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 Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Galaxies from ROSAT High Resolution Imager Observations I. Data AnalysisX-ray observations have revealed in other galaxies a class ofextranuclear X-ray point sources with X-ray luminosities of1039-1041 ergs s-1, exceeding theEddington luminosity for stellar mass X-ray binaries. Theseultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) may be powered by intermediate-massblack holes of a few thousand Msolar or stellar mass blackholes with special radiation processes. In this paper, we present asurvey of ULXs in 313 nearby galaxies withD25>1' within 40 Mpc with 467 ROSAT HighResolution Imager (HRI) archival observations. The HRI observations arereduced with uniform procedures, refined by simulations that help definethe point source detection algorithm employed in this survey. A sampleof 562 extragalactic X-ray point sources withLX=1038-1043 ergs s-1 isextracted from 173 survey galaxies, including 106 ULX candidates withinthe D25 isophotes of 63 galaxies and 110 ULX candidatesbetween 1D25 and 2D25 of 64 galaxies, from which aclean sample of 109 ULXs is constructed to minimize the contaminationfrom foreground or background objects. The strong connection betweenULXs and star formation is confirmed based on the striking preference ofULXs to occur in late-type galaxies, especially in star-forming regionssuch as spiral arms. ULXs are variable on timescales over days to yearsand exhibit a variety of long term variability patterns. Theidentifications of ULXs in the clean sample show some ULXs identified assupernovae (remnants), H II regions/nebulae, or young massive stars instar-forming regions, and a few other ULXs identified as old globularclusters. In a subsequent paper, the statistic properties of the surveywill be studied to calculate the occurrence frequencies and luminosityfunctions for ULXs in different types of galaxies to shed light on thenature of these enigmatic sources. Properties of isolated disk galaxiesWe present a new sample of northern isolated galaxies, which are definedby the physical criterion that they were not affected by other galaxiesin their evolution during the last few Gyr. To find them we used thelogarithmic ratio, f, between inner and tidal forces acting upon thecandidate galaxy by a possible perturber. The analysis of thedistribution of the f-values for the galaxies in the Coma cluster leadus to adopt the criterion f ≤ -4.5 for isolated galaxies. Thecandidates were chosen from the CfA catalog of galaxies within thevolume defined by cz ≤5000 km s-1, galactic latitudehigher than 40o and declination ≥-2.5o. Theselection of the sample, based on redshift values (when available),magnitudes and sizes of the candidate galaxies and possible perturberspresent in the same field is discussed. The final list of selectedisolated galaxies includes 203 objects from the initial 1706. The listcontains only truly isolated galaxies in the sense defined, but it is byno means complete, since all the galaxies with possible companions underthe f-criterion but with unknown redshift were discarded. We alsoselected a sample of perturbed galaxies comprised of all the diskgalaxies from the initial list with companions (with known redshift)satisfying f ≥ -2 and \Delta(cz) ≤500 km s-1; a totalof 130 objects. The statistical comparison of both samples showssignificant differences in morphology, sizes, masses, luminosities andcolor indices. Confirming previous results, we found that late spiral,Sc-type galaxies are, in particular, more frequent among isolatedgalaxies, whereas Lenticular galaxies are more abundant among perturbedgalaxies. Isolated systems appear to be smaller, less luminous and bluerthan interacting objects. We also found that bars are twice as frequentamong perturbed galaxies compared to isolated galaxies, in particularfor early Spirals and Lenticulars. The perturbed galaxies have higherLFIR/LB and Mmol/LB ratios,but the atomic gas content is similar for the two samples. The analysisof the luminosity-size and mass-luminosity relations shows similartrends for both families, the main difference being the almost totalabsence of big, bright and massive galaxies among the family of isolatedsystems, together with the almost total absence of small, faint and lowmass galaxies among the perturbed systems. All these aspects indicatethat the evolution induced by interactions with neighbors would proceedfrom late, small, faint and low mass Spirals to earlier, bigger, moreluminous and more massive spiral and lenticular galaxies, producing atthe same time a larger fraction of barred galaxies but preserving thesame relations between global parameters. The properties we found forour sample of isolated galaxies appear similar to those of high redshiftgalaxies, suggesting that the present-day isolated galaxies could bequietly evolved, unused building blocks surviving in low densityenvironments.Tables \ref{t1} and \ref{t2} are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org First results from the HI Jodrell All Sky Survey: inclination-dependent selection effects in a 21-cm blind surveyDetails are presented of the HI Jodrell All Sky Survey (HIJASS). HIJASSis a blind neutral hydrogen (HI) survey of the northern sky (δ> 22°), being conducted using the multibeam receiver on theLovell Telescope (full width at half-maximum beamwidth 12 arcmin) atJodrell Bank. HIJASS covers the velocity range -3500 to 10 000 kms-1, with a velocity resolution of 18.1 km s-1 andspatial positional accuracy of ~2.5 arcmin. Thus far about 1115deg2 of sky have been surveyed. The average rms noise duringthe early part of the survey was around 16 mJy beam-1.Following the first phase of the Lovell Telescope upgrade (in 2001), therms noise is now around 13 mJy beam-1. We describe themethods of detecting galaxies within the HIJASS data and of measuringtheir HI parameters. The properties of the resulting HI-selected sampleof galaxies are described. Of the 222 sources so far confirmed, 170 (77per cent) are clearly associated with a previously catalogued galaxy. Afurther 23 sources (10 per cent) lie close (within 6 arcmin) to apreviously catalogued galaxy for which no previous redshift exists. Afurther 29 sources (13 per cent) do not appear to be associated with anypreviously catalogued galaxy. The distributions of peak flux, integratedflux, HI mass and cz are discussed. We show, using the HIJASS data, thatHI self-absorption is a significant, but often overlooked, effect ingalaxies with large inclination angles to the line of sight. Properlyaccounting for it could increase the derived HI mass density of thelocal Universe by at least 25 per cent. The effect that this will haveon the shape of the HI mass function will depend on how self-absorptionaffects galaxies of different morphological types and HI masses. We alsoshow that galaxies with small inclinations to the line of sight may alsobe excluded from HI-selected samples, since many such galaxies will haveobserved velocity widths that are too narrow for them to bedistinguished from narrow-band radio-frequency interference. This effectwill become progressively more serious for galaxies with smallerintrinsic velocity widths. If, as we might expect, galaxies with smallerintrinsic velocity widths have smaller HI masses, then compensating forthis effect could significantly steepen the faint-end slope of thederived HI mass function. Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of GroupsIn this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales. Star formation in distant starburst galaxiesThis paper discusses the stellar population content of distant (5 000 kms^{-1} <== V_R<=16 000 km s^{-1}) galaxies with enhancedstar-formation activity. Distinction is made between isolated galaxiesand galaxies morphologically disturbed, with clear signs of interactionsuch as mergers. In these galaxies the International UltravioletExplorer (M_BoxIUE) large aperture samples most of the galaxy's body.Consequently, the resulting integrated spectra arise primarily from bluestellar populations of different ages together with significantcontributions from intermediate and old age components, subject tovarying reddening amounts. Instead of analysing individual, usually lowSignal-to-Noise ratio (S/N) spectra, our approach is to coadd thespectra of objects with similar spectral properties in the UV,considering as well their properties in the visible/near-infraredranges. Consequently, the resulting high (S/N) template spectra containthe average properties of a rather uniform class of objects, andinformation on spectral features can now be analysed with moreprecision. Three groups have been found for the interacting galaxies,corresponding to a red, blue and very blue continuum. Isolated galaxieshave been separated into two groups, one with a flat/red continuum andthe other with a blue continuum. For comparison, we also include in thepresent analysis two groups of nearby disturbed galaxies. Stellarpopulations are analysed by means of a synthesis algorithm based on starcluster spectral components of different ages which fit the observedspectra both in terms of continuum distribution and spectral features.Flux fractions of the different age groups found in the synthesis havebeen transformed into mass fractions, allowing inferences on the starformation histories. Young stellar populations (age <500 Myr) are themain flux contributors, except for the groups with a red spectrum notdue to extinction, arising from the intermediate (age ~1 - 2 Gyr) andold age populations. We also study the reddening values and theextinction law: a Small Magellanic Cloud-like extinction law isappropriate for all cases. As compared to nearby galaxies with enhancedstar-formation, the distant starburst galaxy spectral groups exhibitlarger contributions from the intermediate and old age populations. Thiseffect is mainly accounted for by the larger spatial area sampled by theM_BoxIUE slit in the distant galaxies, including not only the entirebulge but also evolved disk populations. The present results provide aquantitative measure of the star-forming activity in interactinggalaxies, compared to isolated galaxies. Based upon data collected withthe International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Satellite, supported byNASA, SERC and ESA. Arcsecond Positions of UGC GalaxiesWe present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only. Ultraviolet spectral properties of magellanic and non-magellanic irregulars, H BT II and starburst galaxiesThis paper presents the results of a stellar population analysisperformed on nearby (V_R<=5 000 km s^{-1}) star-forming galaxies,comprising magellanic and non-magellanic irregulars, H Ii and starburstgalaxies observed with the IUE satellite. Before any comparison ofgalaxy spectra, we have formed subsets according to absolute magnitudeand morphological classification. Subsequently, we have coadded thespectra within each subset into groups of similar spectral properties inthe UV. As a consequence, high signal-to-noise ratio templates have beenobtained, and information on spectral features can now be extracted andanalysed. Seven groups resulted from this procedure: the magellanicirregulars (including H Ii galaxies) produced two different bluespectral groups; the non-magellanic irregulars could be grouped into twospectral groups with rather peculiar properties; and the luminousstarbursts produced one flat and two blue template spectra. Theirstellar populations are analysed by means of a population synthesisalgorithm based on star cluster spectral components. The syntheticspectra reproduce the observed ones successfully (except thenon-magellanic irregular groups) both in terms of continuum distributionand spectral features. The synthesis flux fractions of different agegroups were transformed into mass fractions, allowing inferences on thestar formation histories. Young stellar populations (age <500 Myrs)are the main flux contributors; in a few cases the intermediate agepopulation (age~1 M_B-2 Myrs) is important, while the old bulgepopulation contributes at most with ~2 % of the lambda2646 Angstromsflux in the case of starburst galaxies, and is negligible in themagellanic irregulars. We also study the reddening values and theextinction law: an SMC-like extinction law is appropriate for all cases.Based upon data collected with the International Ultraviolet Explorer(IUE) Satellite, supported by NASA, SERC and ESA. Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxiesWe present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory. Optical and I-band surface photometry of spiral galaxies. I. The data.We present V- and I-band CCD surface photometry on 234 inclined Sa-Sdgalaxies, completed by similar data in B and R for a reduced subsample.In this first paper of a series, the reduction of the data is discussed,and several comparisons are made with other recent works. Radialprofiles are presented for the surface brightness and thecharacteristics of ellipses fitted to isophotes; global, effective, andisophotal parameters are listed. All the results are available inelectronic form. An atlas of ultraviolet spectra of star-forming galaxiesA systematic study is presented of the UV spectra of star-forminggalaxies of different morphological type and activity class using asample drawn from a uniformly reduced IUE data set. The spectra for awide variety of galaxies, including normal spiral, LINER, starburst,blue compact, blue compact dwarf, and Seyfert 2 galaxies, are presentedin the form of spectral energy distributions to demonstrate the overallcharacteristics according to morphology and activity class and in theform of absolute flux distributions to better show the absorption andemission features of individual objects. The data support the picturebased on UV spectra of the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory and of theAstronautical Netherlands Satellite that spiral galaxies of later Hubbleclass have more flux at the shortest UV wavelengths than do spiralgalaxies of earlier Hubble class. The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalogIRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths. Neutral hydrogen observations of galaxies in superclustersNeutral hydrogen observations of spiral galaxies in the Uppsala GeneralCatalog were made with the 91 m telescope in Green Bank. Results of theH I observations are presented for 309 objects north of declination +38deg in the right ascension range between 10 h and 22 h and for a sampleof 46 objects just south of the equator in the region around R.A.between 0 h and 3 h. Many of these objects are outlying members ofsuperclusters and may be useful in the study of deviations from Hubbleflow on supercluster scales. Velocity widths as measured by fivedifferent algorithms are presented along with a profile quality index. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of isolated galaxiesUltraviolet spectrophotometry of five isolated galaxies have beenobtained with the IUE which confirms the existence of the ultravioletexcesses first found by UBV photometry. Observations from the opticalpart of the spectrum to the radio bands are combined with theultraviolet data to explain the nature of the UV excesses as thesignature of a young stellar population in addition to that normallyobserved in nuclei of galaxies. 5 GHz observations of isolated and group galaxiesA search has been made for 5 GHz continuum emission from a sample of 12isolated galaxies and a control sample of 17 galaxies in small groupswith the Westerbork radio telescope array. The selection of thesesamples is discussed and compared with previous work. Only two nucleiwere detected at a level of about 2 mJy, both of them belonging toisolated galaxies. Three point sources possibly located in the galaxydisks were detected, as well as a number of background sources. Extendeddisk emission was detected with a similar degree of success both in theisolated and the nonisolated samples. It is concluded that at this levelthere is no difference in the radio properties of the two samples. Thepossibility that thermal bremsstrahlung is responsible for the excessU-band radiation observed in the nuclei of the isolated galaxies, isalso ruled out, unless very high temperatures or densities are invoked. A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The dataThe complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s. The H I content of isolated galaxiesH I data are presented for 33 galaxies from Huchra and Thuan's list(1977) among which eleven are isolated. Analysis of the data shows that(1) the H I content of isolated galaxies is about 60% higher than thatof group galaxies; (2) at least 6 out of the 9 isolated galaxiesexamined appear to be associated with groups of galaxies of the sameredshift, at distances of about 4 Mpc on an average; and (3) the excessof H I in isolated galaxies is related to their large distances to thecenters of the groups.
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