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|Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies. I. The ENEARc Cluster Sample|
This paper presents data on the ENEARc subsample of the larger ENEARsurvey of nearby early-type galaxies. The ENEARc galaxies belong toclusters and were specifically chosen to be used for the construction ofa Dn-σ template. The ENEARc sample includes newmeasurements of spectroscopic and photometric parameters (redshift,velocity dispersion, line index Mg2, and the angular diameterdn), as well as data from the literature. New spectroscopicdata are given for 229 cluster early-type galaxies, and new photometryis presented for 348 objects. Repeat and overlap observations withexternal data sets are used to construct a final merged catalogconsisting of 640 early-type galaxies in 28 clusters. Objectivecriteria, based on catalogs of groups of galaxies derived from completeredshift surveys of the nearby universe, are used to assign galaxies toclusters. In a companion paper, these data are used to construct thetemplate Dn-σ distance relation for early-typegalaxies, which has been used to estimate galaxy distances and derivepeculiar velocities for the ENEAR all-sky sample. Based on observationsat Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement betweenthe Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory,National Optical Astronomical Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the EuropeanSouthern Observatory (ESO), partially under the ESO-ON agreement; theFred Lawrence Whipple Observatory; the Observatório do Pico dosDias, operated by the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísicaand the MDM Observatory at Kitt Peak.
|FAUST observations in the Fourth Galactic Quadrant*|
We analyse UV observations with FAUST of four sky fields in the generaldirection of the Fourth Galactic Quadrant, in which we detect 777 UVsources. This is ~50 per cent more than detected originally by Bowyer etal. We discuss the source detection process and the identification of UVsources with optical counterparts. For the first time in this project weuse ground-based objective-prism information for two of the fields, toselect the best-matching optical objects with which to identify the UVsources. Using this, and correlations with existing catalogues, wepresent reliable identifications for ~75 per cent of the sources. Mostof the remaining sources have assigned optical counterparts but, lackingadditional information, we offer only plausible identifications. Wediscuss the types of objects found, and compare the observed populationwith predictions of our UV Galaxy model.
|A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters|
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp 126.96.36.199. Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.|
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.
|A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update|
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.
|A catalog of far-ultraviolet point sources detected with the fast FAUST Telescope on ATLAS-1|
We list the photometric measurements of point sources made by the FarUltraviolet Space Telescope (FAUST) when it flew on the ATLAS-1 spaceshuttle mission. The list contains 4698 Galactic and extragalacticobjects detected in 22 wide-field images of the sky. At the locationssurveyed, this catalog reaches a limiting magnitude approximately afactor of 10 fainter than the previous UV all-sky survey, TDl. Thecatalog limit is approximately 1 x 10-14 ergs A sq cm/s,although it is not complete to this level. We list for each object theposition, FUV flux, the error in flux, and where possible anidentification from catalogs of nearby stars and galaxies. Thesecatalogs include the Michigan HD (MHD) and HD, SAO, the HIPPARCOS InputCatalog, the Position and Proper Motion Catalog, the TD1 Catalog, theMcCook and Sion Catalog of white dwarfs, and the RC3 Catalog ofGalaxies. We identify 2239 FAUST sources with objects in the stellarcatalogs and 172 with galaxies in the RC3 catalog. We estimate thenumber of sources with incorrect identifications to be less than 2%.
|Multicolor surface photometry of early-type galaxies. I.|
We have obtained v,g,r and i CCD surface photometry for a sample of 109early-type galaxies. Many of the galaxies covered have no previouslypublished CCD or aperture photometry. Our surface brightness profilestypically extend down to a surface brightness ofμ_r_~24mag/arcsec^2^. Detailed comparisons with previously publishedwork, and internal and external error estimates for all quantities areprovided. The complete surface photometry data set is made available ina computer-readable form.
|Ultraviolet observations of galaxies with the FAUST experiment|
We have used the set of point sources detected by the Far UltravioletSpace Telescope (FAUST) instrument to identify galaxies and study thetotal galaxy flux in a 250 A wide band peaking at 1650 A. A sample of144 galaxies has been obtained after cross-reference with the RC3catalog, elimination of objects confused with stars and variouscorrections for the photometry. The UV-B color dispersion is found toincrease while the galaxies get redder from late to early types. Theirregular galaxies appear on average redder and the Sbc galaxies bluerthan indicated by the spectral energy distributions currently used forthe calculations of K-corrections. Various arguments lead us to make theassumption of a constant dust extinction within each galaxy. The UV fluxper unit area decreases on average from late to early type spirals. Wefind a weak correlation between the UV and far infra-red emission whilethe infra-red to UV flux ratio gets lower when galaxies get bluer (asmeasured by the UV to B flux ratio). The UV flux per unit areacorrelates with the HI gas surface density and the total gas surfacedensity when this quantity is available. The correlation with themolecular gas alone is weak. In the Virgo cluster, the UV flux per unitarea does not decrease in direct proportion to the HI deficiency. Galaxycounts per square degree and per magnitude interval have been obtainedat high-galactic latitudes. Combined with data at fainter magnitudes,they show a variation as a function of magnitude with a near-euclideanslope over a range of 8 magnitudes.
|General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups|
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.
|Low-luminosity early-type galaxies. I - Photometry and morphology|
New multiaperture photoelectric photometry in U, B, V, R, and I for 50southern low-luminosity early-type galaxies (LLEs) is presented.Asymptotic magnitude and mean surface brightness within the effectiveaperture are derived from fits to r exp 1/4 growth curves, and colorsare reduced at an effective radius for 154 galaxies. Morphological andstructural analysis of the LLE sample, based on the ESO-LV image database, shows that the average flattening of these galaxies is high. Thesample can be divided into four main categories. There is no correlationbetween the morphological type for t of not greater than -3 and any ofthe structural and geometrical properties investigated. Only a fewgalaxies show a boxy isophote shape, while a greater fraction showsdisky isophotes.
|Spectroscopy and photometry of elliptical galaxies. III - UBV aperture photometry, CCD photometry, and magnitude-related parameters|
Photoelectric aperture photometry of nearly 2000 individual observationsof 449 elliptical galaxies combined with published measurements usingthe self-consistent UVB color catalog developed by Burstein et al.(1987) are presented. The data are placed on a standard magnitude andcolor system, and 'total' magnitudes and effective diameters are derivedby comparison with the standard elliptical magnitude growth curve. Agraphical representation of the standard growth curve and the residualsfrom it for each galaxy are given, and a new diameter measurement Dn ispresented which can be measured reliably for elliptical galaxies andserves as an accurate distance indicator when combined with centralvelocity dispersion. Individual magnitudes, surface brightnesses,effective diameters, and values of Dn are summarized for each galaxy incatalog form.
|Spectroscopy and photometry of elliptical galaxies. II - The spectroscopic parameters|
Radial velocities, velocity dispersions, and Mg line-strength indicesare measured for 469 elliptical galaxies using four telescope/detectorconfigurations. The data have been put on a common scale; the scatter ofrepeat measurements indicates an uncertainty of + or - 10 percent and +or - 0.01 mag for single determinations of sigma and Mg2, respectively.A correction for the change in linear aperture size as a function ofdistance has been derived, and mean corrected values of sigma and Mg2are adopted. The galaxies have been assigned to groups by combining thepresent velocities with those in the redshift catalog of Huchra et al.(1983) and using the algorithm of Huchra and Geller (1982).
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