Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

NGC 4510



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

The Needles in the Haystack Survey: searching for X-ray-selected normal galaxies
In this paper we present the first results from an ongoing serendipitoussurvey aiming to identify X-ray-selected `normal' galaxies [i.e. notdominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs)] by combining archivalXMM-Newton data with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In the first 4.5deg2 of this program, we have identified a total of 11`normal' galaxy candidates (eight of them with optical spectroscopy)with fluxes fX(0.5-8 keV) ~ 10-15-10-13erg s-1 cm-2. These sources are selected to havelow X-ray-to-optical flux ratio (logfX/fopt<~-2), soft X-ray spectral propertiesand optical spectra, when available, consistent with the presence of astellar ionizing continuum. These sources comprise both early- andlate-type systems at redshifts z<~ 0.2 with luminositiesLX(0.5-8 keV) ~ 1039-1042 ergs-1. This data set provides the first tight constraint on thesurface density of X-ray-selected `normal' galaxies at relatively brightfluxes spanning 2 orders of magnitude (10-15-10-13erg s-1 cm-2). The slope of the `normal' galaxylog N-log S relation in the above flux range is estimated to be -1.4 +/-0.3, consistent with the Euclidean prediction. We also discuss theprospects of `normal' galaxy studies at X-ray wavelengths using both ourcontinuously expanding survey and future X-ray missions.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.

The Hamburg/RASS Catalogue of optical identifications. Northern high-galactic latitude ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue X-ray sources
We present the Hamburg/RASS Catalogue (HRC) of optical identificationsof X-ray sources at high-galactic latitude. The HRC includes all X-raysources from the ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue (RASS-BSC) with galacticlatitude |b| >=30degr and declination delta >=0degr . In thispart of the sky covering ~ 10 000 deg2 the RASS-BSC contains5341 X-ray sources. For the optical identification we used blue Schmidtprism and direct plates taken for the northern hemisphere Hamburg QuasarSurvey (HQS) which are now available in digitized form. The limitingmagnitudes are 18.5 and 20, respectively. For 82% of the selectedRASS-BSC an identification could be given. For the rest either nocounterpart was visible in the error circle or a plausibleidentification was not possible. With ~ 42% AGN represent the largestgroup of X-ray emitters, ~ 31% have a stellar counterpart, whereasgalaxies and cluster of galaxies comprise only ~ 4% and ~ 5%,respectively. In ~ 3% of the RASS-BSC sources no object was visible onour blue direct plates within 40\arcsec around the X-ray sourceposition. The catalogue is used as a source for the selection of(nearly) complete samples of the various classes of X-ray emitters.

Compact groups in the UZC galaxy sample
Applying an automatic neighbour search algorithm to the 3D UZC galaxycatalogue (Falco et al. \cite{Falco}) we have identified 291 compactgroups (CGs) with radial velocity between 1000 and 10 000 kms-1. The sample is analysed to investigate whether Tripletsdisplay kinematical and morphological characteristics similar to higherorder CGs (Multiplets). It is found that Triplets constitute lowvelocity dispersion structures, have a gas-rich galaxy population andare typically retrieved in sparse environments. Conversely Multipletsshow higher velocity dispersion, include few gas-rich members and aregenerally embedded structures. Evidence hence emerges indicating thatTriplets and Multiplets, though sharing a common scale, correspond todifferent galaxy systems. Triplets are typically field structures whilstMultiplets are mainly subclumps (either temporarily projected orcollapsing) within larger structures. Simulations show that selectioneffects can only partially account for differences, but significantcontamination of Triplets by field galaxy interlopers could eventuallyinduce the observed dependences on multiplicity. Tables 1 and 2 are onlyavailable in electronic at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/391/35

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

Core properties of elliptical galaxies - I. A northern hemisphere sample at high resolution
We introduce an ongoing survey of core properties of elliptical galaxiesand present the first results from high-resolution direct imaging of asubsample. The data were obtained in the V, R and I bands at the NOTtelescope, with median seeings of 0.69, 0.65 and 0.62 arcsec FWHM,respectively. We determine the `classical' core parameters, and weintroduce a new parameter, pi_c, which is a measure of the deviation ofthe observed brightness profile from an isothermal profile, pi_cmeasures the intensity of a central brightness concentration in excessof an isothermal model, relative to the intensity of the core. Measuringpi_c for the objects presented here, we find that only five of 22objects are consistent with pi_c=0 at the 1sigma level, and that 14 of22 are inconsistent with pi_c at the 3sigma level. We see no evidencefor significant colour difference (in V, R and I) between the centralspike and the rest of the core, except for M87 and NGC 4278. For theremaining galaxies we find that the colours of the spike must matchthose of the core to within 0.4 mag. We conclude that the majority ofall ellipticals seem to have central intensity concentrations in therange 1-10 per cent of the core flux.

A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.

The ROSAT AGN content of the 87GB 5 GHz survey: bulk properties of previously optically identified sources.
The cross-correlation of the source list from the ROSAT All-Sky Surveywith the 5 GHz Green Bank survey yields a list of 2127 objects. Abouttwo thirds of them are optically unidentified. The majority of theobjects with known optical counterparts are quasars and radio galaxies,most of them detected in X-rays for the first time. In this paper wepresent a list of the previously optically identified objects with theirmain characteristics and discuss their general (bulk) properties. Wefind strong correlations between luminosities in the radio, optical, andX-ray bands which differ for quasars and radio galaxies. The fraction offlat radio spectrum sources increases with redshift and ~ 95% of allsources above z = 2 are of that type. In the relatively large group ofblazars, radio selected BL Lacs and highly polarized quasars show verysimilar properties while X-ray selected BL Lacs have markedly differentX-ray to radio flux ratios. The sample is large enough and ofsufficiently high quality to reveal clearly various detection biases andselection effects which strongly influence the physical interpretationof the correlations. Radio follow - up observations for thedetermination of the morphological and spectral properties as well asenvironmental conditions are needed for a statistically reliable studyof the sample. The very large group of sources with low radio fluxesremains to be optically identified.

A revised catalog of CfA1 galaxy groups in the Virgo/Great Attractor flow field
A new identification of groups and clusters in the CfA1 Catalog ofHuchra et al. is presented, using a percolation algorithm to identifydensity enhancements. It is shown that in the resulting catalog,contamination by interlopers is significantly reduced. The Schechterluminosity function is redetermined, including the Malmquist bias.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

Associations between quasi-stellar objects and galaxies
A table is presented here listing all close pairs of QSOs and galaxiesthat were found in a computer-aided search of catalogs of QSOs andbright galaxies and an extensive search of the literature. There is alarge excess of pairs with separations of 2 arcmin lor less, or about 60kpc, over the numbers expected if the configurations were accidental.The angular separation for 392 pairs adds to the evidence for physicalassociation, and it is shown that selection effects are not important. Ageneral rule is stated that QSOs tend to lie in the vicinity of normalgalaxies much more often than is expected by chance whether or not thegalaxies and the QSOs have the same redshifts. It is emphasized thatthis rule cannot be explained in terms of gravitational microlensing,and it is concluded that some part of the redshift of all classes ofactive nuclei is not associated with the expansion of the universe.

A catalog of stellar velocity dispersions. I - Compilation and standard galaxies
A catalog of central stellar velocity dispersion measurements ispresented, current through June 1984. The catalog includes 1096measurements of 725 galaxies. A set of 51 standard galaxies is definedwhich consists of galaxies with at least three reliable, concordantmeasurements. It is suggested that future studies observed some of thesestandard galaxies in the course of their observations so that differentstudies can be normalized to the same system. Previous studies arecompared with the derived standards to determine relative accuracies andto compute scale factors where necessary.

A search for environmental effects on the optical properties of galaxies in groups
Environmental density-related modifications of basic optical properties(luminosities, sizes, axial ratios, and colors) of galaxies belonging toGeller and Huchra's (1983) groups have been investigated. Remarkably, itis found that the broad maxima of the distributions of luminosities anddiameters of spirals and the whole corresponding distributions oflenticulars tend to move to lower values as one goes to groups of highcompactness, whereas the luminosity-diameter relationship of spiralstends to become flatter. No color and axial ratio differences betweengalaxies of high- and low-compactness groups have been detected.

Catalogue of central velocity dispersions of galaxies
A total of 880 measurements of velocity dispersions for 546 galaxieshave been compiled. These data have been used to look for biasesintroduced by the observational techniques and reduction procedures. Twomain effects have been corrected for, due to the reference and the slitwidth. A catalog of homogeneous data has been compiled, where the rawdata are corrected for these effects.

Mass-to-light ratio of elliptical galaxies
Two virial formulas, which take into account the observed flattening,are established for oblate ellipticals obeying the r to the 1/4th powerlaw and used to derive the mean mass to light ratios in their centralpart. One of them, which requires the knowledge of only one kinematicalparameter, the central (stellar) velocity dispersion, is applied to 197ellipticals. The other one, which uses in addition the maximum stellarrotation velocity, is shown to be less sensitive to the unknown trueflattenings and to possible velocity anisotropies. It is applied to 30ellipticals. Both methods give a mean blue mass to luminosity ratio ofabout 13, without any clear correlation with the absolute luminosity ofthe galaxy.

A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:12h31m47.40s
Aparent dimensions:1.445′ × 0.794′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 4510

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR