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|The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog|
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.
|The Frequency of Active and Quiescent Galaxies with Companions: Implications for the Feeding of the Nucleus|
We analyze the idea that nuclear activity, either active galactic nuclei(AGNs) or star formation, can be triggered by interactions by studyingthe percentage of active, H II, and quiescent galaxies with companions.Our sample was selected from the Palomar survey and avoids selectionbiases faced by previous studies. This sample was split into fivedifferent groups, Seyfert galaxies, LINERs, transition galaxies, H IIgalaxies, and absorption-line galaxies. The comparison between the localgalaxy density distributions of the different groups showed that in mostcases there is no statistically significant difference among galaxies ofdifferent activity types, with the exception that absorption-linegalaxies are seen in higher density environments, since most of them arein the Virgo Cluster. The comparison of the percentage of galaxies withnearby companions showed that there is a higher percentage of LINERs,transition galaxies, and absorption-line galaxies with companions thanSeyfert and H II galaxies. However, we find that when we consider onlygalaxies of similar morphological types (elliptical or spiral), there isno difference in the percentage of galaxies with companions amongdifferent activity types, indicating that the former result was due tothe morphology-density effect. In addition, only small differences arefound when we consider galaxies with similar Hα luminosities. Thecomparison between H II galaxies of different Hα luminositiesshows that there is a significantly higher percentage of galaxies withcompanions among H II galaxies with L(Hα)>1039 ergss-1 than among those with L(Hα)<=1039ergs s-1, indicating that interactions increase the amount ofcircumnuclear star formation, in agreement with previous results. Thefact that we find that galaxies of different activity types have thesame percentage of companions suggests that interactions betweengalaxies is not a necessary condition to trigger the nuclear activity inAGNs. We compare our results with previous ones and discuss theirimplications.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.|
|Effects of the interaction on the properties of spiral galaxies. I. The data.|
We have obtained Johnson B V I images and long slit spectra along themajor axis of a sample of isolated spiral galaxies, and a sample ofspirals in isolated pairs. We present in this contribution thephotometric parameters (galactic orientation in the sky, totalmagnitudes and colors, color gradients, isophotal profiles and theirdecomposition in bulge and disk components) and the rotation curves ofthe observed galaxies. For some of the galaxies Hα images and/orspectra along the minor axis are also available and the data alsopresented here. The data we obtain are then compared with those reportedin the RC3 catalogue. The analysis of both samples and their comparisonwill be published separately.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|The spatial distribution of supernovae in paired and interacting galaxies|
In order to investigate the location of supernovae (SNe) in paired andinteracting galaxies, the 54 supernovae discovered up to May 1993 in 14Isolated Pairs of Galaxies and the 32 Interacting Systems were taken asa sample and studied. The whole sample of SNe, as well as a subsampleformed of type II, and Ib SNe, whose progenitors are young massivestars, do not appear in any one particluar direction with respect to thecompanion. On paired and interacting galaxies, the radial distributionof type Ib and II SNe peaks more toward the galaxy centers than it doesin isolated galaxies, indicating an enhanced Star Formation Rate (SFR)around the nuclei and in the inner disks. The distribution of SNIaappear similar in both samples, confirming that their progenitors arenot the same as those of SNII and IB. The SN rates are related to galaxyluminosity and, as expected, the discovery of SNe is twice more frequentin the brighter galaxy of the pair than in fainter ones. We did not findany relation between the locations of SNe in parent galaxies, the totalStar Formation activity and the kinematics of paired and interactinggalaxies.
|Properties and simulations of interacting spiral galaxies with transient 'ocular' shapes|
Computer simulations of interacting galaxies show a transient oval-apexstructure resembling an eye, which sometimes leads to the formation of apermanent central bar. A dimensionless tidal strength parametereffectively distinguishes between the different possible outcomes.Several examples of ocular structure in real galaxies have been found.The rotation curves of ocular galaxies are predicted to have largevelocity irregularities that correspond to distinctive spiral arm anddouble-parallel arm features. The amplitude of the velocity features maybe useful in determining the strength of the tidal interactions.
|Cosmology from a galaxy group catalog. I - Binaries|
A new, completely objective group-finding algorithm is described andapplied to the CfA redshift catalog. The binary galaxies are isolatedfor analysis. The assumptions underlying the analysis are (1) that lighttraces mass, (2) that our binary galaxy subsets are representative lighttracers, and (3) that the binary orbits are circular. The primary resultof the work is that the resulting bias-free binary catalogs are afunction of the assumed cosmological model. For virtually any inputvalue of Omega(0) in the range 0.01-5.00, there is a reasonablyconsistent interpretation of the CfA survey such that the specifiedvalue of Omega(0) can be derived from the binary sample obtained underthat interpretation. A secondary result is that the higher the inputvalue of Omega(0), the broader the intrinsic distribution in M/L, andhence the less valid the assumption that light traces mass.
|Population synthesis in galactic nuclei using a library of star clusters|
A novel galactic-nucleus population-synthesis technique is described anddemonstrated. The procedure is applicable to normal nuclei of E/S0 andspiral galaxies and employs a data base of integrated star-clusterspectra, thus reducing the number of parameters in the analysis to two(age and metallicity), as proposed by Bica and Alloin (1986). Resultsare presented in extensive tables and spectra and discussed in detail.The populations in the E/S0s with normal metallicity/luminosityrelations are found to comprise mainly stars older than 10 Gyr, withsome as young as about 5 Gyr; younger groups are superimposed on older,solar-metallicity populations in the bluer spirals. In NGC 5236, forexample, 87 and 57 percent of the flux at 400 and 900 nm, respectively,is attributed to stars younger than about 300 Myr.
|H I line studies of galaxies. III - Distance moduli of 822 disk galaxies|
The distance scale established on the basis of a distance moduli catalog(for 822 galaxies) that was derived from 21-cm line widths via theB-band Tully-Fisher relation is compared with several independent scaleshaving a common zero point, that are based on the indicators forluminosity index, redshift, ring diameters, brightest superassociations,and effective diameters. These are in excellent systematic agreement,and confirm the linearity of the H I scale in the 24-35 modulusinterval, but indicate a small systematic zero point difference of about0.2 mag, which must be added to the H I moduli to place them on the same'short' distance scale defined by the others.
|A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data|
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.
|Optical redshifts of 59 galaxies|
This paper presents the results of an observing program carried out tomeasure galaxy redshifts with the Cassegrain Digicon Spectrograph systemon the McDonald Observatory 2.1 m Struve telescope. New redshiftdeterminations are presented for 59 galaxies, obtained for emission linespectra by conventional wavelength determination techniques and forabsorption line spectra by Fourier transform filtering and crosscorrelation techniques with respect to velocity standard spectra of NGC3115 and NGC 4736. With respect to published redshifts for 29 galaxies,the new redshifts show a mean residual of -1 km/sec and rms residual of49 km/sec, without apparent systematic trends, from -300 to +13,700km/sec.
|Radial velocities of double galaxies|
Spectral observations of 92 galaxies in isolated pairs have been carriedout. In 52 cases radial velocities were measured. The mean value of theorbital mass-to-luminosity ratio for 18 pairs is (16.2 plus or minus10.0) times the solar value.
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