,require a significant fraction of their gas to migrate to the center inthe last gigayear. We discuss possible torques that could have causedthis without leaving an obvious signature, including dark matter barsand past interactions or mergers with small galaxies or H I clouds.There is now a substantial amount of evidence for these processes amongmany surveys of BCDs. We note that such gas migration will also increasethe local pressure and possibly enhance the formation of massive denseclusters but conclude that the star formation process itself does notappear to differ much among BCD, Im, and Sm types. In particular, thereis evidence in the distribution function for Hα surface brightnessthat the turbulent Mach numbers are all about the same in these systems.This follows from the Hα distribution functions corrected forexponential disk gradients, which are log-normal with a nearly constantdispersion. Thus, the influence of shock-triggered star formation isapparently no greater in BCDs than in Im and Sm types.

Cosmological Results from High-z Supernovae
The High-z Supernova Search Team has discovered and observed eight newsupernovae in the redshift interval z=0.3-1.2. These independentobservations, analyzed by similar but distinct methods, confirm theresults of Riess and Perlmutter and coworkers that supernova luminositydistances imply an accelerating universe. More importantly, they extendthe redshift range of consistently observed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia)to z~1, where the signature of cosmological effects has the oppositesign of some plausible systematic effects. Consequently, thesemeasurements not only provide another quantitative confirmation of theimportance of dark energy, but also constitute a powerful qualitativetest for the cosmological origin of cosmic acceleration. We find a ratefor SN Ia of(1.4+/-0.5)×10-4h3Mpc-3yr-1at a mean redshift of 0.5. We present distances and host extinctions for230 SN Ia. These place the following constraints on cosmologicalquantities: if the equation of state parameter of the dark energy isw=-1, then H0t0=0.96+/-0.04, andΩΛ-1.4ΩM=0.35+/-0.14. Includingthe constraint of a flat universe, we findΩM=0.28+/-0.05, independent of any large-scalestructure measurements. Adopting a prior based on the Two Degree Field(2dF) Redshift Survey constraint on ΩM and assuming aflat universe, we find that the equation of state parameter of the darkenergy lies in the range -1.48-1, we obtain w<-0.73 at 95% confidence.These constraints are similar in precision and in value to recentresults reported using the WMAP satellite, also in combination with the2dF Redshift Survey.Based in part on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc.,under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This research is primarily associatedwith proposal GO-8177, but also uses and reports results from proposalsGO-7505, 7588, 8641, and 9118.Based in part on observations taken with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii. CTIO: Based in part on observations taken at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory.Keck: Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. KeckObservatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among theCalifornia Institute of Technology, the University of California, and theNational Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was madepossible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.UH: Based in part on observations with the University of Hawaii 2.2 mtelescope at Mauna Kea Observatory, Institute for Astronomy, University ofHawaii. UKIRT: Based in part on observations with the United KingdomInfrared Telescope (UKIRT) operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalfof the UK. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. VLT: Based inpart on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory,Paranal, Chile, under programs ESO 64.O-0391 and ESO 64.O-0404. WIYN: Based in part on observations taken at the WIYN Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.

Supernovae in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxies
In order to investigate the influence of environment on supernova (SN)production, we have performed a statistical investigation of the SNediscovered in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxies. 22SNe in 18 isolated galaxies, 48 SNe in 40 galaxy members of 37 pairs and211 SNe in 170 galaxy members of 116 groups have been selected andstudied. We found that the radial distributions of core-collapse SNe ingalaxies located in different environments are similar, and consistentwith those reported by Bartunov, Makarova & Tsvetkov. SNe discoveredin pairs do not favour a particular direction with respect to thecompanion galaxy. Also, the azimuthal distributions inside the hostmembers of galaxy groups are consistent with being isotropics. The factthat SNe are more frequent in the brighter components of the pairs andgroups is expected from the dependence of the SN rates on the galaxyluminosity. There is an indication that the SN rate is higher in galaxypairs compared with that in groups. This can be related to the enhancedstar formation rate in strongly interacting systems. It is concludedthat, with the possible exception of strongly interacting systems, theparent galaxy environment has no direct influence on SN production.

HI observations of nearby galaxies. IV. More dwarf galaxies in the southern sky
In this paper we present HI observations of nearby galaxies from twomore lists of the Karachentsev catalog of candidates for nearby dwarfgalaxies in the southern sky. Observations north of declination -31degrwere performed with the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg. Data formore southern galaxies were taken from HIPASS(www.atnf.csiro.au/research/multibeam). This sample is a supplement tothe list of 94 southern dwarf galaxy candidates (1998, A&AS, 127,409) located in the same declination range around the known Local Volumegalaxies (i.e. galaxies within 10 Mpc, LV hereafter). We observed 17galaxies not observed in the previous sample; and all 67 candidate dwarfgalaxies from the SERC EJ sky survey (Karachentsev et al.\cite{Karachentsev00) and 81 objects from a supplementary list ofcandidate dwarf galaxies (Karachentseva & Karachentsev\cite{Karachentseva00}). This yields a total of 165 (=17 + 67 + 81)galaxies. Overall we have a detection rate of 48%. The sample ofdetected galaxies has the following median parameters: radial velocityVLG= 1127 km s-1, HI line width W50 =59 km s-1, absolute blue magnitude MBT0= -14.4 mag, linear diameter A0 = 4.0 kpc, hydrogenmass-to-luminosity ratio 1.6 Msun/Lsun. The sampleof known galaxies within the Local Volume increased from 179 in 1979(Kraan-Korteweg & Tammann \cite{KraanKorteweg79}) to 387 now. Thiscorresponds to an increase in total luminosity of 22%. The known HI massin the LV increased by 25%; the relative HI contentMHI/LB increased from 0.21 to 0.26 for the wholevolume. However we still might have missed half of the dwarf galaxies inthe Local Volume. Table 1 is also, and Table 2 only, available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/377/801

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Dwarf galaxy candidates found on the SERC EJ sky survey
We inspected a sky region with declination range of [0degr , -18degr ]based on the SERC EJ plate copies. As a result a list of 50 nearby dwarfgalaxy candidates with angular diameters >= 0farcm5 is presented.Most of the galaxies have low and very low surface brightness. More than60% of the objects are detected for the first time.

The Southern Sky Redshift Survey
We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory.

The statistics analysis of recent supernovae.
Not Available

The Canaris Type IA Supernovae Archive (I)
This paper presents an atlas containing 59 low-resolution supernova
spectra which correspond to 27 type Ia supernovae. These 59spectra spectra which correspond to 27 type Ia supernovae. These 59spectra refer to different ages along the postmaximum type Ia evolution,covering from the photospheric to the old (~>300 days) nebularphases. These supernovae were observed as a part of the long-termobservational program Supernova Monitoring Project, carried out at theObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Spain) from 1990 Julyto 1994 July. Most of these observations were taken with the FaintObject Spectrograph (FOS) and a few spectra were obtained by means theISIS spectrograph. Three or more spectra were obtained for ten of thesesupernovae. Concerning the homogeneity among the type Ia supernovasubclass, our sample points to a "first-order" overall homogeneousspectroscopic behavior. However, a finer analysis - comparing spectra atsimilar evolutionary phase-allows differences to be found in relation tostrengths, wavelength positions, and evolution with time of the moresignificant spectral type Ia supernova features. Furthermore, someobjects that exhibit clear signs of spectroscopic peculiarities (SNe1991F, 1991bg, and 1991bj) are also included in our sample. The parentgalaxies of these supernovae present redshifts ranging from z = 0.003 toz = 0.07. Four of these (SNe 1991S, 1991ad, 1992R, and 1992ac) wereobserved in galaxies with z~>0.05. Only six events in our sample weredetected in an early-type (i.e., elliptical or lenticular) galaxy,whereas multiple supernova events were detected in five of the parentgalaxies in our supernova sample.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

A comparative study of morphological classifications of APM galaxies
We investigate the consistency of visual morphological classificationsof galaxies by comparing classifications for 831 galaxies from sixindependent observers. The galaxies were classified on laser print copyimages or on computer screen using scans made with the Automated PlateMeasuring (APM) machine. Classifications are compared using the RevisedHubble numerical type index T. We find that individual observers agreewith one another with rms combined dispersions of between 1.3 and 2.3type units, typically about 1.8 units. The dispersions tend to decreaseslightly with increasing angular diameter and, in some cases, withincreasing axial ratio (b/a). The agreement between independentobservers is reasonably good but the scatter is non-negligible. In spiteof the scatter, the Revised Hubble T system can be used to train anautomated galaxy classifier, e.g. an artificial neural network, tohandle the large number of galaxy images that are being compiled in theAPM and other surveys.

The Wheaton College Supernova Search Program
Since May of 1994, we have been using a 0.36m Celestron telescope on aDFM Engineering computerized mount to monitor 1250 nearby galaxies forsupernovae. We survey up to 100 galaxies an hour, typically taking30-second exposures, which allows us to detect supernovae as faint as16th magnitude. To identify candidate objects, we place on the TVmonitor transparent plastic overlays with the positions of known starsmarked; a possible supernova is immediately apparent as an unmarkedstar. Our 8-bit CCD camera, which is controlled by a PC, wasmanufactured by Microluminetics and has a Sanyo chip with 572 by 480pixels each measuring 13 by 15 microns; at the f/7 beam of ourtelescope, this corresponds to a scale of about one arc second per pixeland a field of about 10 by 8 arc minutes. The telescope is controlled byan Apple II+ microcomputer and has a pointing accuracy of 1 arc minute.Since images are automatically recorded on videotape, the system canwork in an automated mode, but we prefer to have an operator (usually aWheaton student) examine the images real-time to eliminate false alarms(about 10% of the exposures have cosmic rays that look like stars) andto allow us to report any supernova candidates as quickly as possible.On the tenth night of regular operation, June 26/27 1994, we discovereda 14th magnitude candidate in NGC 4948 and immediately notified the IAU;a spectrum taken with the ESO 1.5m telescope less than 24 hours lateridentified SN 1994U as a typical Ia at maximum light (IAU Circular No.6011). We currently monitor all galaxies which are north of -15 degreesdeclination, brighter than magnitude 14.5, and have radial velocitiesless than 2000 km/s; we welcome suggestions for additional galaxies, andwe would especially like to coordinate our efforts with astronomersinterested in making rapid follow-up observations. A more detaileddescription of our program has been published in the Fall 1994 issue ofCCD Astronomy. We are grateful to IBM, Research Corporation, and TheAmerican Astronomical Society Small Research Grant Program for theirsupport.

Supernova 1994U in NGC 4948
IAUC 6011 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.

H I line studies of galaxies. IV - Distance moduli of 468 disk galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985A&AS...59...43B&db_key=AST

Integrated magnitudes and mean colors of DDO dwarf galaxies in the UBV system. II - Distances, luminosities, and H I properties
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1983AJ.....88..764D&db_key=AST

Neutral hydrogen observations of DDO dwarf galaxies
All but 2 of the list of 243 David Dunlap Observatory (DDO) dwarf galaxycandidates have been observed in the H I 21-cm line with the NRAO 91 mand 43 m telescopes, and 179 have been detected. Among these, there areobjects which are particularly interesting because of their low surfacebrightness, including some systems which appear to be intrinsicallyreasonably big, and there are others of interest because they areintrinsically the smallest known extragalactic hydrogen-bearing systems.In this latter category are several new candidates for membership in theLocal Group. For all the detected systems, the radio observationsprovide redshifts, neutral hydrogen masses, and a total mass index. Thedistance independent hydrogen mass to luminosity ratio for the truedwarfs in the DDO sample indicates that they are relatively hydrogenrich with respect to large late type galaxies.

Luminosity classifications of dwarf galaxies.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1966AJ.....71..922V&db_key=AST

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:13h04m55.90s
Aparent dimensions:2.291′ × 0.813′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 4948
ICIC 4156

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