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A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

Compact groups in the UZC galaxy sample
Applying an automatic neighbour search algorithm to the 3D UZC galaxycatalogue (Falco et al. \cite{Falco}) we have identified 291 compactgroups (CGs) with radial velocity between 1000 and 10 000 kms-1. The sample is analysed to investigate whether Tripletsdisplay kinematical and morphological characteristics similar to higherorder CGs (Multiplets). It is found that Triplets constitute lowvelocity dispersion structures, have a gas-rich galaxy population andare typically retrieved in sparse environments. Conversely Multipletsshow higher velocity dispersion, include few gas-rich members and aregenerally embedded structures. Evidence hence emerges indicating thatTriplets and Multiplets, though sharing a common scale, correspond todifferent galaxy systems. Triplets are typically field structures whilstMultiplets are mainly subclumps (either temporarily projected orcollapsing) within larger structures. Simulations show that selectioneffects can only partially account for differences, but significantcontamination of Triplets by field galaxy interlopers could eventuallyinduce the observed dependences on multiplicity. Tables 1 and 2 are onlyavailable in electronic at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/391/35

Total Magnitudes of Virgo Galaxies. I. Construction of a Self-Consistent Reference Dataset Spanning 8th to 18th Magnitude
The main objectives of this series of papers are: (1) to demonstrate theexistence of serious mutual disagreements between established total (andother integrated) magnitude scales for Virgo galaxies; (2) to attempt toquantify both the systematic and random errors present within thesemagnitude scales; (3) to investigate the origins of any large erroruncovered; and thereby (4) to encourage the general adoption of rigoroustotal-magnitude measurement procedures by the astronomical community.The ramifications of the findings presented in this series of paperswill be discussed in detail at a later date. In this paper, the first inthe series, a self-consistent dataset of trustworthy total-magnitudemeasurements is compiled for a sample of Virgo galaxies spanning a rangeof 10 000 in apparent brightness, based on only the most reliablemeasurements and photometry currently available. This reference dataset,which includes luminosity profile shape information, will be used insubsequent papers as one of the bases for assessing existing magnitudescales for Virgo galaxies. As most published magnitudes are based onB-band observations, this series of papers will also focus primarily onB-band measurements.

2D modelling of the light distribution of early-type galaxies in a volume-limited sample - II. Results for real galaxies
In this paper we analyse the results of the two-dimensional (2D) fit ofthe light distribution of 73 early-type galaxies belonging to the Virgoand Fornax clusters, a sample volume- and magnitude-limited down toMB=-17.3, and highly homogeneous. In our previous paper(Paper I) we have presented the adopted 2D models of thesurface-brightness distribution - namely the r1/n and(r1/n+exp) models - we have discussed the main sources oferror affecting the structural parameters, and we have tested theability of the chosen minimization algorithm (MINUIT) in determining thefitting parameters using a sample of artificial galaxies. We show that,with the exception of 11 low-luminosity E galaxies, the best fit of thereal galaxy sample is always achieved with the two-component(r1/n+exp) model. The improvement in the χ2due to the addition of the exponential component is found to bestatistically significant. The best fit is obtained with the exponent nof the generalized r1/n Sersic law different from theclassical de Vaucouleurs value of 4. Nearly 42 per cent of the samplehave n<2, suggesting the presence of exponential `bulges' also inearly-type galaxies. 20 luminous E galaxies are fitted by thetwo-component model, with a small central exponential structure (`disc')and an outer big spheroid with n>4. We believe that this is probablydue to their resolved core. The resulting scalelengths Rh andRe of each component peak approximately at ~1 and ~2kpc,respectively, although with different variances in their distributions.The ratio Re/Rh peaks at ~0.5, a value typical fornormal lenticular galaxies. The first component, represented by ther1/n law, is probably made of two distinct families,`ordinary' and `bright', on the basis of their distribution in theμe-log(Re) plane, a result already suggested byCapaccioli, Caon and D'Onofrio. The bulges of spirals and S0 galaxiesbelong to the `ordinary' family, while the large spheroids of luminous Egalaxies form the `bright' family. The second component, represented bythe exponential law, also shows a wide distribution in theμ0c-log(Rh) plane. Small discs (orcores) have short scalelengths and high central surface brightness,while normal lenticulars and spiral galaxies generally have scalelengthshigher than 0.5kpc and central surface brightness brighter than20magarcsec-2 (in the B band). The scalelengths Reand Rh of the `bulge' and `disc' components are probablycorrelated, indicating that a self-regulating mechanism of galaxyformation may be at work. Alternatively, two regions of theRe-Rh plane are avoided by galaxies due todynamical instability effects. The bulge-to-disc (B/D) ratio seems tovary uniformly along the Hubble sequence, going from late-type spiralsto E galaxies. At the end of the sequence the ratio between the largespheroidal component and the small inner core can reach B/D~100.

Line-of-sight velocity distributions of low-luminosity elliptical galaxies
The shape of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) is measuredfor a sample of 14 elliptical galaxies, predominantly low-luminosityellipticals. The sample is dominated by galaxies in the Virgo clusterbut also contains ellipticals in nearby groups and low-densityenvironments. The parametrization of the LOSVD given by Gerhard and vander Marel & Franx is adopted, which measures the asymmetrical andsymmetrical deviations of the LOSVD from a Gaussian by the amplitudesh3 and h4 of the Gauss-Hermite series. Rotation,velocity dispersion, h3 and h4 are determined as afunction of radius for both major and minor axes. Non-Gaussian LOSVDsare found for all galaxies along the major axes. Deviations from aGaussian LOSVD along the minor axis are of much lower amplitude ifpresent at all. Central decreases in velocity dispersion are found forthree galaxies. Two galaxies have kinematically decoupled cores: NGC4458and the well-known case of NGC3608.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

On the local radio luminosity function of galaxies. I. The Virgo cluster
We cross-correlate the galaxies brighter than m_B=18 in the Virgocluster with the radio sources in the NVSS survey (1.4 GHz), resultingin 180 radio-optical identifications. We determine the radio luminosityfunction of the Virgo galaxies, separately for the early- andlate-types. Late-type galaxies develop radio sources with a probabilityproportional to their optical luminosity. In fact their radio/optical(R_B) distribution is gaussian, centered at log R_B ~ -0.5, i.e. theradio luminosity is ~ 0.3 of the optical one. The probability oflate-type galaxies to develop radio sources is almost independent oftheir detailed Hubble type, except for Sa (and S0+S0a) which are afactor of ~ 5 less frequent than later types at any R_B. Giantelliptical galaxies feed ``monster" radio sources with a probabilitystrongly increasing with mass. However the frequency of fainter radiosources is progressively less sensitive on the system mass. The faintestgiant E galaxies (M_B=-17) have a probability of feeding low power radiosources similar to that of dwarf E galaxies as faint as M_B=-13. Table~1is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Morphological segregation of early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster
We present evidence for a morphological segregation of early-typegalaxies with different isophote shapes in the Virgo cluster. Comparinglocal projected densities around galaxies, we find that, independentlyof their classification as elliptical or lenticular, galaxies with boxyisophotes are located in local density enhancements, while galaxies withdiscy isophotes lie in regions of lower local densities. Thissegregation is therefore not just the reflection of ordinarymorphological segregation between elliptical and lenticular galaxies,and it shows that the property of galaxies that is more sensitive to theenvironment is the presence or not of a stellar disc, rather than thebulge-to-disco ratio (and therefore the classification as an E or an S0galaxy).

The UV properties of normal galaxies. III. Standard luminosity profiles and total magnitudes.
In the previous papers of this series we collected and reduced to thesame system all the available photometric data obtained in theultraviolet (UV) range for normal (i.e. non active) galaxies. Here weuse these data to derive standard UV luminosity profiles for threemorphological bins (E/S0; Sa/Sb; Sc/Sd) and extrapolated totalmagnitudes for almost 400 galaxies. We find that: 1) the UV growthcurves are well matched by the B-band revised standard luminosityprofiles, once a proper shift in the effective radius is applied, and 2)the UV light in early-type galaxies is more centrally concentrated thanthe visible light.

The UV properties of normal galaxies. II. The ``non-IUE'' data.
In the last decade several satellite and balloon borne experiments havecollected a large number of ultraviolet fluxes of normal galaxiesmeasured through apertures of various sizes and shapes. We havehomogenized this data set by deriving scale corrections with respect toIUE. In a forthcoming paper these data will be used to derive standardluminosity profiles and total magnitudes.

'Global mapping' B-band photometry of a complete sample of Fornax and Virgo early-type galaxies
We present the B-band surface photometry of 19 early-type galaxies ofthe Virgo cluster, and of 28 galaxies of the same morphological typebelonging to the Fornax clusters, obtained through the `global mapping'technique which couples CCD and photographic plates. Taking into account33 galaxies already studied by Caon et al. (1990) with the samemethodology, the Virgo sample of early-type galaxies is now 80% completedown to B_T_=14. The Fornax sample is 95% complete down to B_T_=15. Thegeometric and photometric properties of the total sample of 80 galaxiesare derived measuring accurate light profiles, ellipticities, positionangles and Fourier coefficients of the isophotes. The main sources oferrors of the `global mapping' procedure are reviewed and the effects ofseeing discussed. Global galaxian parameters such as total luminosity,effective radius, and effective surface brightness, are computed for thewhole sample in a homogeneous way. Our goal is to create an unbiased setof data to be used for investigating the process of galaxy formation andevolution.

On the Shape of the Light Profiles of Early Type Galaxies
We have obtained the best fit to the light profiles of a luminosity-limited sample of elliptical and S0 galaxies with a power law r^1/n^,letting the exponent remain free rather than keeping it fixed at 1/n =1/4 as in the well-known de Vaucouleurs formula. The introduction of afree parameter in the fitting formula (ranging from n = 0.5 for (r_e_) =0.3 kpc to n = 16 for (r_e_) = 25 kpc) is justified by the existence ofa good correlation between n and the global galaxian parameters, such astotal luminosity and scale-radius. This result seems to be in line withthe segregation of properties between the `ordinary' and `bright'families of early-type galaxies, and has consequences for the claimedindependence of the shape of galaxy profiles with respect to theFundamental Plane parameters.

A revised catalog of CfA1 galaxy groups in the Virgo/Great Attractor flow field
A new identification of groups and clusters in the CfA1 Catalog ofHuchra et al. is presented, using a percolation algorithm to identifydensity enhancements. It is shown that in the resulting catalog,contamination by interlopers is significantly reduced. The Schechterluminosity function is redetermined, including the Malmquist bias.

The kinematics of dense clusters of galaxies. I - The data
We have measured redshifts in the fields of the 31 R greater than 1Abell clusters with z of 0.02-0.05 and absolute b exp II above 30 deg.At least ten of the fields are severely contaminated by superimposedvelocity peaks. We derive the mean velocities and velocity dispersionsof the 25 dense peaks in the sample. The abundance of peaks, 6.6 x 10exp -6 h-cubed Mpc exp -3, is consistent with the mean number density ofR above 1 Abell clusters. The range of velocity dispersions is 304-1346km/s. The median dispersion is 718 km/s. The subset of eight systemswith cD galaxies has a median velocity dispersion of 792 km/s, close tothat of non-cD systems (626 km/s). When these data are combined with 16cD cluster velocity dispersions from our previous study (Zabludoff etal., 1990, or ZHG) and Dunn (1991), eight of 25 cD galaxies havepeculiar motions larger than half the cluster velocity dispersions.These findings further support the conclusions of Beers and Geller(1983), ZHG, and Dunn (1991), who argue that cD galaxies do not lie inthe global kinematic center, but in local potential minima. If so,systems with speeding cD's are probably a guide to substructure indynamically evolving systems.

Optical warp in galaxies. I - Warp in elliptical galaxies
A sample of data comprising published isophotic data from ellipticalgalaxies is examined to detect and describe optical warp. The data byWatanabe (1983) are investigated by relating defined warp areas to thetotal area of the isophotae, and eight warped ellipticals are identifiedfrom a sample of 11 galaxies. The present results confirm the existenceof warping in a majority of ellipticals and make a case for theassumption of the phenomenon's universality.

The manifold of early-type galaxies from IR photometry in clusters of galaxies - The Virgo cluster
Galaxies of all morphological types members of the Virgo cluster arestudied using accurate near infrared JHK photometry. Color magnitude(J-H), (H-K), (J-K), and (V-K) vs. KT diagrams areestablished for the galaxies with measured diameters. The (J-K) and(V-K) vs. KT show a color-luminosity relationship. TheL-sigma and L-sigma-Ie relationships are investigated for IR wavelengthsand compared with similar relationships in other bands. It is found thatthe L varies as sigma exp n relationship presents systematic slopevariations that depend on the wavelength of the photometric bandpassfrom which n is inferred, the power n increasing toward longerwavelengths. The relationship for the Virgo galaxies with log sigmagreater than 2.0 shows a significantly smaller value of the velocitydispersion exponent for both the optical and IR bands, as compared withthe corresponding values found in Coma.

Vacuum ultraviolet imagery of the Virgo Cluster region. II - Total far-ultraviolet flux of galaxies
The total flux in the far-ultraviolet region around 150 nm was measuredfor more than 40 galaxies in the central region of the Virgo Cluster,using two imaging telescopes on board a sounding rocket. The observedfar-ultraviolet flux shows positive correlations with the H I 21 cm fluxand the far-infrared flux for spiral galaxies, and with the X-ray fluxand the radio continuum flux for elliptical galaxies. The formercorrelations of spiral galaxies are interpreted in terms of starformation activity, which indicates substantial depletion in the Virgogalaxies in accordance with the H I stripping. The latter correlationsof elliptical galaxies indicate possible far-ultraviolet sources ofyoung population, in addition to evolved hot stars. Far-ultravioletfluxes from two dwarf elliptical galaxies were obtained tentatively,indicating star formation activity in elliptical galaxies. Ahigh-resolution UV imagery by HST would be effective to distinguish theyoung population and the old population in elliptical galaxies.

On the relationship between radio emission and optical properties in early-type galaxies
To study the origin of radio activity in early-type galaxies, thepossible dependence of their radio emission on basic optical parameters,such as the absolute magnitude, the central velocity dispersion sigma,and the mean surface brightness mu is explored. A sample of 743 E and SOgalaxies is used which is based on three independent radio surveys ofoptically selected galaxies with virtually complete information onmagnitudes, morphological types, redshift distances, diameters, andradio fluxes. For both E and SO galaxies, only the absolute magnitudeappears to be directly related to the radio activity, while sigma and mudo not. Also, a significant dependence of the apparent flattening onradio power is confirmed for E galaxies. Some relevant implications ofthese results are discussed.

A search for features in early-type galaxies
Using data from the CCD surface-photometry survey of Djorgovski (1985),images of 159 galaxies were examined for the presence of dust lanes,incipient stellar disks, bars, shells, and other features that signifydeviations from elliptical symmetry. The sample contained 116 ellipticalgalaxies, 33 SO galaxies and 10 intermediate galaxies. It was found thatforty-two of the ellipticals either definitely or very likely containdust, either in patches or in well-defined lanes or rings. Five of theE/SO galaxies also show possible or definite dust, as do 15 of the SOs.Three of the elliptical galaxies definitely contain stellar disks, withseveral more possible candidates. The presence of these features inalmost half of the elliptical galaxies studied demonstrates thatelliptical galaxies are not the featureless objects they were oncethought to be. Moreover, the finding of weak stellar disks in some ofthem further blurs the distinction between ellipticals and SOs.

A VLA 20 CM survey of poor groups of galaxies
The paper reports on VLA 20 cm observations of an extensive sample ofgalaxies in 139 poor groups. These groups, composed of galaxies down tothe limit of the Zwicky et al. (CGCG) catalog, were chosen using apercolation algorithm set at a high surface-density threshold.Approximately 50 percent of the groups have measured redshifts. Thesegroups were surveyed using a 'snapshot' mode of the VLA with aresolution of about 13 arcsec. Analysis of the resulting radio andoptical properties reveals that the presence of a nearby companiongalaxy has an important role in generating radio emission in a galaxy.CCD observations of two radio-loud, disturbed galaxies with companionsare presented and are used to discuss models of radio-source production.Nine tailed radio galaxies are found in the poor groups, which is muchmore than had been expected from previous work on rich clusters and fromtheoretical models. The paper discusses previous statistical biases andproposes a method for bending head-tail sources in poor groups. From theconfinement of extended radio features associated with tailed sources,the presence of a substantial intracluster medium that should radiatesignificantly at soft-X-ray energies is predicted.

Radio sources in giant E and S0 galaxies
An optically selected sample of 67 giant E and S0 galaxies has beenobserved with radio telescopes of high sensitivity to low-brightnessemission. Correlations between radio emission and galaxy type andbetween radio emission and environment are confirmed, and the fractionof E galaxies with M(B) less than -21.75 that have radio powers Pgreater than 10 to the 23rd W/Hz at 2380 MHz is found to be 0.4 + or -0.1. For all of the 19 sources with P greater than 10 to the 23rd W/Hzthere is evidence on high-resolution maps of continuing centralactivity. Sensitive observations at 151 MHz are used to put limits onthe number of steep-spectrum radio sources, which may be relics of pastactivity in other sample galaxies, more effectively than has previouslybeen possible. Based on the expected lifetime at 151 MHz of radiativelydecaying sources, the time-scale over which typical radio galaxiesremain active is determined to be greater than a few billion yr. This isin conflict with the small linear sizes of many radio sources in thissample, and it is likely that other effects (such as expansion losses inunconfined sources) render the older parts of these objects invisible.

NGC 4410a/b - A strong radio source associated with interacting galaxies
The tidally interacting pair of galaxies NGC 4410a/b is in a group ofgalaxies. Two members of the group form with NGC 4410 a chain linked bybridges of diffuse, but knotty, optical emission. The radio sourceassociated with NGC 4410 is studied in detail with aid of observationsdone with the Very Large Array. The source has a radio luminosity (7 x10 to the 40th erg/s) comparable to low luminosity radio galaxies and itis very asymmetric with respect to NGC 4410. Its size is much largerthan the optical size of NGC 4410. Some features, if not all, of theradio source are probably related to the interaction.

The structure of the Virgo cluster of galaxies
A new detailed analysis of galaxies in the Virgo area shows that theconventional Virgo cluster comprises two different clouds of galaxies:the Virgo cluster I and the Southern cloud II by the definition proposedhere. Excluding the galaxies in the Southern cloud II, the Virgo clusterI centered at 12 h 27.6 m, +13 deg 07 arcmin (1950), has a mean radialvelocity of 980 + or - 60 km/s and there is no significant velocitydifference between elliptical-lenticular and spiral-irregular galaxiesin the Virgo cluster I. The Southern cloud II is centered at about 12 h25 m, +7 deg 30 arcmin (1950) and all types of galaxies in the cloud arediffusely distributed, while elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster Iare concentrated to the center. The mean radial velocity within a radiusof 3.5 deg of the Southern cloud II is +1240 + or - 80 km/s, which issignificantly higher than the mean velocity of the Virgo cluster I.

Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area.
The present catalog of 2096 galaxies within an area of about 140 sq degapproximately centered on the Virgo cluster should be an essentiallycomplete listing of all certain and possible cluster members,independent of morphological type. Cluster membership is essentiallydecided by galaxy morphology; for giants and the rare class of highsurface brightness dwarfs, membership rests on velocity data. While 1277of the catalog entries are considered members of the Virgo cluster, 574are possible members and 245 appear to be background Zwicky galaxies.Major-to-minor axis ratios are given for all galaxies brighter than B(T)= 18, as well as for many fainter ones.

A search for environmental effects on the optical properties of galaxies in groups
Environmental density-related modifications of basic optical properties(luminosities, sizes, axial ratios, and colors) of galaxies belonging toGeller and Huchra's (1983) groups have been investigated. Remarkably, itis found that the broad maxima of the distributions of luminosities anddiameters of spirals and the whole corresponding distributions oflenticulars tend to move to lower values as one goes to groups of highcompactness, whereas the luminosity-diameter relationship of spiralstends to become flatter. No color and axial ratio differences betweengalaxies of high- and low-compactness groups have been detected.

Supplement to the detailed bibliography on the surface photometry of galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985A&AS...60..517P&db_key=AST

Structure of superclusters and superclusters formation. IV Spatial distribution of clusters of galaxies in the Coma supercluster and its large-scale environment
The Coma-A1367 Supercluster and its large-scale environment areinvestigated. The Zwicky et al. (1961-68) clusters are used assupercluster tracers; superclusters are defined not by visual impressionbut on the basis of cluster analysis. Attention is restricted to an areaof the sky where RA is between 9h and 15h, with Dec. greater than -3deg. Clustering analysis is applied to study the spatial distribution.At neighborhood radii R = 15-25 Mpc (for Hubble constant H = 50 km per sper Mpc), the clusters form chains and superclusters of galaxies. It isnoted that at R = 26-28 Mpc, superclusters merge to a single connectednetwork. Cluster chains link the Coma-A1367 Supercluster with the LocalSupercluster, A779, and Hercules Superclusters. The Coma-A1367Supercluster comprises four cluster chains, and its diameter is greaterthan 100 Mpc. It is noted that a typical cluster chain has eight Zwickyclusters and is 80 Mpc in length. Most, if not all, of the clusters formconnected systems. Empty regions devoid of clusters have diameters up to100 Mpc in this region of the sky. The morphology distribution of brightgalaxies and the mean absolute magnitude of first ranked galaxies inZwicky clusters are found to be similar to the respective quantities inAbell clusters.

Digital surface photometry of galaxies toward a quantitative classification. III - A mean concentration index as a parameter representing the luminosity distribution
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984ApJ...280....7O&db_key=AST

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Right ascension:12h24m21.70s
Aparent dimensions:1.413′ × 1.202′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 4360
J/AJ/90/1681VCC 722

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