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High and Low Surface Brightness Galaxies in the Local Universe. V. Optical and H I Properties
Using optical spectra of the nuclei of 250 galaxies chosen from theAutomated Plate Measuring Facility (APM) survey of UK Schmidt plates, wederive synthetic B-V and V-R colors, estimates of reddening from Balmerdecrements, metallicity via oxygen abundance, and star formation ratefrom the Hα luminosity. We also present mass-to-light ratios andgas mass fractions from 21 cm H I measurements of 238 APM surveygalaxies, 101 of which also have optical spectra. This sample ofgalaxies spans a large range in surface brightness, from high surfacebrightness irregular galaxies down to the kind of low surface brightness(LSB) galaxies that are missing from most magnitude-limited catalogs.The generally blue global colors are best explained by a combination oflow metallicity and active star formation, primarily because of thetremendous scatter in metallicity versus B-V. Optical spectra show thepresence of G and K main-sequence stars in the nuclei of these galaxies,and the stellar mass-to-light ratios and gas mass fractions show thegalaxies as a whole to be gas-rich. LSB galaxies are most likely toexperience sporadic low levels of star formation over gigayeartimescales.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

A Complete Redshift Survey to the Zwicky Catalog Limit in a 2^h X 15 deg Region around 3C 273
We compile 1113 redshifts (648 new measurements, 465 from theliterature) for Zwicky catalog galaxies in the region (-3.5d <= delta<= 8.5d, 11h5 <= alpha <= 13h5). We include redshifts for 114component objects in 78 Zwicky catalog multiplets. The redshift surveyin this region is 99.5% complete to the Zwicky catalog limit, m_Zw =15.7. It is 99.9% complete to m_Zw = 15.5, the CfA Redshift Survey(CfA2) magnitude limit. The survey region is adjacent to the northernportion of CfA2, overlaps the northernmost slice of the Las CampanasRedshift Survey, includes the southern extent of the Virgo Cluster, andis roughly centered on the QSO 3C 273. As in other portions of theZwicky catalog, bright and faint galaxies trace the same large-scalestructure.

The Southern Sky Redshift Survey
We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory.

Low Surface Brightness Galaxies in the Local Universe. I. The Catalog
Data are presented for 693 galaxies identified in a large new survey forlow surface brightness galaxies in the nearby universe (z <~ 0.1).The survey covers 786 square degrees centered on the equator, and itextends significantly the surface brightness range of galaxy surveys inwhich there are a substantial number of galaxies with redshifts. Thedata are derived from the Automated Plate Measuring machine scans ofsurvey plates from the UK Schmidt Telescope and from follow-upobservations at radio and optical wavelengths. Accurate positions, totalB magnitudes, surface brightness parameters, and angular sizes aretabulated for each galaxy. Radial velocities, optical luminosities, andneutral hydrogen masses are listed for a subset of the sample. Findingcharts are also presented for those objects having a large enoughangular size that the scans from survey plates provide somemorphological information. The selection function and the luminosityfunction that can be derived from the survey are discussed in twocompanion papers.

A comparative study of morphological classifications of APM galaxies
We investigate the consistency of visual morphological classificationsof galaxies by comparing classifications for 831 galaxies from sixindependent observers. The galaxies were classified on laser print copyimages or on computer screen using scans made with the Automated PlateMeasuring (APM) machine. Classifications are compared using the RevisedHubble numerical type index T. We find that individual observers agreewith one another with rms combined dispersions of between 1.3 and 2.3type units, typically about 1.8 units. The dispersions tend to decreaseslightly with increasing angular diameter and, in some cases, withincreasing axial ratio (b/a). The agreement between independentobservers is reasonably good but the scatter is non-negligible. In spiteof the scatter, the Revised Hubble T system can be used to train anautomated galaxy classifier, e.g. an artificial neural network, tohandle the large number of galaxy images that are being compiled in theAPM and other surveys.

Galaxy redshifts in an equatorial field in Virgo and the spatial distribution of local Lyman alpha clouds
New redshifts are presented for 51 galaxies which lie in a narrow stripalong the celestial equator. The redshifts are derived from a mixture ofoptical and H I spectra; for the latter subset (37 galaxies) H I fluxesand line widths are also given. One of the two Ly-alpha clouds in theLocal Supercluster appears to be associated with a spiral galaxy,although the angular and physical separations (42 arcmin and 180 kpc)are large. The other nearby Ly-alpha cloud and the large H I cloudappear to be more isolated. None of the nine Ly-alpha clouds withvelocities between 5000-20,000 km/s are associated with any specificgalaxies, but most appear to fall within or near the large-scalestructures defined by the galaxies.

Redshift observations in the Hydra-Centaurus region
The paper reports 406 redshifts for galaxies in the northern galactichemisphere, south of delta = 0 deg. A substantial fraction of theobserved galaxies are located in the equatorial zone between deltavalues of -17.5 and 0 deg. By combining these new data with thoseavailable in the literature, it is possible to extend the original CfAredshift survey of galaxies brighter than m(B(0)) = 14.5 to b = 30 deg,south of delta = 0. New data taken at lower galactic latitudes alsocontribute to the existing surveys of the Hydra-Centaurus complex.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:11h56m01.10s
Aparent dimensions:1.288′ × 0.759′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 3979
ICIC 2976

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