Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

NGC 4322



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

Virgo Cluster Early-Type Dwarf Galaxies with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. On the Possible Disk Nature of Bright Early-Type Dwarfs
We present a systematic search for disk features in 476 Virgo Clusterearly-type dwarf (dE) galaxies. This is the first such study of analmost-complete, statistically significant dE sample, which includes allcertain or possible cluster members with mB<=18 that arecovered by the optical imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DataRelease 4. Disk features (spiral arms, edge-on disks, or bars) wereidentified by applying unsharp masks to a combined image from threebands (g, r, and i), as well as by subtracting the axisymmetric lightdistribution of each galaxy from that image. Fourteen objects areunambiguous identifications of disks, 10 objects show ``probable disk''features, and 17 objects show ``possible disk'' features. The numberfraction of these galaxies, for which we introduce the term ``dEdi,''reaches more than 50% at the bright end of the dE population anddecreases to less than 5% for magnitudes mB>16. Althoughpart of this observed decline might be due to the lower signal-to-noiseratio at fainter magnitudes, we show that it cannot be caused solely bythe limitations of our detection method. The luminosity function of ourfull dE sample can be explained by a superposition of dEdis and ordinarydEs, strongly suggesting that dEdis are a distinct type of galaxy. Thisis supported by the projected spatial distribution: dEdis show basicallyno clustering and roughly follow the spatial distribution of spirals andirregulars, whereas ordinary dEs are distributed similarly to thestrongly clustered E/S0 galaxies. While the flattening distribution ofordinary dEs is typical for spheroidal objects, the distribution ofdEdis is significantly different and agrees with their being flat oblateobjects. We therefore conclude that the dEdis are not spheroidalgalaxies that just have an embedded disk component but are instead apopulation of genuine disk galaxies. Several dEdis display well-definedspiral arms with grand-design features that clearly differ from theflocculent, open arms typical for late-type spirals that have frequentlybeen proposed as progenitors of dEs. This raises the question of whatprocess is able to create such spiral arms-with pitch angles like thoseof Sab/Sb galaxies-in bulgeless dwarf galaxies.

On the Relevance of the Tremaine-Weinberg Method Applied to an Hα Velocity Field: Pattern Speed Determination in M100 (NGC 4321)
The relevance of the Tremaine-Weinberg (TW) method is tested formeasuring bar, spiral, and inner structure pattern speeds using agaseous velocity field. The TW method is applied to various simulatedbarred galaxies in order to demonstrate its validity in seven differentconfigurations, including star formation and/or dark matter halo. Thereliability of the different physical processes involved and of thevarious observational parameters is also tested. The simulations showthat the TW method could be applied to gaseous velocity fields to get agood estimate of the bar pattern speed, under the condition that regionsof shocks are avoided and measurements are confined to regions where thegaseous bar is well formed. We successfully apply the TW method to theHα velocity field of the Virgo Cluster galaxy M100 (NGC 4321) andderive pattern speeds of 55+/-5 km s-1 kpc-1 forthe nuclear structure, 30+/-2 km s-1 kpc-1 for thebar, and 20+/-1 km s-1 kpc-1 for the spiralpattern, in full agreement with published determinations using the samemethod or alternative ones.

Galaxy Populations and Evolution in Clusters. IV. Deep H I Observations of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster
In this paper we present deep Arecibo H I and WIYN optical observationsof Virgo Cluster dwarf elliptical galaxies. Based on this data we arguethat a significant fraction of low-mass galaxies in the Virgo Clusterrecently underwent evolution. Our new observations consist of H I 21 cmline observations for 22 classified dE galaxies with optical radialvelocities consistent with membership in the Virgo Cluster. Clustermembers VCC 390 and VCC 1713 are detected with H I massesMHI=6×107 and 8×107Msolar, respectively, while MHI values in theremaining 20 dE galaxies have upper limits as low as~5×105 Msolar. We combine our results withthose for 26 other Virgo Cluster dE galaxies with H I observations inthe literature, seven of which have H I detection claims. New opticalimages from the WIYN telescope of five of these H I-detected dEgalaxies, along with archival data, suggest that seven of the claimeddetections are true H I detections, yielding a ~15% detection rate.These H I-detected, classified dE galaxies are preferentially locatednear the periphery of the Virgo Cluster. Three Virgo dE galaxies haveobserved H I velocity widths greater than 200 km s-1,possibly indicating the presence of a large dark matter content ortransient extended H I. We discuss the possible origins of these objectsand argue that they originate from field galaxies accreted onto highangular momentum orbits by Virgo in the last few Gyr. As a result ofthis, we argue, these galaxies are slowly transformed within the clusterby gradual gas-stripping processes, associated truncation of starformation, and passive fading of stellar populations. Low-mass,early-type cluster galaxies are therefore currently being produced asthe product of cluster environmental effects. We utilize our results ina simple model to estimate the recent (past 1-3 Gyr) average massaccretion rate into the Virgo Cluster, deriving a value of M~50Msolar yr-1.

A search for Low Surface Brightness galaxies in the near-infrared. I. Selection of the sample
A sample of about 3800 Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies wasselected using the all-sky near-infrared (J, H and Ks-band)2MASS survey. The selected objects have a mean central surfacebrightness within a 5'' radius around their centre fainter than 18 magarcsec-2 in the Ks band, making them the lowestsurface brightness galaxies detected by 2MASS. A description is given ofthe relevant properties of the 2MASS survey and the LSB galaxy selectionprocedure, as well as of basic photometric properties of the selectedobjects. The latter properties are compared to those of other samples ofgalaxies, of both LSBs and ``classical'' high surface brightness (HSB)objects, which were selected in the optical. The 2MASS LSBs have aBT_c-KT colour which is on average 0.9 mag bluerthan that of HSBs from the NGC. The 2MASS sample does not appear tocontain a significant population of red objects.All tables and Figs. 2a-c are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

The luminosity function of the Virgo Cluster from MB=-22 to -11
We measure the galaxy luminosity function (LF) for the Virgo Clusterbetween blue magnitudes MB=-22 and -11 from wide-fieldcharge-coupled device (CCD) imaging data. The LF is only graduallyrising for -22

New clues to the evolution of dwarf early-type galaxies
Surface photometry of 18 Virgo cluster dwarf elliptical (dE) and dwarflenticular (dS0) galaxies, made by Gavazzi et al. in the H band(1.65μm) and in the B band (0.44μm), shows that the ratio of theeffective radii of these stellar systems in the B and H bands, r eB /r eH , ranges between 0.7 and 2.2. In particular,dwarf ellipticals and lenticulars with a red total colour index B -H(i.e. with 3.2

The far-ultraviolet emission of early-type galaxies
We have assembled a UV-flux selected sample of 82 early-type galaxiesand collected additional information at other wavelengths. These dataconfirm a large spread of the UV-V color in the range 2 to 5. The spreadin UV-V is accompanied by a spread in B-V that is mainly attributed tothe range of morphological types and luminosities. A large fraction ofthe objects have red colors, UV-V = 4 +/- 0.4, corresponding to a weakUV-upturn as observed with IUE. If the current interpretation for the UVemission from early-type galaxies is applicable to our sample, the PAGB(Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch) tracks are the most common evolution pathfor the low-mass stars responsible for the UV emission. A small numberof very blue (UV-V < 1.4) objects have been found that can bereasonably interpreted as harbouring some low level of star formation.In contrast to a previous sample based on IUE observations, nocorrelation is found between the UV-V color and the Mg2spectral line index; possible explanations are reviewed. The potentialof a more extended UV survey like GALEX is briefly presented.

Hα surface photometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. II. Observations with the OHP and Calar Alto 1.2 m telescopes
We present Hα line imaging observations of 122 galaxies obtainedwith the 1.20 m telescopes of the Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP)and of Calar Alto. The observed galaxies are mostly Virgo clustermembers (95), along with 10 objects in the Coma/A1367 supercluster, 6 inthe clusters A2197 and A2199, and 11 nearby galaxies taken as fillers.Hα +[NII] fluxes and equivalent widths, as well as images of allthe detected targets, are presented. Based on observations taken at theObservatoire de Haute Provence (OHP) (France), operated by the FrenchCNRS, and Calar Alto Observatory (Spain), operated by theMax-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with theSpanish National Commission for Astronomy. Figure 1 is only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Galaxy Populations and Evolution in Clusters. I. Dynamics and the Origin of Low-Mass Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster
Early-type dwarfs are the most common galaxy in the local universe, yettheir origin and evolution remain a mystery. Various cosmologicalscenarios predict that dwarf-like galaxies in dense areas are the firstto form and hence should be the oldest stellar systems in clusters. Byusing radial velocities of early-type dwarfs in the Virgo cluster wedemonstrate that these galaxies are not an old cluster population buthave signatures of production from the infall of field galaxies.Evidence of this includes the combined large dispersions andsubstructure in spatial and kinematic distributions for Virgo early-typedwarfs and a velocity dispersion ratio with giant ellipticals expectedfor virialized and accreted populations. We also argue that thesegalaxies cannot originate from accreted field dwarfs, but must havephysically evolved from a precursor population, of different morphology,that fell into Virgo some time in the past.

1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. VII. Dwarf galaxies in the Virgo Cluster
We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm) observations and surfacebrightness profile decompositions for 75 faint (13.5 <~ mp<~ 18.5) galaxies, primarily taken among dwarf Ellipticals members ofthe Virgo cluster, with some Centaurus Cluster members, a BCD and twopeculiar galaxies taken as fillers. We model their surface brightnessprofiles with a de Vaucouleurs (D), exponential (E), mixed (bulge+diskor M) or truncated (T) law, and we derive for each galaxy the H bandeffective surface brightness (μe) and effective radius(re), the asymptotic total magnitude HT and thelight concentration index C31, defined as the ratio betweenthe radii that enclose 75% and 25% of the total light HT. Fora subsample we compare the NIR surface photometry with similar datataken in the B and V bands, and we give the B-H and B-V color profiles.Combining the present data with those previously obtained by our group(1157 objects) we analyze the NIR properties of a nearly completesample, representative of galaxies of all morphological types, spanning4 decades in luminosity. We confirm our earlier claim that the presenceof cusps and extended haloes in the light profiles (C31>5)is a strong, non-linear function of the total luminosity. We also findthat: i) among dE and dS0 galaxies D profiles are absent; 50% of thedecompositions are of type M, the remaining being of type E or T. ii)Less than 50% of the giant elliptical galaxies have pure D profiles, themajority being represented by M profiles. iii) Most giant galaxies (fromelliptical to Sb) have M profiles. iv) Most of late type spirals (Scd toBCD) have either E or T profiles. v) The type of decomposition is astrong function of the total H band luminosity, independent of theHubble classification: the fraction of type E decompositions decreaseswith increasing luminosity, while those of type M increase withluminosity. Pure D profiles are absent in the low luminosity rangeLH<1010 Lsolar and become dominantabove 1011 Lsolar, while T profiles are presentonly among low luminosity galaxies. vi) We find that dE-peculiargalaxies have structural parameters indistinguishable from those oflate-type dwarfs, thus they might represent the missing link between dEsand dIs. Based on observations taken with the ESO/NTT (ESO program64.N-0288), with the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on theisland of La Palma by the Centro Galileo Galilei of the CNAA at theSpanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC, with the SanPedro Martir 2.1~m telescope of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional(OAN, Mexico), and with the OHP 1.2~m telescope, operated by the FrenchCNRS.

Detailed Surface Photometry of Dwarf Elliptical and Dwarf S0 Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster
We analyze new V-band images of 14 dwarf S0 galaxies and 10 dwarfelliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster, in combination with R-bandimages of 70 dwarf elliptical galaxies from an earlier paper. We computethe intensity-weighted mean ellipticity, the mean deviations fromelliptical isophotes, and a newly defined parameter to measure isophotaltwists. We also fit each major-axis profile to a power lawSigma(a)~exp[-(a/a_s)^n], where n is allowed to vary. Consistent withother studies of the Virgo dwarf ellipticals, we find that the profileshapes for the entire sample is strongly peaked near n=1 (exponentialprofiles) and that no galaxies have n=1/4 (de Vaucouleurs profile). Thefaintest galaxies all have nearly exponential profiles, while thebrighter ones on average have n<1. The correlation betweenellipticity and the boxy/disky parameter is similar to that of largeelliptical galaxies, suggesting that dwarfs may also be divided into twogroups with differing internal dynamics. The Virgo dEs also show agreater degree of isophotal twisting than more luminous ellipticalgalaxies. There does not seem to be any combination of parameters fromthe surface photometry that statistically correlates with the dE/dS0designation: in particular, the dS0 galaxies do not, on average, havemore pointed (disky) isophotes than the dEs.

The Pico DOS Dias Survey Starburst Galaxies
We discuss the nature of the galaxies found in the Pico dos Dias Survey(PDS) for young stellar objects. The PDS galaxies were selected from theIRAS Point Source catalog. They have flux density of moderate or highquality at 12, 25, and 60 μm and spectral indices in the ranges -3.00<= alpha(25, 12) <= + 0.35 and -2.50 <= alpha(60, 25) <=+0.85. These criteria allowed the detection of 382 galaxies, which are amixture of starburst and Seyfert galaxies. Most of the PDS Seyfertgalaxies are included in the catalog of warm IRAS sources by de Grijp etal. The remaining galaxies constitute a homogeneous sample of luminous[log F (L_B/L_ȯ) = 9.9 +/- 0.4] starburst galaxies, 67% of whichwere not recognized as such before. The starburst nature of the PDSgalaxies is established by comparing their L_IR/L_B ratios and IRAScolors with a sample of emission-line galaxies from the literaturealready classified as starburst galaxies. The starburst galaxies show anexcess of FIR luminosity, and their IRAS colors are significantlydifferent from those of Seyfert galaxies-99% of the starburst galaxiesin our sample have a spectral index alpha(60, 25) < -1.9. As opposedto Seyfert galaxies, very few PDS starbursts are detected in X-rays. Inthe infrared, the starburst galaxies form a continuous sequence withnormal galaxies. But they generally can be distinguished from normalgalaxies by their spectral index alpha(60, 25) > -2.5. This colorcutoff also marks a change in the dominant morphologies of the galaxies:the normal IRAS galaxies are preferentially late-type spirals (Sb andlater), while the starbursts are more numerous among early-type spirals(earlier than Sbc). This preference of starbursts for early-type spiralsis not new, but a trait of the massive starburst nucleus galaxies(Coziol et al.). As in other starburst nucleus galaxy samples, the PDSstarbursts show no preference for barred galaxies. No difference isfound between the starbursts detected in the FIR and those detected onthe basis of UV excess. The PDS starburst galaxies represent the FIRluminous branch of the UV-bright starburst nucleus galaxies, with meanFIR luminosity log (L_IR/L_ȯ) = 10.3 +/- 0.5 and redshifts smallerthan 0.1. They form a complete sample limited in flux in the FIR at 2 x10^-10 ergs cm^-2 s^-1.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

The nature of arms in spiral galaxies. III. Azimuthal profiles
In this paper we analyse the structure of a small sample of galaxiesusing a set of CCD images in standard photometric bands presented in aprevious paper (del Rio & Cepa 1998a, hereafter \cite{p2}). Thegalaxies are NGC 157, 753, 895, 4321, 6764, 6814, 6951, 7479 and 7723,and the selected bands were B and I. Seven galaxies are grand design,i.e. they have two long and symmetric arms, second in the classificationof \cite{ee87} (1987), and are the best laboratories for testing thepredictions of the spiral density wave (SDW) theory. Two of the galaxieshave intermediate arms, i.e., they are not so well defined. They areselected to compare the results with those found in the grand designspirals. Using the method of analyse the azimuthal flux profilespresented by \cite{c88} (1988) and Beckman & Cepa (1990) (hereafter\cite{bc90}) and assuming that star formation is triggered by a spiraldensity wave, we look for evidence of the existence of a corotationradius, as predicted by the SDW theory. We have determined thecorotation radius in all but two grand design galaxies, and,tentatively, in the other four. Galaxies with very weak arms (such asNGC 753 and NGC 6951) or arms which are not well defined (such as NGC6764 and NGC 7723) present difficulties when employing the azimuthalprofile method, but even in these cases, the method is powerful enoughto give a good estimate of the value of corotation, which must then beconfirmed (or discarded) by other independent methods (del Rio &Cepa 1998b, hereafter \cite{p4}).

Is the shape of the luminosity profile of dwarf elliptical galaxies an useful distance indicator?
The shape of the surface brightness profile of dE galaxies, quantifiedby parameter n of Sersic's generalized profile law, has recently beenput forward as new extragalactic distance indicator (Young & Currie1994). Its application to the Virgo cluster has subsequently led to theclaim that the Virgo dEs are not lying in the cluster core but aredistributed in a prolate structure stretching from 8 to 20 Mpc distance(Young & Currie 1995). This claim is refuted here. We have fitted aSersic law to the surface brightness profiles of 128 Virgo cluster dEsand dS0s from the photometry of Binggeli & Cameron (1991). Thedispersion of the n - M relation is indeed large (sigma_rms ~ 0.9 mag).However, we argue that this scatter is not due to the depth of the Virgocluster, but is essentially intrinsic. Contrary to what one would expectfrom the cluster depth hypothesis, there is no clearvelocity-``distance'' relation for a sample of 43 Virgo dEs and dS0swith known redshifts. The analysis of Young & Currie (1995) ishampered by the use of low-resolution photometry and flawed by theassumption that the n - M and n - R relations can be used independently.By combining different Sersic law parameters, the scatter of the scalingrelations can be reduced somewhat, but never below sigma_rms ~ 0.7 mag,at least for the Virgo cluster. For the purpose of distancemeasurements, this falls short of the well-established Tully-Fisher andD_n - sigma methods, and it is comparable to what one can get alreadyfrom the < mu >_eff - M relation for dEs, which does not requireany profile modelling.

Spiral Density Wave Theory, Corotation Resonance, and the Velocity Field of NGC 4321
We extend the exposition of a new kinematic method (exploiting geometricphase) for determining the corotation resonance radius of a grand-designspiral. We present an explicit formulation, in terms of first-orderlinear spiral density wave theory, for fitting to the velocity field ofa grand-design spiral galaxy. We test the new formulation on thevelocity field of the ionized gas in the grand-design spiral NGC 4321 inthe Virgo Cluster using Fabry-Perot H alpha data. The kinematic methodas currently implemented is useful specifically for determining an upperbound for the corotation resonance radius. We illustrate the kinematicevidence for the corotation resonance in the disk of NGC 4321.

The Central Region in M100: Observations and Modeling
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...454..623K&db_key=AST

Bar-Driven Gas Structure and Star Formation in the Center of M100
High-resolution (2.6" x 2.4") CO(J=1-0) interferometry and near-infrared(J,H,K') imaging were made toward the Virgo spiral galaxy M100 (NGC4321) to study gas kinematics and its relation to active phenomena inthe center of a weakly barred disk galaxy. In the central 1 arcmin (5.0kpc: D = 17.1 Mpc) of M100, most of the molecular gas distributes withina ~3 kpc diameter region. In this region, there are prominent two-armedmolecular spiral arms. The arms start at the ends of the nuclear stellarbar of ~16" (1.3 kpc) long seen in the near-infrared images. There isalso a concentration of molecular gas with a diameter of ~3" (250 pc) atthe dynamical center of the galaxy. Noncircular motion of the moleculargas is clearly seen and the deviation from circular motion is largest atthe arms. From comparisons to theoretical models, we propose that thegas arms are formed through the orbit crowding of molecular clouds atthe outer inner Lindblad resonance (OILR: r ~ 1 kpc), and the nucleargas concentration is formed through infall of self-gravitating gas fromthe inner inner Lindblad resonance (IILR: r <~ 0.7 kpc). The gaseousstructure is driven by the nonaxisymmetric gravitational potential,which is mainly caused by the nuclear stellar bar in the central region.It is shown that analytical and numerical models based on the ideasuccessfully reproduce the gaseous morphology and kinematics observed inthe central region of Ml00. Massive star formation in the center of M100is confined to the central 3 kpc gas distribution, and hotspots seen inHα are along the molecular spiral arms. Since the molecular spiralarms are the sites of orbit crowding and gas accumulation, cloudcollisions, shocks, and gravitational instability are expected. Thehotspots are probably attributed to these dynamical features at theOILR. The nuclear concentration of molecular gas induced also by the baris a clear example of the bar-induced gas fueling to the nuclei ofgalaxies often suggested as a mechanism for feeding AGNs, though M100does not show conspicuous AGN activity.

The UV properties of normal galaxies. III. Standard luminosity profiles and total magnitudes.
In the previous papers of this series we collected and reduced to thesame system all the available photometric data obtained in theultraviolet (UV) range for normal (i.e. non active) galaxies. Here weuse these data to derive standard UV luminosity profiles for threemorphological bins (E/S0; Sa/Sb; Sc/Sd) and extrapolated totalmagnitudes for almost 400 galaxies. We find that: 1) the UV growthcurves are well matched by the B-band revised standard luminosityprofiles, once a proper shift in the effective radius is applied, and 2)the UV light in early-type galaxies is more centrally concentrated thanthe visible light.

The UV properties of normal galaxies. II. The ``non-IUE'' data.
In the last decade several satellite and balloon borne experiments havecollected a large number of ultraviolet fluxes of normal galaxiesmeasured through apertures of various sizes and shapes. We havehomogenized this data set by deriving scale corrections with respect toIUE. In a forthcoming paper these data will be used to derive standardluminosity profiles and total magnitudes.

Determination of the pattern speed in the grand design spiral galaxy NGC 4321.
Measurement of pattern speeds has been an observational imperative inthe last years since a clear determination of the corotation resonanceradius will give some insight in the nature of density waves and in themechanism of their maintenance. In this paper we analyse in detail thepractical application to the grand design spiral NGC 4321 of twodifferent methods, intended to derive the pattern speed ({OMEGA}_p_) ofits wave-based structure. The first method, based on the change of signof the radial streaming motions beyond the corotation circle, is anobservational diagnostic discussed by Canzian (1993). The finalmorphology of the residual velocity field after substraction of therotation curve from the observed Hi velocity field is analyzed in orderto find the signature of two different morphological regions delimitedby the corotation, as predicted by the theory. The first successfulapplication of this test to a real galaxy is presented. We haveestimated a value for {OMEGA}_p_~20km/s/kpc that locates corotation inthe middle of the disc (R_CR_=8-11kpc). The only restriction for a moreaccurate determination comes from the intrinsic nature of the galaxy.The central bar potential distorts the spiral arm structure and thecorotation is not a narrow, but a relatively extended region. The secondmethod, involving numerical simulations of the molecular cloudhydrodynamics, and supplying the behaviour of the neutral gas in thecentral parts of the galaxy, complete the observational information.This technique consists of a model fitting of the spiral gas response,the free parameter being {OMEGA}_p_. The best fit solution is alsoobtained for {OMEGA}_p_~20km/s/kpc. From this estimate we definitelyvalidate the picture where the stellar bar ends within the corotationand the outer spiral structure, stretching out from the bar, liesoutside the corotation circle. The reassuring agreement in the solutionsobtained using the two methods allows us to be optimistic about theapplicability of the Canzian test as a method to detect the presence ofdensity waves in the discs of "real" galaxies and to derive theirpattern speeds with reasonable accuracy.

The flattening distribution of dwarf elliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster
We have obtained R-band surface photometry of 70 dwarf ellipticalgalaxies in the Virgo Cluster. We find, in contrast to the results ofearlier studies, that the dwarfs have a markedly flatter distribution ofellipticities than either 'normal' elliptical galaxies or brightestcluster ellipticals. The ensemble of nucleated dwarfs is rounder thanthe non-nucleated galaxies. Neither the nucleated nor the nonnucleateddwarfs, however, have distributions as round as giant ellipticals.

Large-Scale Star Formation Patterns in Spiral Arms
An observational study of large-scale star formation processes in spiralgalaxies with well-defined arm systems is presented. Combining new dataon the current massive star formation (from H-alpha imaging) and on thetotal gas distribution (both atomic and molecular hydrogen, from H I andCO observations), the star formation efficiencies in- and outside thespiral arms are compared. For the grand-design spiral galaxy NGC~4321,new 21cm H I (VLA, New Mexico), J>CO (45-m telescope, Nobeyama,Japan) and H-alpha observations (4.2-m William Herschel Telescope, LaPalma, Spain) were obtained, whereas for M51 data from the literaturewere used. The spatial resolution of all these data is high enough(typically 15") to distinguish arm from inter-arm emission. From ananalysis of the massive star formation efficiency (MSFE) along the mainarms of NGC~4321 and M51, and comparing with the neighboring inter-armregions, it is found that the MSFE is higher in the arm regions thanbetween the arms by an average factor of 2 to 3 in both galaxies. Thisenhancement is shown to be due only to enhanced star formation in thearms, and cannot be caused by e.g. dust extinction in the H-alpha, or bymetallicity effects in the disks of the galaxies that may cause a changein the CO to H_2 conversion factor. This result is direct evidence fortriggering of the star formation in the arms. In the case of M51, thearm/inter-arm ratio of the MSFE (called epsilon) shows a well-definedtwo-fold symmetric pattern between the two main arms, indicating that aglobal mechanism, probably a density wave system, organizes the starformation in the disc of that galaxy. In NGC 4321 such a pattern isabsent, and epsilon is constant along the arms. The absence of asymmetric pattern in epsilon may be related to the presence of a bar inNGC 4321. Evidence for the existence of a bar in this galaxy ispresented: a distortion in the H I velocity field, as well as themorphology of the galaxy in H-alpha and in the near-infrared. Such ananti-correlation between the presence of a bar and the presence of asymmetric pattern in the distribution of the star forming regions alongthe arms is seen among a small sample of other grand-design galaxiesstudied in H-alpha, although a statistical study is needed to generalizethis finding. From along-the-arm profiles in H I, CO, and H-alpha,evidence is presented that in both M51 and NGC 4321 most of the atomichydrogen in the star forming disk of the galaxy is formed byphoto-dissociation of molecular hydrogen by young massive stars. Fromthe 21 cm line study of NGC 4321, it is found that the H I disk of NGC4321, in general limited to the extent of the optical disc, has a largethough faint extension toward the SW, which may well have been caused bya close passage of the companion galaxy NGC 4322. A large-scaledistortion of the H I velocity field is seen in the same direction.Other distortions in the velocity field due to the presence of anon-axisymmetric potential and of density wave streaming motions arealso detected in H I. (SECTION: Dissertation Abstracts)

Star Formation in the Spiral Arms of NGC 4321. II. H i Distribution and Kinematics
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993ApJ...416..563K&db_key=AST

Dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster. II - Photometric techniques and basic data
Results are presented of photographic surface photometry carried out for305 (mostly dwarf) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, in which the galaxyimages were digitized on 14 of the 67 du Pont plates used for the Virgocluster survey. Azimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles areshown for all galaxies. The following model-free photometric parametersare derived and listed for each galaxy: total apparent blue magnitude,mean effective radius and surface brightness, and various isophotalradii, ellipticity, and position angle. Most galaxies were fitted by anexponential form and/or a King model profile. The best-fittingparameters, including the 'nuclear' (central residual) magnitudes fordE+dS0 galaxies, are listed.

Dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster. I - The systematic photometric properties of early-type dwarfs
The azimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles of 200 faintearly-type Virgo cluster galaxies have been analyzed. Faint dwarfs arevery well described by an exponential or a King model. The magnitudes ofthe nuclei vary greatly at a given galaxian magnitude, but the maximumnuclear luminosity is a strong function of M(T). In the 0.1-1 kpc radiusrange, the logarithmically plotted profiles of all early-type galaxiescome in two well-defined classes identified with classical types versusdwarf types. The former are all classified E or S0, while the lattercomprise all galaxies classified dE or dS0, all morphologically'intermediate' types, and even two classified 'E'. The mean SB profilesof dS0 galaxies are indistinguishable from bright dE profiles. In 2D,the dS0s appear highly flattened and/or show asymmetric and irregularfeatures which may indicate their disk nature.

The 12 micron galaxy sample. I - Luminosity functions and a new complete active galaxy sample
An all-sky 12 micron flux-limited sample of active galaxies was selectedfrom the IRAS Point Source Catalog. Most of the sample galaxies are inexisting catalogs, and 99 percent have measured redshifts. The 12-micronand the far-infrared luminosity functions of active and normal galaxiesare derived using IRAS co-added data. A total of 22 percent of thesample galaxies harbor active nuclei. The sample consists almost equallyof Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2, and LINER nuclei. The derived luminosityfuctions for Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies are indistinguishable fromthose of the optically selected CfA sample. Thus, 12 micron selection isthe most efficient available technique for finding complete activegalaxy samples.

Color distributions in early-type galaxies. II - Eight ellipticals in the Virgo cluster
High-precision BRI surface photometry of eight early-type Virgo clustergalaxies, obtained using a scanning CCD detector on the 60-inch Palomartelescope during March-April 1984, is reported. The data and the ellipsecharacteristics (determined by fitting the isophotes to aconcentric-ellipse model) are presented in tables and graphs andcharacterized in detail. Only galaxies with M(B) less than -18 are foundto have nuclear color gradients, with redward gradients in the twobrightest galaxies, isochromes flatter than the isophotes in theflattest color-gradient galaxy (NGC 4660), and small isophotal twistsand ellipticity changes in almost all galaxies.

HI-observations of galaxies in the Virgo cluster of galaxies. I - The data
New H I-data for a large number of bright galaxies inside the 10 degradius area of the Virgo cluster of galaxies have been obtained with the100 m radiotelescope at Effelsberg. A total of 234 galaxies was observedfor the first time. Among them, 53 have been detected providing newaccurate radial velocities. Data from the literature have been compiled.Together with the new data, they form a (nearly homogeneous) set of H Iobservations for more than 450 galaxies.

Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area.
The present catalog of 2096 galaxies within an area of about 140 sq degapproximately centered on the Virgo cluster should be an essentiallycomplete listing of all certain and possible cluster members,independent of morphological type. Cluster membership is essentiallydecided by galaxy morphology; for giants and the rare class of highsurface brightness dwarfs, membership rests on velocity data. While 1277of the catalog entries are considered members of the Virgo cluster, 574are possible members and 245 appear to be background Zwicky galaxies.Major-to-minor axis ratios are given for all galaxies brighter than B(T)= 18, as well as for many fainter ones.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Coma Berenices
Right ascension:12h23m01.60s
Aparent dimensions:1.23′ × 0.813′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 4322
J/AJ/90/1681VCC 608

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR