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Scalar potential model of redshift and discrete redshift
On the galactic scale the universe is inhomogeneous and redshift z isoccasionally less than zero. A scalar potential model (SPM) that linksthe galaxy scale z to the cosmological scale z of the Hubble Law ispostulated. Several differences among galaxy types suggest that spiralgalaxies are Sources and that early type, lenticular, and irregulargalaxies are Sinks of a scalar potential field. The morphology-radiusand the intragalactic medium cluster observations support the movementof matter from Source galaxies to Sink galaxies. A cell structure ofgalaxy groups and clusters is proposed to resolve a paradox concerningthe scalar potential like the Olber’s paradox concerning light.For the sample galaxies, the ratio of the luminosity of Source galaxiesto the luminosity of Sink galaxies approaches 2.7 ± 0.1. Anequation is derived from sample data, which is anisotropic andinhomogeneous, relating z of and the distance D to galaxies. Thecalculated z has a correlation coefficient of 0.88 with the measured zfor a sample of 32 spiral galaxies with D calculated using Cepheidvariable stars. The equation is consistent with z < 0 observations ofclose galaxies. At low cosmological distances, the equation reduces to z≈ exp(KD)‑1 ≈ KD, where K is a constant, positive value. Theequation predicts z from galaxies over 18 Gpc distant approaches aconstant value on the order of 500. The SPM of z provides a physicalbasis for the z of particle photons. Further, the SPM qualitativelysuggests the discrete variations in z, which was reported by Tifft[Tifft, W.G., 1997. Astrophy. J. 485, 465] and confirmed by others, areconsistent with the SPM.

Cepheid Distances to SNe Ia Host Galaxies Based on a Revised Photometric Zero Point of the HST WFPC2 and New PL Relations and Metallicity Corrections
With this paper we continue the preparation for a forthcoming summaryreport of our experiment with the HST to determine the Hubble constantusing Type Ia supernovae as standard candles. Two problems areaddressed. (1) We examine the need for, and determine the value of, thecorrections to the apparent magnitudes of our program Cepheids in the 11previous calibration papers due to sensitivity drifts and chargetransfer effects of the HST WFPC2 camera over the life time of theexperiment from 1992 to 2001. (2) The corrected apparent magnitudes areapplied to all our previous photometric data from which revised distancemoduli are calculated for the eight program galaxies that are parents tothe calibrator Ia supernovae. Two different Cepheid P-L relations areused; one for the Galaxy and one for the LMC. These differ both in slopeand zero point at a fixed period. The procedures for determining theabsorption and reddening corrections for each Cepheid are discussed.Corrections for the effects of metallicity differences between theprogram galaxies and the two adopted P-L relations are derived andapplied. The distance moduli derived here for the eight supernovaeprogram galaxies, and for 29 others, average 0.20 mag fainter (moredistant) than those derived by Gibson et al. and Freedman et al. intheir 2000 and 2001 summary papers for reasons discussed in this paper.The effect on the Hubble constant is the subject of our forthcomingsummary paper.

Determination of the Hubble Constant, the Intrinsic Scatter of Luminosities of Type Ia Supernovae, and Evidence for Nonstandard Dust in Other Galaxies
A sample of 109 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with recession velocity<~30,000 km s-1 is compiled from published SN Ia lightcurves to explore the expansion rate of the local universe. Based on thecolor parameter ΔC12 and the decline rateΔm15, we found that the average absorption-to-reddeningratios for SN Ia host galaxies are RUBVI=4.37+/-0.25,3.33+/-0.11, 2.30+/-0.11, and 1.18+/-0.11, which are systematicallylower than the standard values in the Galaxy. We investigated thecorrelations of the intrinsic luminosity with light-curve decline rate,color index, and SN environmental parameters. In particular, we foundthat SNe Ia in E/S0 galaxies close to the central region are brighterthan those in the outer region, which may suggest a possible metallicityeffect on SN luminosity. The dependence of SN luminosity on galacticenvironment disappears after corrections for the extinction andΔC12. The Hubble diagrams constructed using 73 Hubbleflow SNe Ia yield a 1 σ scatter of <~0.12 mag in BVI bands and~0.16 mag in U band. The luminosity difference between normal SNe Ia andpeculiar objects (including SN 1991bg-like and SN 1991T-like events) hasnow been reduced to within 0.15 mag via ΔC12correction. We use the same precepts to correct the nearby SNe Ia withCepheid distances and found that the fully corrected absolute magnitudesof SNe Ia are MB=-19.33+/-0.06 andMV=-19.27+/-0.05. We deduced a value for the Hubble constantof H0=72+/-6 (total) km s-1 Mpc-1.

The structure of galactic disks. Studying late-type spiral galaxies using SDSS
Using imaging data from the SDSS survey, we present the g' and r' radialstellar light distribution of a complete sample of ~90 face-on tointermediate inclined, nearby, late-type (Sb-Sdm) spiral galaxies. Thesurface brightness profiles are reliable (1 σ uncertainty lessthan 0.2 mag) down to μ˜27 mag/''. Only ~10% of all galaxies havea normal/standard purely exponential disk down to our noise limit. Thesurface brightness distribution of the rest of the galaxies is betterdescribed as a broken exponential. About 60% of the galaxies have abreak in the exponential profile between ˜ 1.5-4.5 times thescalelength followed by a downbending, steeper outer region. Another~30% shows also a clear break between ˜ 4.0-6.0 times thescalelength but followed by an upbending, shallower outer region. A fewgalaxies have even a more complex surface brightness distribution. Theshape of the profiles correlates with Hubble type. Downbending breaksare more frequent in later Hubble types while the fraction of upbendingbreaks rises towards earlier types. No clear relation is found betweenthe environment, as characterised by the number of neighbours, and theshape of the profiles of the galaxies.

The extragalactic Cepheid bias: a new test using the period-luminosity-color relation
We use the Period-Luminosity-Color relation (PLC) for Cepheids to testfor the existence of a bias in extragalactic distances derived from theclassical Period-Luminosity (PL) relation. We calculate the parametersof the PLC using several galaxies observed with the Hubble SpaceTelescope and show that this calculation must be conducted with a PLCwritten in a form where the parameters are independent. The coefficientsthus obtained are similar to those derived from theoretical models.Calibrating with a few unbiased galaxies, we apply this PLC to allgalaxies of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Program (HSTKP) and comparethe distance moduli with those published by the HSTKP team. The newdistance moduli are larger (more exactly, the larger the distance thelarger the difference), consistent with a bias. Further, the bias trendthat is observed is the same previously obtained from two independentmethods based either on the local Hubble law or on a theoretical modelof the bias. The results are quite stable but when we force the PLCrelation closer to the classical PL relation by using unrealisticparameters, the agreement with HSTKP distance moduli is retrieved. Thisalso suggests that the PL relation leads to biased distance moduli. Thenew distance moduli reduce the scatter in the calibration of theabsolute magnitude of supernovae SNIa at their maximum. This may alsosuggest that the relation between the amplitude at maximum and the decayof the light curve Δ m15 may not be as strong asbelieved.

Reddening, Absorption, and Decline Rate Corrections for a Complete Sample of Type Ia Supernovae Leading to a Fully Corrected Hubble Diagram to v < 30,000 km s-1
Photometric (BVI) and redshift data corrected for streaming motions arecompiled for 111 ``Branch-normal,'' four 1991T-like, seven 1991bg-like,and two unusual supernovae of Type Ia (SNe Ia). Color excessesE(B-V)host of normal SNe Ia, due to the absorption of thehost galaxy, are derived by three independent methods, giving excellentagreement leading to the intrinsic colors at maximum of(B-V)00=-0.024+/-0.010 and (V-I)00=-0.265+/-0.016if normalized to a common decline rate of Δm15=1.1. Thestrong correlation between redshift absolute magnitudes (based on anarbitrary Hubble constant of H0=60 km s-1Mpc-1), corrected only for the extrinsic Galactic absorption,and the derived E(B-V)host color excesses leads to thewell-determined yet abnormal absorption-to-reddening ratios ofRBVI=3.65+/-0.16, 2.65+/-0.15, and 1.35+/-0.21.Comparison with the canonical Galactic values of 4.1, 3.1, and 1.8forces the conclusion that the law of interstellar absorption in thepath length to the SN in the host galaxy is different from the localGalactic law, a result consistent with earlier conclusions by others.Improved correlations of the fully corrected absolute magnitudes (on thesame arbitrary Hubble constant zero point) with host galaxymorphological type, decline rate, and intrinsic color are derived. Werecover the result that SNe Ia in E/S0 galaxies are ~0.3 mag fainterthan in spiral galaxies for possible reasons discussed in the text. Thenew decline rate corrections to absolute magnitudes are smaller thanthose by some authors for reasons explained in the text. The fourspectroscopically peculiar 1991T-type SNe are significantly overluminousas compared to Branch-normal SNe Ia. The overluminosity of the seven1999aa-like SNe is less pronounced. The seven 1991bg types in the sampleconstitute a separate class of SNe Ia, averaging in B 2 mag fainter thanthe normal Ia. New Hubble diagrams in B, V, and I are derived out to~30,000 km s-1 using the fully corrected magnitudes andvelocities, corrected for streaming motions. Nine solutions for theintercept magnitudes in these diagrams show extreme stability at the0.02 mag level using various subsamples of the data for both low andhigh extinctions in the sample, proving the validity of the correctionsfor host galaxy absorption. We shall use the same precepts for fullycorrecting SN magnitudes for the luminosity recalibration of SNe Ia inthe forthcoming final review of our Hubble Space Telescope Cepheid-SNexperiment for the Hubble constant.

The Opacity of Spiral Galaxy Disks. IV. Radial Extinction Profiles from Counts of Distant Galaxies Seen through Foreground Disks
Dust extinction can be determined from the number of distant fieldgalaxies seen through a spiral disk. To calibrate this number for thecrowding and confusion introduced by the foreground image,González et al. and Holwerda et al. developed the Synthetic FieldMethod (SFM), which analyzes synthetic fields constructed by addingvarious deep exposures of unobstructed background fields to thecandidate foreground galaxy field. The advantage of the SFM is that itgives the average opacity for the area of a galaxy disk without makingassumptions about either the distribution of absorbers or of the diskstarlight. However, it is limited by poor statistics on the survivingfield galaxies, hence the need to combine a larger sample of fields.This paper presents the first results for a sample of 32 deep HubbleSpace Telescope (HST)/WFPC2 archival fields of 29 spiral galaxies. Theradial profiles of average dust extinction in spiral galaxies based oncalibrated counts of distant field galaxies is presented here, both forindividual galaxies and for composites from our sample. The effects ofinclination, spiral arms, and Hubble type on the radial extinctionprofile are discussed. The dust opacity of the disk apparently arisesfrom two distinct components: an optically thicker (AI=0.5-4mag) but radially dependent component associated with the spiral armsand a relatively constant optically thinner disk (AI~0.5mag). These results are in complete agreement with earlier work onocculted galaxies. The early-type spiral disks in our sample show lessextinction than the later types. Low surface brightness galaxies, andpossibly Sd's, appear effectively transparent. The average color of thefield galaxies seen through foreground disks does not appear to changewith radius or opacity. This gray behavior is most likely due to thepatchy nature of opaque clouds. The average extinction of a radialannulus and its average surface brightness seem to correlate for thebrighter regions. This leads to the conclusion that the brighter partsof the spiral disk, such as spiral arms, are also the ones with the mostextinction associated with them.

The opacity of spiral galaxy disks. VI. Extinction, stellar light and color
In this paper we explore the relation between dust extinction andstellar light distribution in disks of spiral galaxies. Extinctioninfluences our dynamical and photometric perception of disks, since itcan distort our measurement of the contribution of the stellarcomponent. To characterize the total extinction by a foreground disk,González et al. (1998, ApJ, 506, 152) proposed the "SyntheticField Method" (SFM), which uses the calibrated number of distantgalaxies seen through the foreground disk as a direct indication ofextinction. The method is described in González et al. (1998,ApJ, 506, 152) and Holwerda et al. (2005a, AJ, 129, 1381). To obtaingood statistics, the method was applied to a set of HST/WFPC2 fields(Holwerda et al. 2005b, AJ, 129, 1396) and radial extinction profileswere derived, based on these counts. In the present paper, we explorethe relation of opacity with surface brightness or color from 2MASSimages, as well as the relation between the scalelengths for extinctionand light in the I band. We find that there is indeed a relation betweenthe opacity (AI) and the surface brightness, particularly atthe higher surface brightnesses. No strong relation between nearinfrared (H-J, H-K) color and opacity is found. The scalelengths of theextinction are uncertain for individual galaxies but seem to indicatethat the dust distribution is much more extended than the stellar light.The results from the distant galaxy counts are also compared to thereddening derived from the Cepheids light-curves (Freedman et al. 2001,ApJ, 553, 47). The extinction values are consistent, provided theselection effect against Cepheids with higher values of AI istaken into account. The implications from these relations for diskphotometry, M/L conversion and galaxy dynamical modeling are brieflydiscussed.

The opacity of spiral galaxy disks. V. Dust opacity, HI distributions and sub-mm emission
The opacity of spiral galaxy disks, from counts of distant galaxies, iscompared to HI column densities. The opacity measurements are calibratedusing the "Synthetic Field Method" from González et al. (1998,ApJ, 506, 152), Holwerda et al. (2005a, AJ, 129, 1381). When comparedfor individual disks, the HI column density and dust opacity do not seemto be correlated as HI and opacity follow different radial profiles. Toimprove statistics, an average radial opacity profile is compared to anaverage HI profile. Compared to dust-to-HI estimates from theliterature, more extinction is found in this profile. This differencemay be accounted for by an underestimate of the dust in earliermeasurements due to their dependence on dust temperature. Since the SFMis insensitive to the dust temperature, the ratio between the SFMopacity and HI could very well be indicative of the true ratio. Earlierclaims for a radially extended cold dust disk were based on sub-mmobservations. A comparison between sub-mm observations and counts ofdistant galaxies is therefore desirable. We present the best currentexample of such a comparison, M 51, for which the measurements seem toagree. However, this remains an area where improved counts of distantgalaxies, sub-mm observations and our understanding of dust emissivityare needed.

The extragalactic Cepheid bias: significant influence on the cosmic distance scale
The unique measurements with the Hubble Space Telescope of Cepheidvariable stars in nearby galaxies led to extragalactic distances thatmade the HST Key Project conclude that the Hubble constant isH0 = 72 km s-1 Mpc-1. The idea thatH0 is now known is widely spread among the astronomicalcommunity. Some time ago, we suggested that a strong selection effectmay still exist in the Cepheid method, resulting in too short distances.Using a model similar to traditional bias corrections, we deduce herenew estimates of distances from HST and previous ground-basedobservations which are both affected by this effect, showing the sametrend which starts at different distances. The recent measurement of M83 with the VLT is unbiased. Revisiting the calibration of HSTKP's withour new scale, makes long-range distance criteria more concordant andreduces the value of H0 to ≈60 km s-1Mpc-1. Locally, the corrected Cepheid distances giveHlocal=56 km s-1 Mpc-1 and reduce thevelocity dispersion in the Hubble flow. These numbers are indicative ofthe influence of the suggested Cepheid bias in the context of the HSTKPstudies and are not final values.

Completing H I observations of galaxies in the Virgo cluster
High sensitivity (rms noise ˜ 0.5 mJy) 21-cm H I line observationswere made of 33 galaxies in the Virgo cluster, using the refurbishedArecibo telescope, which resulted in the detection of 12 objects. Thesedata, combined with the measurements available from the literature,provide the first set of H I data that is complete for all 355 late-type(Sa-Im-BCD) galaxies in the Virgo cluster with mp ≤ 18.0mag. The Virgo cluster H I mass function (HIMF) that was derived forthis optically selected galaxy sample is in agreement with the HIMFderived for the Virgo cluster from the blind HIJASS H I survey and isinconsistent with the Field HIMF. This indicates that both in this richcluster and in the general field, neutral hydrogen is primarilyassociated with late-type galaxies, with marginal contributions fromearly-type galaxies and isolated H I clouds. The inconsistency betweenthe cluster and the field HIMF derives primarily from the difference inthe optical luminosity function of late-type galaxies in the twoenvironments, combined with the HI deficiency that is known to occur ingalaxies in rich clusters.Tables \ref{t1, \ref{sample_dat} and Appendix A are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Bar-induced perturbation strengths of the galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey - I
Bar-induced perturbation strengths are calculated for a well-definedmagnitude-limited sample of 180 spiral galaxies, based on the Ohio StateUniversity Bright Galaxy Survey. We use a gravitational torque method,the ratio of the maximal tangential force to the mean axisymmetricradial force, as a quantitative measure of the bar strength. Thegravitational potential is inferred from an H-band light distribution byassuming that the M/L ratio is constant throughout the disc. Galaxiesare deprojected using orientation parameters based on B-band images. Inorder to eliminate artificial stretching of the bulge, two-dimensionalbar-bulge-disc decomposition has been used to derive a reliable bulgemodel. This bulge model is subtracted from an image, the disc isdeprojected assuming it is thin, and then the bulge is added back byassuming that its mass distribution is spherically symmetric. We findthat removing the artificial bulge stretch is important especially forgalaxies having bars inside large bulges. We also find that the massesof the bulges can be significantly overestimated if bars are not takeninto account in the decomposition.Bars are identified using Fourier methods by requiring that the phasesof the main modes (m= 2, m= 4) are maintained nearly constant in the barregion. With such methods, bars are found in 65 per cent of the galaxiesin our sample, most of them being classified as SB-type systems in thenear-infrared by Eskridge and co-workers. We also suggest that as muchas ~70 per cent of the galaxies classified as SAB-types in thenear-infrared might actually be non-barred systems, many of them havingcentral ovals. It is also possible that a small fraction of the SAB-typegalaxies have weak non-classical bars with spiral-like morphologies.

Cepheid calibration of Type Ia supernovae and the Hubble constant
We investigate how a different calibration of the Cepheidperiod-luminosity (PL) relation, taking into account metallicitycorrections, affects the absolute magnitude calibration of Type Iasupernovae (SNe Ia) and, in turn, the determination of the Hubbleconstant H0. We use SN Ia light curves from the literatureand previously unpublished data to establish theMB-Δm15(B) relation, and calibrate the zeropoint by means of nine SNe Ia with Cepheid-measured distances. Thisrelation is then used to establish the Hubble diagram, and in turn toderive H0. In the attempt to correct for the host-galaxyextinction, we find that the data suggest a value for the total toselective absorption ratio of RB= 3.5, which is smaller thanthe standard value for our own Galaxy of RB= 4.315.Depending on the metallicity correction for the Cepheid PL relation, thevalue of RB, and SN sample selection criteria, the value ofthe Hubble constant H0 takes a value in the range 68-74 kms-1 Mpc-1, with associated uncertainties of theorder of 10 per cent.Unpublished photometry is also presented for 18 SNe of our sample(1991S, 1991T, 1992A, 1992K, 1993H, 1993L, 1994D, 1994M, 1994ae, 1995D,1995ac, 1995bd, 1996bo, 1997bp, 1997br, 1999aa, 1999dk, 2000cx). Thesedata are the results of a long-standing effort in supernova monitoringat ESO - La Silla and Asiago observatories.

The dispersion in the Cepheid period-luminosity relation and the consequences for the extragalactic distance scale
Using published Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cepheid data from 25galaxies, we have found a correlation between the dispersion in theCepheid period-luminosity (P-L) relation and host galaxy metallicity,which is significant at the ~3σ level in the V band. In the I bandthe correlation is less significant, although the tighter intrinsicdispersion of the P-L relation in I may make it harder to detect such acorrelation in the HST sample. One possibility is that low metallicitygalaxies have smaller metallicity gradients than high metallicitygalaxies; if the Cepheid P-L relation has a significant dependence onmetallicity then this might explain the higher P-L dispersion in thehigher metallicity galaxies. A second possibility is that the increasedP-L dispersion is driven by metallicity dispersion but now due to arelation between metallicity and Cepheid colour rather than luminosity.A third possibility is that the increased P-L dispersion is caused by anincrease in the width of the instability strip with metallicity.Whatever the explanation, the high observed dispersions in the HSTCepheid P-L relations have the important consequence that the bias dueto incompleteness in the P-L relation at faint magnitudes is moresignificant than previously thought. Using a maximum likelihoodtechnique which takes into account the effect on the P-L relations oftruncation by consistently defined magnitude completeness limits, werederive the Cepheid distances to the 25 galaxies. In the case of thegalaxies with the highest P-L dispersion at the largest distances, wefind that the published distance modulus underestimates the truedistance modulus by up to ~0.5 mag.When both metallicity and magnitude incompleteness corrections are made,a scale error in the published Cepheid distances is seen in the sensethat the published distance moduli are increasingly underestimated atlarger distances. This results in the average distance modulus to thefour galaxies in the Virgo cluster core increasing from(m-M)0= 31.2 +/- 0.19 to (m-M)0= 31.4 +/- 0.19 ifthe γVI=-0.24 mag dex-1 metallicitycorrection of Kennicutt et al. is assumed. For the 18 HST galaxies withgood Tully-Fisher (TF) distances and (m-M)0 > 29.5 theCepheid-TF distance modulus average residual increases from 0.44 +/-0.09 to 0.63 +/- 0.1 mag with γVI=-0.24. This indicatesa significant scale error in TF distances, which reduces the previousPierce & Tully TF estimate of H0= 85 +/- 10 kms-1 Mpc-1 to H0= 63 +/- 7 kms-1 Mpc-1, assuming γVI=-0.24 anda still uncertain Virgo infall model. Finally, for the eight HSTgalaxies with Type Ia supernovae (SNIa), the metallicity andincompleteness corrected Cepheid distances marginally suggest there maybe a metallicity dependence of SNIa peak luminosity in the sense thatmetal-poor hosts have lower luminosity SNIa. Thus, SNIa Hubble diagramestimates of both H0 and q0 may therefore alsorequire significant corrections for metallicity, once the exact sizes ofthe Cepheid metallicity corrections become better established.

Intracluster Planetary Nebulae in the Virgo Cluster. III. Luminosity of the Intracluster Light and Tests of the Spatial Distribution
Intracluster planetary nebulae are a useful tracer of the evolution ofgalaxies and galaxy clusters. We analyze our catalog of 318 intraclusterplanetary nebulae candidates found in 0.89 deg-2 of the VirgoCluster. We give additional evidence for the great depth of the VirgoCluster's intracluster stellar population, which implies that the bulkof the intracluster stars come from late-type galaxies and dwarfs. Wealso provide evidence that the intracluster stars are clustered on thesky on arcminute scales, in agreement with tidal-stripping scenarios ofintracluster star production. Although significant systematicuncertainties exist, we find that the average fraction of intraclusterstarlight in the Virgo Cluster is 15.8%+/-3.0%(statistical)+/-5.0%(systematic) and may be higher if the intracluster stars have a largespatial line-of-sight depth. We find that the intracluster star densitychanges little with radius or projected density over the range surveyed.These results, along with other intracluster star observations, implythat intracluster star production in Virgo is ongoing and consistentwith the cluster's known dynamical youth.

Classical Cepheids and the Distances of HST Program Galaxies
The distances of HST program galaxies are revised using the PL-relationswe have obtained previously along with a different method from thatemployed by Freedman et al. On the average, the resulting distances tothese galaxies have higher internal accuracies than those obtainedbefore by others. In addition, we have used no corrections formetallicity or for the incompleteness of the samples of classicalcepheids in deriving these distances. Despite this, our distance moduli,with a dispersion of ±0m.395, agree with those of Freedman et al.This indicates that these two effects have little or even no effect forthe samples of classical cepheids in the HST program galaxies.

Dynamical Effects of Interactions and the Tully-Fisher Relation for Hickson Compact Groups
We investigate the properties of the B-band Tully-Fisher (T-F) relationfor 25 compact group galaxies, using Vmax derived fromtwo-dimensional velocity maps. Our main result is that the majority ofthe Hickson Compact Group galaxies lie on the T-F relation. However,about 20% of the galaxies, including the lowest-mass systems, havehigher B luminosities for a given mass, or alternatively, a mass that istoo low for their luminosities. We favor a scenario in which outliershave been brightened because of either enhanced star formation ormerging. Alternatively, the T-F outliers may have undergone truncationof their dark halo due to interactions. It is possible that in somecases both effects contribute. The fact that the B-band T-F relation issimilar for compact group and field galaxies tells us that thesegalaxies show common mass-to-size relations and that the halos ofcompact group galaxies have not been significantly stripped insideR25. We find that 75% of the compact group galaxies studied(22 out of 29) have highly peculiar velocity fields. Nevertheless, acareful choice of inclination, position angle, and center, obtained fromthe velocity field, and an average of the velocities over a large sectorof the galaxy enabled the determination of fairly well-behaved rotationcurves for the galaxies. However, two of the compact group galaxies HCG91a and HCG 96a, which are the most massive members in M51-like pairs,have very asymmetric rotation curves, with one arm rising and the otherone falling, indicating most probably a recent perturbation by the smallclose companions.

Companions of Bright Barred Shapley-Ames Galaxies
Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barredgalaxies from the Shapley-Ames Catalog is presented. Among the spiralbarred galaxies, there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclearstructures, galaxies not associated with any large-scale galaxy cloudstructure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms), andgalaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubbletypes. The companion galaxy list includes the number of companiongalaxies within 20 diameters, their Hubble type, and projectedseparation distance. In addition, the companion environment was searchedfor four known active spiral galaxies, three of them are Seyfertgalaxies, namely, NGC 1068, NGC 1097, and NGC 5548, and one is astarburst galaxy, M82. Among the results obtained, it is noted that theonly spiral barred galaxy classified as Seyfert 1 in our list has nocompanions within a projected distance of 20 diameters; six out of 10Seyfert 2 bar galaxies have no companions within 10 diameters, six outof 10 Seyfert 2 galaxies have one or more companions at projectedseparation distances between 10 and 20 diameters; six out of 12 galaxieswith circumnuclear structures have two or more companions within 20diameters.

The extra-galactic Cepheid distance scale from LMC and Galactic period-luminosity relations
In this paper, we recalibrate the Cepheid distance to some nearbygalaxies observed by the HST Key Project and the Sandage-Tammann-Sahagroup. We use much of the Key Project methodology in our analysis butapply new techniques, based on Fourier methods to estimate the mean of asparsely sampled Cepheid light curve, to published extra-galacticCepheid data. We also apply different calibrating PL relations toestimate Cepheid distances, and investigate the sensitivity of thedistance moduli to the adopted calibrating PL relation. We re-determinethe OGLE LMC PL relations using a more conservative approach and alsostudy the effect of using Galactic PL relations on the distance scale.For the Key Project galaxies after accounting for charge transfereffects, we find good agreement with an average discrepancy of -0.002and 0.075 mag when using the LMC and Galaxy, respectively, as acalibrating PL relation. For NGC 4258 which has a geometric distance of29.28 mag, we find a distance modulus of 29.44+/-0.06(random) mag, aftercorrecting for metallicity. In addition we have calculated the Cepheiddistance to 8 galaxies observed by the Sandage-Tammann-Saha group andfind shorter distance moduli by -0.178 mag (mainly due to the use ofdifferent LMC PL relations) and -0.108 mag on average again when usingthe LMC and Galaxy, respectively, as a calibrating PL relation. Howevercare must be taken to extrapolate these changed distances to changes inthe resulting values of the Hubble constant because STS also usedistances to NGC 3368 and 4414 and because STS calibration of SN Ia isoften decoupled from the distance to the host galaxy through their useof differential extinction arguments. We also calculate the distance toall these galaxies using PL relations at maximum light and find verygood agreement with mean light PL distances.However, after correcting for metallicity effects, the differencebetween the distance moduli obtained using the two sets of calibratingPL relations becomes negligible. This suggests that Cepheids in the LMCand Galaxy do follow different PL relations and constrains the sign forthe coefficient of the metallicity correction, gamma , to be negative,at least at the median period log (P) ~ 1.4, of the target galaxies.Full Table 1 is available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/411/361

Molecular gas in the central regions of the latest-type spiral galaxies
Using the IRAM 30 >m telescope, we have surveyed an unbiased sampleof 47 nearby spiral galaxies of very late (Scd-Sm) Hubble-type foremission in the 12CO(1-0) and (2-1) lines. The sensitivity ofour data (a few mK) allows detection of about 60% of our sample in atleast one of the CO lines. The median detected H2 mass is1.4x 107 >msun within the central few kpc, assuming astandard conversion factor. We use the measured line intensities tocomplement existing studies of the molecular gas content of spiralgalaxies as a function of Hubble-type and to significantly improve thestatistical significance of such studies at the late end of the spiralsequence. We find that the latest-type spirals closely follow thecorrelation between molecular gas content and galaxy luminosityestablished for earlier Hubble types. The molecular gas in late-typegalaxies seems to be less centrally concentrated than in earlier types.We use Hubble Space Telescope optical images to correlate the moleculargas mass to the properties of the central galaxy disk and the compactstar cluster that occupies the nucleus of most late-type spirals. Thereis no clear correlation between the luminosity of the nuclear starcluster and the molecular gas mass, although the CO detection rate ishighest for the brightest clusters. It appears that the central surfacebrightness of the stellar disk is an important parameter for the amountof molecular gas at the galaxy center. Whether stellar bars play acritical role for the gas dynamics remains unclear, in part because ofuncertainties in the morphological classifications of our sample.

1.65-μm (H -band) surface photometry of galaxies - VIII. The near-IR κ space at z =0
We present the distribution of a statistical sample of nearby galaxiesin the κ -space (κ 1 ~logM , κ 2~logI e 3 M /L , κ 3 ~logM /L ).Our study is based on near-IR (H -band: λ =1.65μm)observations, for the first time comprising early- and late-typesystems. Our data confirm that the mean effective dynamicalmass-to-light ratio M /L of the E+S0+S0a galaxies increases withincreasing effective dynamical mass M , as expected from the existenceof the Fundamental Plane relation. Conversely, spiral and Im/BCDgalaxies show a broad distribution in M /L with no detected trend of M/L with M , the former galaxies having M /L values about twice largerthan the latter, on average. For all the late-type galaxies, the M /Lincreases with decreasing effective surface intensity I e ,consistent with the existence of the Tully-Fisher relation. Theseresults are discussed on the basis of the assumptions behind theconstruction of the κ -space and their limitations. Our study iscomplementary to a previous investigation in the optical (B -band:λ =0.44μm) and allows us to study wavelength dependences ofthe galaxy distribution in the κ -space. As a first result, wefind that the galaxy distribution in the κ 1 -κ2 plane reproduces the transition from bulgeless tobulge-dominated systems in galaxies of increasing dynamical mass.Conversely, it appears that the M /L of late-types is higher (lower)than that of early-types with the same M in the near-IR (optical). Theorigins of this behaviour are discussed in terms of dust attenuation andstar formation history.

Theoretical Models for Classical Cepheids. VIII. Effects of Helium and Heavy-Element Abundance on the Cepheid Distance Scale
Previous nonlinear fundamental pulsation models for classical Cepheidswith metal content Z<=0.02 are implemented with new computations atsupersolar metallicity (Z=0.03, 0.04) and selected choices of thehelium-to-metal enrichment ratio ΔY/ΔZ. On this basis, weshow that the location into the H-R diagram of the Cepheid instabilitystrip is dependent on both metal and helium abundance, moving towardhigher effective temperatures with decreasing metal content (at fixed Y)or with increasing helium content (at fixed Z). The contributions ofhelium and metals to the predicted period-luminosity andperiod-luminosity-color relations are discussed as well as theimplications on the Cepheid distance scale. We suggest that the adoptionof empirical V and I period-luminosity relations, as inferred byCepheids at the LMC, to get distance moduli with an uncertainty of+/-0.10 mag is fully justified for variables in the short-period range(P<=10 days), at least with Z<=0.04 and ΔY/ΔZ in therange of 2-4. Conversely, at longer periods (P>10 days) a correctionto LMC-based distance moduli may be needed, whose sign and amount dependon the helium and metal content of the Cepheids. Specifically, fromfundamental pulsators with Z>0.008 we derive that the correction (inmagnitude) may be approximated as c=-6.03+17.80Y-2.80logZ+8.19YlogZ,with a total intrinsic uncertainty of +/-0.05 mag, whereasc=-0.23(+/-0.03)log(Z/0.008) if Z<0.008. Based on these new results,we show that the empirical metallicity correction suggested by Cepheidobservations in two fields of the galaxy M101 may be accounted for,provided that the adopted helium-to-metal enrichment ratio is reasonablyhigh (ΔY/ΔZ~3.5).

Arguments for a Hubble Constant near H0=55
Recent analyses of Cepheid distances to spiral galaxies have led to theannouncement of a Hubble constant of H0=72+/-8 kms-1 Mpc-1. The new Cepheid distances, however,show that there are numerous redshift distances with large excesses thatcannot be due to peculiar velocities. Ignoring these discordantredshifts, if the Hubble constant is calibrated with Cepheid distancesof low-redshift spirals, then a value near H0=55 is obtained.Use of independent distance criteria such as Tully-Fisher and groupmembership verifies this value and leads to three conclusions: (1) thepeculiar velocities of galaxies in space are characteristically small;(2) Sc companions to normal Sb galaxies tend to be less luminous, withyounger stellar populations and small amounts of nonvelocity redshift;and (3) ScI and other purportedly overluminous spiral galaxies havelarge amounts of intrinsic redshift.

The Three-dimensional Structure of the Virgo Cluster Region from Tully-Fisher and H I Data
The distances and H I contents of 161 spiral galaxies in the region ofthe Virgo cluster are used to gain insight into the complicatedstructure of this galaxy system. Special attention has been paid to theinvestigation of the suggestion presented in an earlier work that someperipheral Virgo groups may contain strongly gas-deficient spiralgalaxies. The three-dimensional galaxy distribution has been inferredfrom quality distance estimates obtained by averaging distance modulibased on the Tully-Fisher relationship taken from eight published datasets previously homogenized, resulting in a relation with a dispersionof 0.41 mag. Previous findings that the spiral distribution issubstantially more elongated along the line of sight than in the planeof the sky are confirmed by the current data. In addition, an importanteast-west disparity in this effect has been detected. The overallwidth-to-depth ratio of the Virgo cluster region is about 1:4, with themost distant objects concentrated in the western half. The filamentarystructure of the spiral population and its orientation are alsoreflected by the H I-deficient objects alone. The H I deficiency patternshows a central enhancement extending from ~16 to 22 Mpc inline-of-sight distance; most of this enhancement arises from galaxiesthat belong to the Virgo cluster proper. However, significant gasdeficiencies are also detected outside the main body of the cluster in aprobable group of galaxies at line-of-sight distances ~25-30 Mpc, lyingin the region dominated by the southern edge of the M49 subcluster andclouds W' and W, as well as in various foreground galaxies. In the Virgoregion, the H I content of the galaxies then is not a straightforwardindicator of cluster membership.

Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

A Hubble Space Telescope Census of Nuclear Star Clusters in Late-Type Spiral Galaxies. I. Observations and Image Analysis
We present new Hubble Space Telescope I-band images of a sample of 77nearby late-type spiral galaxies with low inclination. The main purposeof this catalog is to study the frequency and properties of nuclear starclusters. In 59 galaxies of our sample, we have identified a distinct,compact (but resolved), and dominant source at or very close to thephotocenter. In many cases, these clusters are the only prominent sourcewithin a few kiloparsecs from the galaxy nucleus. We present surfacebrightness profiles, derived from elliptical isophote fits, of allgalaxies for which the fit was successful. We use the fitted isophotesat radii larger than 2" to check whether the location of the clustercoincides with the photocenter of the galaxy and confirm that in nearlyall cases, we are truly dealing with ``nuclear'' star clusters. Fromanalytical fits to the surface brightness profiles, we derive thecluster luminosities after subtraction of the light contribution fromthe underlying galaxy disk and/or bulge. Based on observations made withthe NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space TelescopeScience Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universitiesfor Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Theseobservations are associated with proposal 8599.

Hα surface photometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. IV. The current star formation in nearby clusters of galaxies
Hα +[NII] imaging observations of 369 late-type (spiral) galaxiesin the Virgo cluster and in the Coma/A1367 supercluster are analyzed,covering 3 rich nearby clusters (A1367, Coma and Virgo) and nearlyisolated galaxies in the Great-Wall. They constitute an opticallyselected sample (mp<16.0) observed with ~ 60 %completeness. These observations provide us with the current(T<107 yrs) star formation properties of galaxies that westudy as a function of the clustercentric projected distances (Theta ).The expected decrease of the star formation rate (SFR), as traced by theHα EW, with decreasing Theta is found only when galaxies brighterthan Mp ~ -19.5 are considered. Fainter objects show no orreverse trends. We also include in our analysis Near Infrared data,providing information on the old (T>109 yrs) stars. Puttogether, the young and the old stellar indicators give the ratio ofcurrently formed stars over the stars formed in the past, or``birthrate'' parameter b. For the considered galaxies we also determinethe ``global gas content'' combining HI with CO observations. We definethe ``gas deficiency'' parameter as the logarithmic difference betweenthe gas content of isolated galaxies of a given Hubble type and themeasured gas content. For the isolated objects we find that b decreaseswith increasing NIR luminosity. In other words less massive galaxies arecurrently forming stars at a higher rate than their giant counterpartswhich experienced most of their star formation activity at earliercosmological epochs. The gas-deficient objects, primarily members of theVirgo cluster, have a birthrate significantly lower than the isolatedobjects with normal gas content and of similar NIR luminosity. Thisindicates that the current star formation is regulated by the gaseouscontent of spirals. Whatever mechanism (most plausibly ram-pressurestripping) is responsible for the pattern of gas deficiency observed inspiral galaxies members of rich clusters, it also produces the observedquenching of the current star formation. A significant fraction of gas``healthy'' (i.e. with a gas deficiency parameter less than 0.4) andcurrently star forming galaxies is unexpectedly found projected near thecenter of the Virgo cluster. Their average Tully-Fisher distance isfound approximately one magnitude further away (muo = 31.77)than the distance of their gas-deficient counterparts (muo =30.85), suggesting that the gas healthy objects belong to a cloudprojected onto the cluster center, but in fact lying a few Mpc behindVirgo, thus unaffected by the dense IGM of the cluster. Based onobservations taken at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional(Mexico), the OHP (France), Calar Alto and NOT (Spain) observatories.Table \ref{tab4} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Rotation curves and metallicity gradients from HII regions in spiral galaxies
In this paper we study long slit spectra in the region of Hαemission line of a sample of 111 spiral galaxies with recognizable andwell defined spiral morphology and with a well determined environmentalstatus, ranging from isolation to non-disruptive interaction withsatellites or companions. The form and properties of the rotation curvesare considered as a function of the isolation degree, morphological typeand luminosity. The line ratios are used to estimate the metallicity ofall the detected HII regions, thus producing a composite metallicityprofile for different types of spirals. We have found that isolatedgalaxies tend to be of later types and lower luminosity than theinteracting galaxies. The outer parts of the rotation curves of isolatedgalaxies tend to be flatter than in interacting galaxies, but they showsimilar relations between global parameters. The scatter of theTully-Fisher relation defined by isolated galaxies is significantlylower than that of interacting galaxies. The [NII]/Hα ratios, usedas a metallicity indicator, show a clear trend between Z andmorphological type, t, with earlier spirals showing higher ratios; thistrend is tighter when instead of t the gradient of the inner rotationcurve, G, is used; no trend is found with the change in interactionstatus. The Z-gradient of the disks depends on the type, being almostflat for early spirals, and increasing for later types. The[NII]/Hα ratios measured for disk HII regions of interactinggalaxies are higher than for normal/isolated objects, even if all thegalaxy families present similar distributions of Hα EquivalentWidth. Tables 3 and 4 and Figs. 6, 7 and 21 are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org. Table 5 is only availablein electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/389 Based on dataobtained Asiago/Ekar Observatory. Also based on observations made withINT operated on the island of La Palma by ING in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto deAstrofísica de Canarias.

Local velocity field from sosie galaxies. I. The Peebles' model
Pratton et al. (1997) showed that the velocity field around clusterscould generate an apparent distortion that appears as tangentialstructures or radial filaments. In the present paper we determine theparameters of the Peebles' model (1976) describing infall of galaxiesonto clusters with the aim of testing quantitatively the amplitude ofthis distortion. The distances are determined from the concept of sosiegalaxies (Paturel 1984) using 21 calibrators for which the distanceswere recently calculated from two independent Cepheid calibrations. Weuse both B and I-band magnitudes. The Spaenhauer diagram method is usedto correct for the Malmquist bias. We give the equations for theconstruction of this diagram. We analyze the apparent Hubble constant indifferent regions around Virgo and obtain simultaneously the Local Groupinfall and the unperturbed Hubble constant. We found:[VLG-infall = 208 ± 9 km s-1] [\log H =1.82 ± 0.04 (H ≈ 66 ± 6 km s-1Mpc-1).] The front side and backside infalls can be seenaround Virgo and Fornax. In the direction of Virgo the comparison ismade with the Peebles' model. We obtain: [vinfall} =CVirgo/r0.9 ± 0.2] withCVirgo=2800 for Virgo and CFornax=1350 for Fornax,with the adopted units (km s-1 and Mpc). We obtain thefollowing mean distance moduli: [μVirgo=31.3 ± 0.2(r=18 Mpc )] [μFornax=31.7 ± 0.3 (r=22 Mpc). ] Allthese quantities form an accurate and coherent system. Full Table 2 isonly available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/57

Calibration of the distance scale from galactic Cepheids. II. Use of the HIPPARCOS calibration
New estimates of the distances of 36 nearby galaxies is presented. Theseare based on the calibration of the V- and I-band Period-Luminosityrelations for galactic Cepheids measured by the HIPPARCOS mission. Thedistance moduli are obtained in a classical way. The statistical biasdue to the incompleteness of the sample is corrected according to theprecepts introduced by Teerikorpi (\cite{Tee87}). We adopt a constantslope (the one obtained with LMC Cepheids). The correction forincompleteness bias introduces an uncertainty that depends on eachgalaxy. On average, this uncertainty is small (0.04 mag) but it mayreach 0.3 mag. We show that the uncertainty due to the correction of theextinction is small (propably less than 0.05 mag). The correlationbetween the metallicity and the morphological type of the host galaxysuggests that we should reduce the application to spiral galaxies inorder to bypass the problem of metallicity. We suspect that the adoptedPL slopes are not valid for all morphological types of galaxies. Thismay induce a mean systematic shift of 0.1 mag on distance moduli. Acomparison with the distance moduli recently published by Freedman etal. (\cite{Fre01}) shows there is a reasonably good agreement with ourdistance moduli. The compilation of raw data is only available inelectronic form at CDS via anonymous ftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/389/19 and on ouranonymous ftp-server www-obs.univ-lyon1.fr (pub/base/CEPHEIDES.tar.gz).

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Aparent dimensions:3.548′ × 2.818′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 4496A
J/AJ/90/1681VCC 1375

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