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|The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog|
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.
|The Radio Galaxy Populations of Nearby Northern Abell Clusters|
We report on the use of the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) to identify radiogalaxies in 18 nearby Abell clusters. The listings extend from the coresof the clusters out to radii of 3 h-175 Mpc, whichcorresponds to 1.5 Abell radii and approximately 4 orders of magnitudein galaxy density. To create a truly useful catalog, we have collectedoptical spectra for nearly all of the galaxies lacking public velocitymeasurements. Consequently, we are able to discriminate between thoseradio galaxies seen in projection on the cluster and those that are inactuality cluster members. The resulting catalog consists of 329 clusterradio galaxies plus 138 galaxies deemed foreground or backgroundobjects, and new velocity measurements are reported for 273 of theseradio galaxies. The motivation for the catalog is the study of galaxyevolution in the cluster environment. The radio luminosity function is apowerful tool in the identification of active galaxies, as it isdominated by star-forming galaxies at intermediate luminosities andactive galactic nuclei (AGNs) at higher luminosities. The flux limit ofthe NVSS allows us to identify AGNs and star-forming galaxies down tostar formation rates less than 1 Msolar yr-1. Thissensitivity, coupled with the all-sky nature of the NVSS, allows us toproduce a catalog of considerable depth and breadth. In addition tothese data, we report detected infrared fluxes and upper limits obtainedfrom IRAS data. It is hoped that this database will prove useful in anumber of potential studies of the effect of environment on galaxyevolution. Based in part on observations obtained with the Apache PointObservatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by theAstrophysical Research Consortium (ARC).
|The Dynamics of Poor Systems of Galaxies|
We assemble and observe a sample of poor galaxy systems that is suitablefor testing N-body simulations of hierarchical clustering and otherdynamical halo models. We (1) determine the parameters of the densityprofile rho(r) and the velocity dispersion profile sigma_p(R), (2)separate emission-line galaxies from absorption-line galaxies, examiningthe model parameters and as a function of spectroscopic type, and (3)for the best-behaved subsample, constrain the velocity anisotropyparameter, beta, which determines the shapes of the galaxy orbits. Oursample consists of 20 systems, 12 of which have extended X-ray emissionin the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. We measure the 877 optical spectra ofgalaxies brighter than m_R~15.4 within 1.5 h^-1 Mpc of the systemcenters (we take H_0=100 h km s^-1 Mpc^-1). Thus, we sample the systemmembership to a radius typically three times larger than other recentoptical group surveys. The average system population is 30 galaxies, andthe average line-of-sight velocity dispersion is ~300 km s^-1. TheNavarro, Frenk, & White universal profile and the Hernquist modelboth provide good descriptions of the spatial data. In most cases anisothermal sphere is ruled out. Systems with declining sigma_p(R) arewell-matched by theoretical profiles in which the star-forming galaxieshave predominantly radial orbits (beta>0) many of these galaxies areprobably falling in for the first time. There is significant evidencefor spatial segregation of the spectroscopic classes regardless ofsigma_p(R).
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|A 20 Centimeter VLA Survey of Abell Clusters of Galaxies. VII. Detailed Radio Images|
We present detailed radio images, and models, obtained with the VeryLarge Array at 20 cm for 199 radio galaxies in Abell clusters ofgalaxies.
|The Lumpy Cluster Abell 1185|
Abell 1185, a richness class 1 cluster of galaxies (cz = 9800 km s^-1^),has kinematic and x-ray substructure. We measure 39 new velocities inits field, bringing the known cluster population to 82 galaxies within1.4 h^-1^ Mpc of the cluster center. The sample has a depth of m_R_ ~15.8, and no substantial spatial bias. In addition to the optical datawe reanalyze a deep (11459 s) Einstein x-ray observation. Clumps in thevelocity distribution of A1185 are localized on the sky. The Dressler-Shectman test confirms the existence of subclumps with >99%confidence. X-ray emission from the cluster also appears complex;contributions from individual galaxies within A1185 are detectable. Thebrightest unresolved x-ray source coincides with an elliptical galaxywhich contains an active LINER nucleus. Throughout the paper we defineH_0_= 100 h km s^-1^ Mpc^- -1^, and unless otherwise indicated, weassume h = 1.
|Optical Spectroscopy of Radio Galaxies in Abell Clusters II. BL Lacs and FR I Unification|
As part of our optical spectroscopic study of radio galaxies in Abellclusters, we report a search for BL Lac phenomena in our sample. As anindicator of possible nonthermal activity in the nuclei of our radiogalaxies, we report D(4000), a measure of the 4000 A break, for 190objects. None of the objects in our sample are found which meet thetions for BL Lac objects both for D(4000) and for weakness of emissionlines. We do find 15 objects which have diluted 4000 A breaks[D(4000)<= 1.8], and these are discussed individually. At least fourof them appear to have weak nonthermal activity which may be related tothe BL Lac phenomena. These results appear to be in conflict with thesimplest BL Lac/FR I unification model. Several ways out of this dilemmaare discussed. Perhaps the most likely change in this model is theinclusion of FR II radio galaxies as part of the parent population of BLLac objects.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|A 20 CM Survey of Abell Clusters of Galaxies. V. Optical Observations and Surface Photometry|
We present results from a program of optical imaging of 265 radiogalaxies in rich clusters. Using isophotal surface photometry, weinvestigate the optical properties such as the morphology, surface-brightness profiles, surface-brightness/size relationships,ellipticities, and the frequency of nonelliptical isophotes. The resultsare compared to a "normal" nonradio-selected sample of ellipticalgalaxies from the same clusters. The goal is to determine if the parentpopulation of FR I radio galaxies can be distinguished optically fromradio-quiet galaxies. The results of the analysis are that clusterellipticals are a very homogeneous class of objects. The opticalproperties are consistent with a one-parameter family, where the opticalluminosity is the fundamental parameter. In all tests considered, radio-loud FR I galaxies cannot be distinguished optically from radio-quietgalaxies selected from the same environment. The local density of nearbycompanions (<20 kpc) and the frequency of morphological peculiaritiesor tidal interactions are not statistically different between theradio-loud and quiet samples. There is some suggestion from comparisonto published samples of non-cluster radio galaxies, that the clusterenvironment is not condusive to long-lived tidal interactions, and thatsuch events may be more important to galaxy evolution in poor groups andlower density environments. Such events appear to have little influenceon the formation of FR I radio galaxies in rich clusters. The resultsare consistent with the idea that all elliptical galaxies may at sometime (or many times) contain powerful (rR I) radio sources.
|A 20 CM VLA Survey of Abell clusters of galaxies. 4: The radio sample and cluster properties|
This is the fourth in a series of papers describing an in depth study ofa large statistical sample of radio galaxies in Abell clusters. Thissample forms the basis of a detailed optical and radio study of the hostgalaxy properties, environments, and evolutionary models for radiogalaxies as a class of objects. In this paper, we examine the radiodetection statistics as a function of cluster morphological type, galaxyrichness, and spatial location within the cluster distribution. Theserelationships are also parameterized as a funtion of radio power. Thespatial distributions of the radio sources as a function of distancefrom the cluster center indicate that radio galaxies are preferentiallylocated at small radii from the center of the cluster potential. This isobserved as a factor of 2-3 excess over that predicted by a King-modelsurface-density distribution. The excess is higher in the upper radiopower bin. This result is easily explained, however, from the spatialdistribution of the brightest galaxies and the relationship betweenradio and optical luminosity. The sample is divided into richnessclasses 0, 1, and 2, according to Abell's criterion. and in two radiopower ranges. While simple counting shows that richer clusters have moreradio galaxies in both radio power bins, when the detections are scaledto the number of galaxies surveyed in each cluster, no significantcorrelations are found. This result implies that the number of radiogalaxies detected simply scales with the number of galaxies surveyed.The higher galaxy density (and presumably higher ICM gas density) inricher clusters does not appear to affect the rate of radio sourceformation. The clusters are divided into Rood-Sastry and Bautz-Morganmorphological types. While it would appear that the more regularclusters have higher radio detection rates, when the classes arenormalized to the number of galaxies, the radio detection rates arefound to be identical regardless of cluster morphology. In conclusion,it is the optical properties of the host galaxy which most influenceboth the radio detection rate and the radio source properties. Thecluster properties, galaxy density, and spatial location of the galaxydo not significantly affect the observed radio statistics.
|Optical spectroscopy of radio galaxies in Abell clusters. 1: Redshifts and emission-line properties|
We present results of a program of optical spectroscopy of radiogalaxies in rich clusters. Redshifts are reported for 268 radio galaxiesor close companions in Abell clusters and 36 objects which turned out tobe foreground or background objects. Absolute line strengths are alsoreported for the 3727 A (O II) line and the (N II)/H alpha complex. Wefind no evidence that the radio activity in our sample of mostly FR Iradio galaxies is associated with emission-line luminosities above thosefound in normal galaxies of the same absolute magnitude and opticaltype. We also find that the radial velocity differences between radiogalaxies and the cluster mean seem mainly to be a function of galaxyabsolute magnitude rather than radio properties.
|A dynamical analysis of twelve clusters of galaxies|
Four-hundred-twenty-eight new redshift measurements for galaxies in thevicinity of 12 Abell clusters are presented. The data are supplementedby previously published data with 3 deg of each cluster center. Thecluster selection, the variety of telescopes and instrumentation used toobtain the galaxy redshifts, and the available X-ray observations arediscussed. Each cluster is exmained in some detail, with the emphasisplaced on the nature of the observed velocity distributions. Robust andresistant estimators of the velocity location and scale are applied inorder to quantify these distributions. The offset in velocity space ofthe dominant galaxy in each cluster or subcluster is considered withrespect to the central location in the velocity space of the cluster asa whole, and the physical implications of significant offsets found inseveral clusters are discussed. Dynamical estimates of the masses ofclusters and/or subclusters are obtained; for clearly bimodal systems,two-body models are employed to specify their likely dynamical state.
|Associations between quasi-stellar objects and galaxies|
A table is presented here listing all close pairs of QSOs and galaxiesthat were found in a computer-aided search of catalogs of QSOs andbright galaxies and an extensive search of the literature. There is alarge excess of pairs with separations of 2 arcmin lor less, or about 60kpc, over the numbers expected if the configurations were accidental.The angular separation for 392 pairs adds to the evidence for physicalassociation, and it is shown that selection effects are not important. Ageneral rule is stated that QSOs tend to lie in the vicinity of normalgalaxies much more often than is expected by chance whether or not thegalaxies and the QSOs have the same redshifts. It is emphasized thatthis rule cannot be explained in terms of gravitational microlensing,and it is concluded that some part of the redshift of all classes ofactive nuclei is not associated with the expansion of the universe.
|Groups of galaxies in the Center for Astrophysics redshift survey|
By applying the Huchra and Geller (1982) objective group identificationalgorithm to the Center for Astrophysics' redshift survey, a catalog of128 groups with three or more members is extracted, and 92 of these areused as a statistical sample. A comparison of the distribution of groupcenters with the distribution of all galaxies in the survey indicatesqualitatively that groups trace the large-scale structure of the region.The physical properties of groups may be related to the details oflarge-scale structure, and it is concluded that differences among groupcatalogs may be due to the properties of large-scale structures andtheir location relative to the survey limits.
|The structure of brightest cluster members. II - Mergers|
Surface photometry of 342 bright elliptical galaxies in 103 clusters isanalyzed for evidence of mergers. Structural differences betweenbrightest cluster members (BCMs) and normal ellipticals can besummarized as having enlarged characteristic radii and shallow profileslopes (beta greater than -1.7). Profile morphology criteria for theelliptical types gE, D, and cD are outlined. Comparison of observationswith numerical simulations of mergers strongly suggests a past historyof dynamical growth for BCMs. Weak correlations of global clusterproperties to BCMs supports the hypothesis proposed by Merritt (1984)that mergers are important in early subgroups before virialization andformation of a cluster identity.
|A VLA 20 CM survey of poor groups of galaxies|
The paper reports on VLA 20 cm observations of an extensive sample ofgalaxies in 139 poor groups. These groups, composed of galaxies down tothe limit of the Zwicky et al. (CGCG) catalog, were chosen using apercolation algorithm set at a high surface-density threshold.Approximately 50 percent of the groups have measured redshifts. Thesegroups were surveyed using a 'snapshot' mode of the VLA with aresolution of about 13 arcsec. Analysis of the resulting radio andoptical properties reveals that the presence of a nearby companiongalaxy has an important role in generating radio emission in a galaxy.CCD observations of two radio-loud, disturbed galaxies with companionsare presented and are used to discuss models of radio-source production.Nine tailed radio galaxies are found in the poor groups, which is muchmore than had been expected from previous work on rich clusters and fromtheoretical models. The paper discusses previous statistical biases andproposes a method for bending head-tail sources in poor groups. From theconfinement of extended radio features associated with tailed sources,the presence of a substantial intracluster medium that should radiatesignificantly at soft-X-ray energies is predicted.
|A catalog of morphological types in 55 rich clusters of galaxies|
Data are presented from a study of 55 rich clusters of galaxies. Thedata include positions, morphological types, estimated total magnitudes,bulge sizes, and ellipticities for about 6000 galaxies, as determinedfrom high scale photographic plates. Data reduction procedures aredescribed, and a brief analysis of cluster richness, which indicatesthat Abell richness classes are only rough indicators of total clustermembership, is included.
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