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Structure and kinematics of edge-on galaxy discs - V. The dynamics of stellar discs
In earlier papers in this series we determined the intrinsic stellardisc kinematics of 15 intermediate- to late-type edge-on spiral galaxiesusing a dynamical modelling technique. The sample covers a substantialrange in maximum rotation velocity and deprojected face-on surfacebrightness, and contains seven spirals with either a boxy orpeanut-shaped bulge. Here we discuss the structural, kinematical anddynamical properties. From the photometry we find that intrinsicallymore flattened discs tend to have a lower face-on central surfacebrightness and a larger dynamical mass-to-light ratio. This observationsuggests that, at a constant maximum rotational velocity, lower surfacebrightness discs have smaller vertical stellar velocity dispersions.Although the individual uncertainties are large, we find from thedynamical modelling that at least 12 discs are submaximal. The averagedisc contributes 53 +/- 4 per cent to the observed rotation at 2.2 discscalelengths (hR), with a 1σ scatter of 15 per cent.This percentage becomes somewhat lower when effects of finite discflattening and gravity by the dark halo and the gas are taken intoaccount. Since boxy and peanut-shaped bulges are probably associatedwith bars, the result suggests that at 2.2hR the submaximalnature of discs is independent of barredness. The possibility remainsthat very high surface brightness discs are maximal, as these discs areunderrepresented in our sample. We confirm that the radial stellar discvelocity dispersion is related to the galaxy maximum rotationalvelocity. The scatter in this σ versus vmax relationappears to correlate with the disc flattening, face-on central surfacebrightness and dynamical mass-to-light ratio. Low surface brightnessdiscs tend to be more flattened and have smaller stellar velocitydispersions. The findings are consistent with the observed correlationbetween disc flattening and dynamical mass-to-light ratio and cangenerally be reproduced by the simple collapse theory for disc galaxyformation. Finally, the disc mass Tully-Fisher relation is offset fromthe maximum-disc scaled stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation of the UrsaMajor cluster. This offset, -0.3 dex in mass, is naturally explained ifthe discs of the Ursa Major cluster spirals are submaximal.

Structure and kinematics of edge-on galaxy discs - IV. The kinematics of the stellar discs
The stellar disc kinematics in a sample of 15 intermediate- to late-typeedge-on spiral galaxies are studied using a dynamical modellingtechnique. The sample covers a substantial range in maximum rotationvelocity and deprojected face-on surface brightness and contains sevenspirals with either a boxy- or peanut-shaped bulge. Dynamical models ofthe stellar discs are constructed using the disc structure from I-bandsurface photometry and rotation curves observed in the gas. Thedifferences in the line-of-sight stellar kinematics between the modelsand absorption-line spectroscopy are minimized using a least-squaresapproach. The modelling constrains the disc surface density and stellarradial velocity dispersion at a fiducial radius through the freeparameter (σz/σR)-1, whereσz/σR is the ratio of vertical andradial velocity dispersion and M/L is the disc mass-to-light ratio. For13 spirals a transparent model provides a good match to the meanline-of-sight stellar velocity dispersion. Models that include arealistic radiative transfer prescription confirm that the effect ofdust on the observable stellar kinematics is small at the observed slitpositions. We discuss possible sources of systematic error and concludethat most of these are likely to be small. The exception is the neglectof the dark halo gravity, which has probably caused an overestimate ofthe surface density in the case of low surface brightness discs.

Structure and kinematics of edge-on galaxy discs - III. The rotation curves in the gas
A technique is introduced for deriving the gaseous rotation curves ofedge-on spiral galaxies. The entire major axis position-velocity (XV)diagram is modelled with a set of rings in a least-squares sense,allowing for the effects of beam-smearing and line-of-sight projection.The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated by applying it to goodquality HI XV diagrams of eight edge-on spirals. For seven additionalspirals the XV diagrams are of insufficient quality, and the HIrotational velocities derived earlier using the envelope-tracing methodare retained. The HI results are augmented with the optical emissionline (HII) kinematics to arrive at estimates of the full rotationcurves. A detailed comparison of the HI and HII kinematics shows thatthe discs in our sample are sufficiently transparent at the heightsabove the plane where we have taken our optical spectra to derive thestellar kinematics. In several of these spirals the HII is mainlyconfined to the spiral arms and does not extend out to the edge of theHI layer, which may have caused the HII velocity profiles to besignificantly narrower than those of HI.

Structure and kinematics of edge-on galaxy discs - II. Observations of the neutral hydrogen
We present Australia Telescope Compact Array and Westerbork SynthesisRadio Telescope HI observations of 15 edge-on spiral galaxies ofintermediate to late morphological type. The global properties and thedistribution and kinematics of the HI gas are analysed and discussed. Wedetermine the rotation curves using the envelope-tracing method. For 10spiral galaxies with a stellar disc truncation we find an average ratioof the HI radius to the truncation radius of the stellar disc of 1.1 +/-0.2 (1σ).

Structure and kinematics of edge-on galaxy discs - I. Observations of the stellar kinematics
We present deep optical long-slit spectra of 17 edge-on spiral galaxiesof intermediate to late morphological type, mostly parallel to theirmajor axes and in a few cases parallel to the minor axes. Theline-of-sight stellar kinematics are obtained from the stellarabsorption lines using the improved cross-correlation technique. Ingeneral, the stellar kinematics are regular and can be traced well intothe disc-dominated region. The mean stellar velocity curves are far fromsolid-body, indicating that the effect of dust extinction is not large.The line-of-sight stellar disc velocity dispersion correlates with thegalaxy maximum rotational velocity, but detailed modelling is necessaryto establish whether this represents a physical relation. In fourspirals with a boxy- or peanut-shaped bulge we are able to detectasymmetric velocity distributions, having a common signature withprojected radius in the mean line-of-sight velocity and theh3 and h4 curves. In two cases this kinematicasymmetry probably represents the `figure-of-eight' pattern synonymouswith a barred potential. We emphasize, however, that the signatures seenin the h3 and h4 curves may also be due to thedisc seen in projection.

A catalog of warps in spiral and lenticular galaxies in the Southern hemisphere
A catalog of optical warps of galaxies is presented. This can beconsidered complementary to that reported by Sánchez-Saavedra etal. (\cite{sanchez-saavedra}), with 42 galaxies in the northernhemisphere, and to that by Reshetnikov & Combes(\cite{reshetnikov99}), with 60 optical warps. The limits of the presentcatalog are: logr 25 > 0.60, B_t< 14.5, delta (2000) <0deg, -2.5 < t < 7. Therefore, lenticular galaxies havealso been considered. This catalog lists 150 warped galaxies out of asample of 276 edge-on galaxies and covers the whole southern hemisphere,except the Avoidance Zone. It is therefore very suitable for statisticalstudies of warps. It also provides a source guide for detailedparticular observations. We confirm the large frequency of warpedspirals: nearly all galaxies are warped. The frequency and warp angle donot present important differences for the different types of spirals.However, no lenticular warped galaxy has been found within the specifiedlimits. This finding constitutes an important restriction fortheoretical models.

Flattening and truncation of stellar discs in edge-on spiral galaxies
We analyse the global structure of the old stellar discs in 34 edge-onspiral galaxies. The radial and vertical exponential scale parameters ofthe discs are obtained by applying an improved two-dimensionaldecomposition technique to our I-band photometry. We find a clearincrease in the disc scaleheight with maximum rotational velocity, inaccordance with observations of the stellar velocity dispersions ingalaxy discs. The range and maximum of the intrinsic flattening of thedisc light seem to increase with both maximum rotational velocity andtotal HI mass. We use the disc flattening to estimate the disccontribution to the maximum rotational velocity, resulting in an averageof 57 +/- 22 per cent. The disc light distributions are furtherinvestigated for the presence of radial truncations. We find that theradial light distributions of at least 20 spirals are truncated,corresponding to 60 per cent of the sample. For small scalelengthspirals, which are the most numerous in the local Universe, the resultssuggest that the average ratio of disc truncation radius to discscalelength is at least four.

Disk Boundaries in Spiral Galaxies
We explore the hypothesis that the outer boundaries(“cutoffs”) of the stellar disks observed in many galaxiesare determined by the condition of local gravitational (Jeans) stabilityfor the gaseous protodisks at large galactocentric distances. The ratioof the surface density of the disk Σdisk to the critical value forJeans instability Σcrit is computed for a number of galaxies,assuming that the gas velocity dispersion in the forming diskcorresponded to its current thickness and that the disk itself is in aquasi-equilibrium state. The mean estimated stellar velocity dispersionin the vicinity of the cutoff (12 km/s) is close to the typical velocitydispersions of gaseous clouds in disk galaxies. At greater distances,such velocity dispersions should ensure gravitational stability of thedisk both at the present epoch and in the past. The cutoff radius of thedisk R cut is correlated with other disk parameters, and the ratioΣdisk/Σcrit at R cut is close to unity in most cases. Weconclude that the available observational data agree well with thehypothesis that stellar disk cutoffs are due to a rapid decrease in thestar-formation rate beyond R cut, where the gaseous disk has always beenstable.

Warps and correlations with intrinsic parameters of galaxies in the visible and radio
From a comparison of the different parameters of warped galaxies in theradio, and especially in the visible, we find that: a) No large galaxy(large mass or radius) has been found to have high amplitude in thewarp, and there is no correlation of size/mass with the degree ofasymmetry of the warp. b) The disc density and the ratio of dark toluminous mass show an opposing trend: smaller values give moreasymmetric warps in the inner radii (optical warps) but show nocorrelation with the amplitude of the warp; however, in the externalradii is there no correlation with asymmetry. c) A third anticorrelationappears in a comparison of the amplitude and degree of asymmetry in thewarped galaxies. Hence, it seems that very massive dark matter haloeshave nothing to do with the formation of warps but only with the degreeof symmetry in the inner radii, and are unrelated to the warp shape forthe outermost radii. Denser discs show the same dependence.

Tracing the vertical composition of disc galaxies through colour gradients
Optical observations of a statistically complete sample of edge-ondisc-dominated galaxies are used to study the intrinsic vertical colourgradients in the galactic discs, in order to constrain the effects ofpopulation gradients, residual dust extinction and gradients in themetal abundance of the galaxies. For the majority of our samplegalaxies, the colours and colour gradients in the range1.0hz<=|z|<=3.0hz most likely reflect theintrinsic galactic properties (where hz is the verticalscaleheight). It appears that the intrinsic vertical colour gradientsare either non-existent, or small and relatively constant as a functionof position along the major axes of the galaxies. On average, theearlier-type galaxies exhibit smaller vertical (B-I) gradients than thelater types; our results are consistent with the absence of any verticalcolour gradient in the discs of the early-type sample galaxies. In mostgalaxies small-scale variations in the magnitude and even the directionof the vertical gradient are observed: at larger galactocentricdistances they generally display redder colours with increasing zheight, whereas the opposite is often observed in and near the galacticcentres. For a significant fraction of our sample galaxies anothermechanism in addition to the effects of stellar population gradients isrequired to explain the magnitude of the observed gradients. Thenon-zero colour gradients in a significant fraction of our samplegalaxies are likely to be (at least) partially due to residual dustextinction at these z heights, as is also evidenced from the sometimessignificant differences between the vertical colour gradients measuredon either side of the galactic planes. We suggest that initial verticalmetallicity gradients, if any, have probably not been accentuated byaccretion or merging events over the lifetimes of our sample galaxies.On the other hand, they may have weakened any existing verticalmetallicity gradients, although they also may have left the existingcorrelations unchanged.

A list of peculiar velocities of RFGC galaxies
A list of radial velocities, HI line widths and peculiar velocities of1327 galaxies from the RFGC catalogue has been compiled using actualobservations and literature data. The list can be used for studying bulkmotions of galaxies, construction of the field of peculiar velocitiesand other tasks.

Distances to Galaxies from the Correlation between Luminosities and Line Widths. III. Cluster Template and Global Measurement of H0
The correlation between the luminosities and rotation velocities ofgalaxies can be used to estimate distances to late-type galaxies. It isan appropriate moment to reevaluate this method given the great deal ofnew information available. The major improvements described hereinclude: (1) the template relations can now be defined by large,complete samples, (2) the samples are drawn from a wide range ofenvironments, (3) the relations are defined by photometric informationat the B, R, I, and K' bands, (4) the multiband information clarifiesproblems associated with internal reddening, (5) the template zeropoints are defined by 24 galaxies with accurately known distances, and(6) the relations are applied to 12 clusters scattered across the skyand out to velocities of 8000 km s-1. The biggest change fromearlier calibrations are associated with point 5. Roughly a 15% increasein the distance scale has come about with the fivefold increase in thenumber of zero-point calibrators. The overall increase in the distancescale from the luminosity-line width methodology is about 10% afterconsideration of all factors. Modulo an assumed distance to the LargeMagellanic Cloud of 50 kpc and no metallicity corrections to the Cepheidcalibration, the resulting value of the Hubble constant isH0=77+/-8 km s-1 Mpc-1, where the erroris the 95% probable statistical error. Cumulative systematic errorsinternal to this analysis should not exceed 10%. Uncertainties in thedistance scale ladder external to this analysis are estimated at ~10%.If the Cepheid calibration is shifted from the LMC to NGC 4258 with adistance established by observations of circumnuclear masers, thenH0 is larger by 12%.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Three-dimensional modelling of edge-on disk galaxies
We present detailed three-dimensional modelling of the stellarluminosity distribution for the disks of 31 relatively nearby (<= 110Mpc) edge-on spiral galaxies. In contrast to most of the standardmethods available in the literature we take into account the fullthree-dimensional information of the disk. We minimize the differencebetween the observed 2D-image and an image of our 3D-disk modelintegrated along the line of sight. Thereby we specify the inclination,the fitting function for the z-distribution of the disk, and the bestvalues for the structural parameters such as scalelength, scaleheight,central surface brightness, and a disk cut-off radius. From a comparisonof two independently developed methods we conclude, that thediscrepancies e.g. for the scaleheights and scalelengths are of theorder of ~10%. These differences are not due to the individual methoditself, but rather to the selected fitting region, which masks the bulgecomponent, the dust lane, or present foreground stars. Other seriouslimitations are small but appreciable intrinsic deviations of real diskscompared to the simple input model. In this paper we describe themethods and present contour plots as well as radial profiles for allgalaxies without previously published surface photometry. Resultingparameters are given for the complete sample. Based on observationscollected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile and LowellObservatory, Flagstaff (AZ), U.S.A.

The Revised Flat Galaxy Catalogue.
We present a new improved and completed version of the Flat GalaxyCatalogue (FGC) named the Revised Flat Galaxy Catalogue (RFGC)containing 4236 thin edge-on spiral galaxies and covering the whole sky.The Catalogue is intended to study large-scale cosmic streamings as wellas other problems of observational cosmology. The dipole moment ofdistribution of the RFGC galaxies (l = 273 degr; b =+19 degr) lieswithin statistical errors (+/-10 degr) in the direction of the LocalGroup motion towards the Microwave Background Radiation (MBR).

The global structure of galactic discs
A statistical study of global galaxy parameters can help to improve ourunderstanding of galaxy formation processes. In this paper we presentthe analysis of global galaxy parameters based on optical andnear-infrared observations of a large sample of edge-on disc galaxies.We found a correlation between the ratio of the radial to vertical scaleparameter and galaxy type: galaxies become systematically thinner whengoing from type S0 to type Sc, whereas the distribution seems to leveloff for later types. The observed scalelength ratios (and thus theradial colour gradients) largely represent the dust content of thegalaxies. On average, the colour gradients indicated by the scalelengthratios increase from type Sa to at least type Sc. For galaxy types laterthan Sc, the average colour gradient seems to decrease again. Thedistribution of K-band (edge-on) disc central surface brightnesses israther flat, although with a large scatter. However, the latest-typesample galaxies (T>6) show an indication that their average disccentral surface brightnesses may be fainter than those of the earliertypes. This effect is probably not the result of dust extinction.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Optical Rotation Curves and Linewidths for Tully-Fisher Applications
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.2402C&db_key=AST

The I band Tully-Fisher relation for cluster galaxies: data presentation.
Observational parameters which can be used for redshift-independentdistance determination using the Tully-Fisher (TF) technique are givenfor \ntot spiral galaxies in the fields of 24 clusters or groups. I bandphotometry for the full sample was either obtained by us or compiledfrom published literature. Rotational velocities are derived either from21 cm spectra or optical emission line long-slit spectra, and convertedto a homogeneous scale. In addition to presenting the data, a discussionof the various sources of error on TF parameters is introduced, and thecriteria for the assignment of membership to each cluster are given.

The z-structure of disk galaxies towards the galaxy planes
We present a detailed study of a statistically complete sample of highlyinclined disk galaxies in the near-infrared K' band. Since the K'-bandlight is relatively insensitive to contamination by galactic dust, wehave been able to follow the vertical light distributions all the waydown to the galaxy planes. The mean levels for the sharpness of theK'-band luminosity peaks indicate that the vertical luminositydistributions are more peaked than expected for the intermediate sech(z)distribution, but rounder than exponential. After fitting a generalizedfamily of fitting functions characterised by an exponent 2/n (n = inftyfor exponential, n = 2 for sech and n = 1 for sech(2) ; van der Kruit1988) we find that the mean value for 2/n in the K' band equals<2/n>_{K'} = 0.538, sigma_ {K'} = 0.198. Since projection of notcompletely edge-on galaxies onto the plane of the sky causes verticalluminosity profiles to become rounder, we have performed simulationsthat show that it is possible that all our galaxies can haveintrinsically exponential vertical surface brightness distributions. Wefind that the profile shape is independent of galaxy type, and varieslittle with position along the major axis. The fact that we observe thisin all our sample galaxies indicates that the formation process of thegalaxy disks perpendicular to the galaxy planes is a process intrinsicto the disks themselves. Based on observations obtained at the EuropeanSouthern Observatory, La Silla, Chile

Parameters of 2447 Southern Spiral Galaxies for Use in the Tully-Fisher Relation
I-band luminosities, rotational velocities, and redshifts of 1092 spiralgalaxies have been measured by CCD photometry and Hα spectroscopyusing the 1 m and 2.3 m telescopes at Siding Spring Observatory,respectively. The results are tabulated. Luminosity profiles andHα rotation curves are given for the galaxies. When these resultsare combined with similar data for 1355 spiral galaxies publishedpreviously (Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, hereafter Paper I), itprovides a large, uniform, and unique data set with which to measure,via the Tully-Fisher relation, the peculiar velocities of galaxies inthe local universe to a distance of 11,000 km s^-1^ (Mathewson &Ford). Taking advantage of the opportunity for publishing this data inmachine-readable form, in the CD-ROM, we have also included similar datafor the 1355 galaxies in Paper I.

Rotation Curves of 967 Spiral Galaxies
We present the rotation curves of 967 southern spiral galaxies, obtainedby deprojecting and folding the raw Hα data originally publishedby Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn (1992). For 900 objects, we alsopresent, in figures and tables, the rotation curves smoothed on scalescorresponding to 5%-20% of the optical size; of these, 80 meet objectiveexcellence criteria and are suitable for individual detailed massmodeling, while 820, individually less compelling mainly because of themoderate statistics and/or limited extension, are suitable forstatistical studies. The remaining 67 curves suffer from severeasymmetries, small statistics, and large internal scatter that maylargely limit their use in galaxy structure studies. The deprojectedfolded curves, the smoothed curves, and various related quantities areavailable via anonymous ftp at galileo.sissa.it in the directory/users/ftp/pub/psrot.

Parameters of stellar disks from CCD surface photometry of edge-on galaxies
CCD surface photometry in Thuan and Gunn g and r filters is used tostudy the structure of stellar disks in 27 edge-on galaxies. Parametersfor models of the light distribution such as the scale height z_0_, theradial scale length h, the cut-off radius R_max_, and the centralsurface brightness μ_0_ are determined. The observed disks generallyshow a radial cut-off at a surface brightness level of ~23mag/arcsec^2^, well above the signal-to-noise limit. Several galaxies inour sample have a ratio R_max_/h<3.0, smaller than typical valuesfound in previous studies. The light distribution perpendicular to theplane is, even at visual wavelength, better described by an exponentialor a sech function in z than by the sech^2^ function of an isothermaldisk model. The central face-on corrected surface brightness μ_0_ ofthe disks presented here are lower than values of comparable face-onsamples.

Observations of galaxies with starlike nuclei.
Not Available

Flat galaxy catalogue
A systematic search for disklike edge-on-galaxies with a diameter largerthan a = 40 arcsec and a major-to-minor axis ratio a/b greater than 7was carried out by means of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey and theESO/SERC survey. As a result, we present a new catalog of flat galaxies(FGC) containing 4455 objects and covering about 56 percent of the wholesky for the first time. The catalogue is assigned to study large-scalecosmic streamings and other problems of observational cosmology.

A southern sky survey of the peculiar velocities of 1355 spiral galaxies
The paper presents data from photometric and spectroscopic observationsof 1355 southern spiral galaxies and uses them to determine theirdistances and peculiar velocities via the Tully-Fisher (TF) relation.I-band CCD surface photometry was carried out using the 1-m and 3.9-mtelescopes at Siding Spring Observatory. H-alpha rotation curves for 965galaxies and 551 H I profiles are presented. The physical parameters,photometric and velocity data, distances, and peculiar velocities of thegalaxies are presented in tabular form. The mean distance, systemicvelocity, and average peculiar velocity of 24 clusters in the sample aregiven. TF diagrams are presented for each cluster.

The supergalactic plane redshift survey
Redshift measurements, about 1000 of which are new, are presented for1314 galaxies in a survey toward the apex of the large-scale streamingflow for ellipticals. The velocity histogram shows that the excess ingalaxy number counts in this area is due to a substantial concentrationof galaxies with discrete peaks at V about 3000 km/s and V about 4500km/s. After correction for the sampling function, the centroid of thedensity distribution is found to be near V about 4500 km/s.Normalization to the more extensive SSRS survey, which was selected bythe same criteria, shows that the region studied contains a considerableoverdensity of galaxies from 2000 to 6000 km/s. This result is in goodagreement with the 'great attractor' model suggested by Lynden-Bell etal. (1988) which attributes the peculiar motions of elliptical galaxiesover a large region of space to an extensive mass overdensity whichincludes the Hydra-Centaurus and Pavo-Indus superclusters. The centroidof the density enhancement is also consistent with new data by Dresslerand Faber (1990) of peculiar motions of elliptical and spiral galaxies,both of which show a zero crossing of the Hubble line at approximately4500-5000 km/s.

Characterising 'box/peanut' galactic bulge morphology
Principal component analyses have been conducted on a large sample ofedge-on galaxies displaying 'box' or 'peanut' shaped bulge distortionsin order to identify the characteristic photometric properties of themorphology. The identified parameter space is strictly two-dimensional,indicating that no single parameter exists by which box/peanutmorphology could be fully characterized. The most significant parametersare measures of bulge dimension, and the bulge-to-total luminosityratio. It is shown that weak boxes and extreme peanuts are merelyextrema in a homogeneous family of isophotal distortions. The resultsalso suggest that the disk component is not an important constraint onthe formation and/or subsequent evolution of box/peanut bulgedistortions.

A wide angle redshift survey of the Hydra-Centaurus region
Spectroscopic observations of 266 galaxies in the Hya-Cen region arereported. Redshift data obtained at 350-700 nm with dispersion 21 nm/mmusing the UNIT spectrograph and RPCS detector on the 1.9-m RadcliffeReflector telescope at SAO during March 1985, May 1986, and March 1987are presented in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. It isshown that the Hya supercluster is separated from the Cen superclusterby a large void at right ascension 11 h 40 min, declination -35 deg, andradial velocity 5200 km/sec; a bridge of galaxies at velocity about 3200km/sec connects the two superclusters.

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Right ascension:12h57m12.90s
Aparent dimensions:2.884′ × 0.417′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 4835A

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